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teresting problem to humanity, and has already taken signating the number and local relations of the disthe veil which covered the origin, and the end and trict and circuit judges, and prescribing rules for object of power:

territorial tribunals, and the federal district. NotThe profound legislator of Carolina, and William withstanding this, the end of justice has been effected Penn, the friend of man, planted in the virgin soil of as far as possible, and the citizens can complain only America the precious seeds of civil liberty, which, of the vice of legislation, and of those introduced cultivated afterwards by Washington and Franklin, by the degrading indolence of the Spanish governors. find themselves now deposited, with the fruit they The prisons and houses of correction have had the produced, in that capitol, which has erected wisdom fate of the times; but I do not despair of rendering on the banks of the Potomac. From thence are is. them useful, without increasing the affliction of the gued desolating rays on despotism, and from there delinquents. appears the regeneration of sovereign nations. What The Mexican army, which gathered so many lauglory for the new world! How immense the gran-rels, has considerably improred in its discipline. deur of its destiny!

It is to be completed; and that now in existence is It is admirable, gentlemen, that the light should well armed, in proportion to the arms contracted for, hare penetrated to the colonies, founded by the ad- in order to raise the army according to the dictates venturer Medellin. It is certain that genius over- of our situation and of law. The secretary of war and came resistance, that morals weakened the heat of marine will elucidate my exertions in this branch. parties, and that the thoughts of philanthropy came to the system happily adopted, confides the internal adtake the place of customs and errors which time ministration to the people and to its local authorities, had consecrated.

The government, within its orbit, has undertaken to But, I have come here, gentlemen, to congratulate cut off state abuses, and in this, the patriotic laws bewith you, because the triumph of opinion, of the so- gin to unfold their beneficent activity. This will be cial doctrines, have assembled us on the foundation explained by the secretary of the interior. of a compact created by ourselves and for our own in all the free countries of the universe, wishes are felicity. Who can take from the representatives, formed for the consolidation of the Mexican indewho will leave these seats consecrated to merit and pendence; and as soon as they are enabled to calcuvirtue, the great satisfaction of being replaced by late the immense force which union has given to our citizens equally respectable, and equally anxious for individual and collective prosperity, I am persuaded, the public welfare with themselves!' Union, the gentlemen, that they will admit us to the rank of insafety and the welfare of the states, have been con- dependent and sovereign nations. fided to prudent hands, who, by the advice of wisdom, And is this the people who, for three centuries, wag will attract upon themselves the admiration of a peo- under a ridiculous administration, a wretched governple who know how to appreciate justice and talent. ment? The Mexicans, deprived of an equitable sysHappy are we in having directed the elections to the tem, and after having suffered above the limits of advantage of the public; we shall see the schemes of human forbearance, broke off their connection with the legislator, and the unanimous votes of the Mexi- the metropolis. Our villages burnt, our properties can fulfilled in the first constitutional congress. invaded, prisons continually full; grief, despair and

My beart rejoices at the happiness we enjoy, and death, perpetually hanging over our heads; such were at that which it hopes to enjoy still. The magnifi- the titles, such the characters that stamped with fire cent edifice of liberty, which formerly was a beouti- and blood the freedom we now enjoy. In recovering ful ideal prospect, las been sealed on an indestruc- our rights, and when the strong arm was uplifted for tible basis, and it now shincs by the institution which the glory of the country, we gave remarkable exama great nation deserved.

ples of moderation. Our detractors, now defeated, The high attributes with which the law and the admire, if for once they can be called just, the empire will of my fellow-citizens have deemed proper to in- of the amiable disposition of the Mexican nation, and vest me as the depositary of the executive power, its more philanthropic system of legislation and gehave enabled me to employ all my exertions for its veroment. usefulness. A glance, although a rapid one, over

Citizens of both houses of the general congress of the progressive existence of our affairs, will con- the heroic Mexican nation! Let not the triumphs of vince you, gentlemen, that I have caused to be done the revolution be lost to us! Let the satellites of the the greatest good possible, according to the sphere despotic power give, as a tribute to the ideas of the of my ability, in the short time of my presidency. age and to the progress of civilization in America, the Happy if I have succeeded in filling up the vast cir- lestimonials of its forced and tardy repentance! Let cle of my duties to the country!

your ardent zeal for the constitution; your constant The secretary of the treasury will show to con- love of country and liberty; your wisdom and energy, gress that, if its situation is not advantageous, neither facilitate the intestimable felicity of elevating the on account of its income or its duties, we have suc- Mexican UNITED STATES to that high pitch of greatceeded, by great exertions, in clothing, arming and ness, decrecd by the supreme arbitrator of destinies! increasing the army and navy, to send succors to have done.” New Mexico, to the Californias, and to all the frontiers; to appease the clamors of the oficers of the Reply of the president of the congress to the president of republic, whose pay was in arrears, and to defray,

the re public. in all its parts, the administration, with the wise and "The Mexican republic, that beloved country, legal use of the foreign loans. The organization or which, although it broke off its foreign yoke, has not the treasury has, by the last law, considerably im- yet been enabled to gather the fruit of so many sacriproved in its economical branch, and advances, with lices, heroically made, to obtain felicity, bas, within out doubt, towards perfection. May the projects that space, received the sacred charter which sanctions which will be submitted to the house deserve its ap- its rights, restores her to the great sphere of indepenprobation! The safety of the republic requires sa- dent nations, and opens to her the high way to that crifices, but these are always compatible with the opulence and prosperity which nature has designed. state, the exertion and patriotism of its heroic citizens. The nation has, in fact, sworn to the expected con

The federal judiciary not existing, and the govern- stitution; but, what an immense latitude between ment being precladed from the intervention which it the oath and its observance. Inclinations, habits, formerly had in that of the ancient provinces, its ac- opinions, the fatal result of so many ages of darkness tion, in this respect, has been almost null, and will be and servitude, are obstacles which can be conquered no until the supremc court be instituted by a law de-i by the docility and remarkable genius.of Mexicans;

the vast materials for the exertions of experience, and to prove to other nations that the Mexicans are for the display of knowledge, and for the sacrifice, not only able to reconquer their liberty, but, moreeven of life, should honor require it; for such sacri- over, to allot to themselves the most permanent and fices can be demanded of those who have the honor wise iostitutions; that it has within itself the means to govern the nation, the general congress and presi- to cause itself to be respected and looked upon with dent of the Mexican United States.

admiration by others; and that, lastly, it is capable No constitution, however wisely combined, can of completing the remarkable work of its felicity, as stitle the existence of parties in a popular govern- inspired by Providence. Such must be the result of ment; they are the offsprings of liberty; and, deter- the virtue that animates the congress and president mined to support our independence, in this point of the Mexican republic.” alone we are unanimous; for our honor precludes The president of the republic then withdrew, and the belief, that any can dissent to this, or that there the president of the house of representatives proesists one single individual who does not feel indig-claimed that, "the general constitutional congress nant at the idea of foreign servitude or dependence; opens to-day, the 1st January, 1925." unanimous only, I repeat, in this point, we shall have The house then adjourned. to struggle with opinions from the moment that they will arise from incidents, which we must tolerate to a certain degree; and inasmuch as the law, without

First modern written Constitution. destroying the passions, leads them towards right; Letter from A. B. Woodward to president Jefferson. thus the government, without being enabled to shun

WASHINGTON, March 25, 1825. altogether actions and re-actions, or master the ebb Sir: I have the honor to enclose a fac simile copy and tide of opinion, has, for its difficult and sublime of a letter received from president Mailison. duty, to balance, moderate and regulate those move He corrects an error, into which he conceives I have ments in such manner, as that their jarring even- fallen, in ascribing to you the first modern written tuate in the peace, the justice, and the reciprocal be- constitution. Defit of both

President Monroe, who carefully compared the conThe federal republic, composed of so many and va- stitution of Virginia with other documents known to rious elements, is a complicated machinery, whose bave proceeded from your pen, was originally of action requires so much precision, so much delicacy opinion that my statement was substantially correct; in its direction, that it is reserved to superior un- being under an impression that, though the draught derstandings. But the congress and president have was first offered by Mr. Mason at Williamsburgh, yet an infallible support. In order to fulfil their great it was derived froin a manuscript furnished hy you, trust, they can meet, and even surpass the expecta- from Philadelphia. Since the perusal of the letter tion of those whose confidence they possess: they of president Mailison, president Monroe wavers somemay render their fame adored, placing it on a line what from his first scatiment. with that of Solo, Lock, Penn, Washington and the Written constitutions are great moral levers. Those other benefactors of mankind. In virtue alone is to of America undoubtedly produced the revolution of be found that supporter in that republican virtue, France. They are emancipating the southern conihat knows how to lose sight of its personal interest, tinent of the western hemisphere. They are even whose ambition looks up to the public good, and pervading the domains of ancient liberty. They will, which can distinguish, through the clouds of passion, eventually, change the whole aspect of human affairs at a clear and perspicacious glance, the path that upon this globe. The first which was prepared for leads to public felicity. The heart of every Mexican practical use becomes, therefore-however rude, in expands at the idea that such will be the guide, the the progress of time, its construction might compalamiary, the soul of its congress and president. This ratively appear-an ethic phænomenon of no ordinavirtue shall identify itself with their opinions, will ry interest. Like the source of the Nile, which has gather their votes, dictate their statutes, render them attracted the attention of kings and nations, it is not indefatigable, and will concentrate their strength to so much the intrinsic magnificence of the object that secure to the country its liberty and the accumula-excites the sensibility, as the contemplation of the tion of the advantages it deserves.

resulting majesty and fertility. You are going to exhibit to Mexico and to the I beg you, sir, to accept the repeated assurance of world, a sublime spectacle, in your rectitude, purity, a veneration which increases with time, and will end elicacy and unanimity; and soon you will deserve, only with existence. A. B. WOODWARD. from your country and posterity, the applause and tri The hon. president Jefferson, Monticello, Virginia. bute due to the sons of republican virtue. You will be the source from which shall flow, on all classes of Letter from president Jefferson to judge Woodward. the Anahuac society, that equitable spirit of benevo

MONTICELLO, April 3, 1825. lence that characterizes and supports good govern


Your favor of March 23, has been duly ments.

received. The fact is unquestionable, that the bill A vast and luminous career is open before you, and of rights and the constitution of Virginia were drawn at its end is perspectively seen the majestic and safe originally by George Mason, one of our really great march of the federal republic of Mexico, the friendly men, and of the first order of greatness. The history sations, (and all ought to be so), allied to her, Asia of the preamble to the latter is as follows: I was and Europe at her side, connected by important and then at Philadelphia with congress, and knowing that pacific relations, and felicity dispensing, by the hand the convention of Virginia was engaged in sorming a of Mexico, its treasures and lights to the inhabitants plan of government, I turned my mind to the same of the universe.

subject, and drew a sketch or outline of a constitution, By a happy coincidence, you are going to direct its with a preamble, which I sent to Mr. Pendleton, precouncils, at probably the most important time, when sident of the convention, on the mere possibility that each instant is critical, each conjuncture decisive: it might suggest something worth incorporation into when the new institutions are on the point of break- that before the convention. lle informed me aftering off their course, emerging from the obstructions wards by letter, that be received it on the day on and ruins heaped by despotism and its ministers, by which the committee of the whole had reported to ignorance and fear; and when their irresistible cur- the housc thc plan they had agreed to; that that had rent is to be directed by you, beiwcen two precipices, been so long in hand, so disputed, inch by inch, and created by slavery and anarchy. To you belongs the the subject of so much altercation and debate, that Lulfilling of the pledges given by our constitution, they were worried with the contentions it had pro

duced; and could not, from mere lassitude, have been (BPA very interesting notice of George Mason, induced to open the instrument again: but that, being with copies of several letters written by him in 17784 pleased with the preamble to mine, they adopted it in 1-791, 1793 and 1787, may be found in the volume col the house, by way of amendment to the report of the lected and published by the editor of the RegisTER, committee; and thus my preamble became tacked to in 1822, entitled “Principles and acts of the revolution," the work of George Mason. The constitution, with page 121 to 128; it, however, claims for that revered the preamble, was passed on the 29th of June, and the father in the republic, only the authorship of the committee of congress had, only the day before that, declaration of rights.] reported to that body the draught of the declaration of independence. The fact is, that that preamble was prior in composition to the declaration; and both hav.

CHRONICLE. ing the same object, of justifying our separation with

The late president, col. Monroe, offers at public sale Great Britain, they used necessarily the same ma on the first Monday in June next, his Albemarle esterials of justification; and hence their similitude.

tate in Virginia, of 3,500 acres: also another tract of Withdrawn by age from all other public services land of 700 acres, near Milton. Applicants are reand attentions to public things, I am closing the last quested to address themselves directly to him. scenes of life by fostering and fashioning an establish

Seduction. Five thousand five hundred dollars dament for the instruction of those who are to come dom, fame and happiness, will be salutary and per- last week, in a case of seduction. after us. I hope its influence on their virtue, free-mages, (the amount of all that the defendant was sup

posed to be worth!) was recovered at Philadelphia manent. The form and distributions of its structure are original and unique; the architecture chaste and Naval. A board of naval surgeons is in session at classical, and the whole well worthy of attracting the Philadelphia, for the examination of candidates for curiosity ot' a visit. Should it prove so to yourself, at promotion and appointment in the medical departany time, it will be a great gratification to me to see ment of the navy. The board consists of Dr. Edward you once more at Monticello; and I pray you to be as- Cutbush, president, and of Drs. Barton, Harris, Hoffsured of my continued and high respect and esteem. man and Gordon.

THOMAS JEFFERSON. The United States corvette John Adams, master The hon. judge Augustus B. IVoodward.

commandant Nicholson, bound to Chagres, and thence

to join the West India squadron, got under way from (Leller from president Madison to judge Woodward. Hampton Roads, on Sunday afternoon at 3 o'еlock,

MONTPELLIER, September 11, 1824. and proceeded to sea. DEAR SIR: I have received, and return my thanks Captain T. Ap C. Jones, who has gone out in the for the printed communications accompanying your John Adams to take command of the Peacock in the note of the fourth instant.

Pacific, is succeeded, as inspector of ordnance, by To appreciate your proposed expedient for a stan- captain Wadsworth. Captain Wadsırorth is succeeded dard of measures ard weights would require more by captain Booth, in the navy yard at Washington time than I can apply; and more mathematical science Captain Finch succeeds captain Thompson at the naval than I retain.

rendezvous, Boston. Captain Wolcott Chauncey sucJustice will, doubtless, be done to it by competent ceeds captain Ballard at the paval rendezvous, New judges.

York. I have given a nasty perusal to the observations Captain Ridgely has been appointed to the Ports: *s. Addressed to the Indiridrial Citizen."

mouth station, in place of captain Crane, transferred Although I cannot concur in some of them, I may to Boston. Commodore Barron is to take charge of Sag of all, that they merit every praise for the per- the navy, yard at Norfolk, and captain Biddle of that spicuity, the precision, and the force with which they at Philadelphia. are presented to the public attention.

The U. S. schooner Porpoise, licut. Skinner, has You have fallen into a mistake in ascribing the arrived at New York, from a ten months' cruise on the constitution of Virginia to Mr. Jefferson; as will be coast of Africa and in the West Indies. inferred from the animadversions on it in his “Noles

Pittsburg is full of bustle and business. The arri. on Virginia."

val or departure of steam boats takes place almost Its origin was with George Mason; who laid before daily. Vast quantities of valuable products have been the cominittee, appointed to prepare a plan, a very brought down the Monongahela and Allegbany rivers broad outline; which was printed, by the committee, during the present season----and, a few days since, the for consideration; and, after being varied on some “American” left Pittsburg for Brownsville, being the points, and filled up, was reported to the convention, first steam boat that ever navigated the first named where a few further alterations gave it the form in river. which it now stands. The declaration of rights was, substantially, from

Our rivers, says the Pittsburg Mercury, of the 28th the same hand.

ult., are now in fine navigable order-the recent rise The preamble to the constitution was probably de- of the waters, has given renewed life and vigor to our rived, in great measure, if not wholly, from the funds ommercial operations. Within a few days past, proof Mr. Jefferson; the richness of which, in such ma- perty, of various descriptions, has been brought to terials, is seen in the declaration of independence, as this market; exceeding, at the lowest estimate, half well as elsewhere.

a million of dollars. The shores of the Alleghany river The plan of Mr. Jeferson, annexed to one of the alone, are covered with arks and flat boats, upwards editions of his “Notes on Virginia,” was drawn up after of a hundred in number, richly freighted for this marthe revolutionary war, with a view to correct the ket.. Within the last week, there have safely arrived, faults of the existing constitution, as well as to obtain by this channel, on a moderate calculation, 7,000 barthe authentic sanction of the people.

rels of salt; 500 tons of bar-iron; 500 tons of pig-meYour love of truth will excuse this little tribute to tal; besides other articles of merchandise. it, or rather would not excuse its omission.

Mineral tallow, which was discovered in Finland, With esteem and good wishes.

in 1736, has lately been found in a bog on the

JAMES MADISON. borders of Loch-Fye, in Scotland. It melts at 118, AB. Woodward, judge, &c. &c.

and boils at 280 degrees heat.


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PSoon after publishing the last Register, a father, zealous for the welfare and success of an affec letter was received from Mr. Miner, (to whom the

tionate son. The business of the REGISTER is not sus

ceptible of such a division as to bring out whatever collection of many bills, due to this establishment, talent he may have to be useful to himself and others, was confided in January last), which apologises and I feel myself fully capable of attending to the for his silence, and assigns reasons for it, that would ed with myself when I have enough to do: hercin are

whole of it-besides, I am fond of it, and best pleashave been perfectly satisfactory had they been, in the reasons on which the project is founded. They any manner, made known to me; but, as he did not cannot interest the public—but it seems right that I

should frankly give them. appear in very good health when he left Baltimore, and not one line having been received from him for MORE SPECULATION. There was much bustle among so long a period, a fear was cntertained that he the merchants and dealers of Baltimore, yesterday

morning, in consequence of information not made might be dcccased, and the accounts, (which are public at the time of writing this article. Flour was rceeipted), have fallen into the lands of a stranger. in great demand, and many thousand barrels were However, I now have the pleasure to state that he bought up by the “knowing ones.” At the present

moment, we understand, that there is none for sale was well at the date of his letter, and prepared to -persons not being resolved what to ask or receive. act elliciently on the business committed to him and But it will settle down speedily as to its price. A all the authority which he had to attend to my con- ports will be opened for the reception of Canadian

short crop in Spain, the prospect that the British cerus is cheerfully renewed, with entire confidence flour, and the manifestation of some degree of restthat he deserves that reputation wbich originally lessness or hostility in certain of the European pow

ers, are assigned as being the cause of this speculaadaced me to entrust them to him; and I have re- tion. But we know nothing about it, further than spectfully to request that payments may be made to that large purchases have been made. lim, on account of the Register, as they would be

THE PIRATES. In addition to what is slated in the to myself.

interesting letters from lieut commandants Sloat and

Mckeever, we learn that the pirates, captured by the Our sheet is again chiefly given up to the pub- latter, have been given up to the captain-general of lication of official documents, and the preservation of Cuba, who, it is believed, will prompily punish them, articles growing out of the late presidential elec- and that seventeen more have been sentenced to death fion. The latter consists of a long address from Mr. in Porto Rico, and were to be speedily executed. Ingbam to his constituents, in replication to certain the fact is, is piracy is to be suppressed, liberty inatters stated by Mr. Clay, in bis address--an ex- must be granted, or taken, to pursue them on the land tract froin the address of Mr. J. T. Johnson, of Ken- as well as on the water-and that, when the Spanish ricky--a letter from Mr. William L. Brent, of Lousi- authorities shall fail to punish those captured on ang--and an extract from the Lexington Reporter. shore, sell-preservation will require us to esert the The latter is inserted to shew what are the opinions right of doing it ourselves. of Mr. Clay's (late) immediale constituents "as to the purity of his conduct, and the propriety of his course." BALTIMORE.. It is computed that the water power

I sincerely regret that gentlemen have thought it within twenty miles of this city, is equal to one million necessary to say so much on this subject, but feel that six hundred anil thirteen thousand spindles. All this it is my business impartially to publish alí such things, power, however, is located within a semi-circle. and without comment. As the controversy gocs on, new persons are involved in it, and it is not easy to TRAVELLING. By the mail from New York to Phiprediet at what period we may expect its termination. ladelphia, and the steam boats from the last named But, if they shall tend to establish truth, these articles city to Baltimore, the passage from New York to Balwill not be less useful to the people at large, than they timore is made in twenty-seren hours, without any are interesting to that portion of them who are more extraordinary exertion. The Chesapeake steam-boats {"specially cutitled to be called politicians.

are among the best fitted and most co:venient vessels

of the sort that there are, and as well furnished. The oThe oldest son of the editor, William Ogien distance from Baltimore to Frenchtown is seventy„Viles, wishing to build up an establishment for his two miles--this is often made in six hours. The own support and that of his little family, has issucd “Constitution" has travelled it in five hours and an proposals at Albany, for the publication of a news- hall-or at the rate of thirteen miles per hour; and paper, to be called the "Albany Journal and Mercan- the construction of this boat is such and her engine file Sdvertiser,”--three times a week, on an imperial works so smoctily, that no one couid suspect the shect, at five dollars a year.

rapidity of her motion unless by comparing it with On this occasion it may be proper to say, that the time. project has my entire approbation--and to request ihat my friends in the state of New York, and elso IMPROVEMENT OF THE SUSQUEII ANNA II. We feel where, will aid him in this undertaking, with that dis- gratified in publishing the following correspondence tinguished kindness which they have so generously on the interesting subject of the improvement of extended towards mysels; but, at the same time, it the Susquehannah river: may be also necessary to add, that i have pot, nor do

House of representatives, March 2d, 1925. I ever expect to havc, any further interest or con Sir—The citizens of Maryland and Pennsylvania ceen in this affair, than what naturally brinors to al feel a great interest in the improvement of the river

Susquehannah, so as to make a safe descending as well dorser on a note may be a competent witness to invalias an ascending navigation, suitable for such boats date a note; that his interest in the notc does not and vessels as may be constructed for the navigation vitiate bis testimony; and that the only exception of that river. But, in order to obtain a correct know which can be taken to it, is, to his credibility as a ledge of the river, and to know the necessary im- witness. The case occurred in a suit upon a note, provenients to be made for the accomplishment of the the maker of which pleaded usury to evade its payobjects stated, a regular survey and levels must be ment. tike by competent persons, who have had experipnce in this line of business. The undersigncd have, BOLITAR. The following, which is the last paratherefore, to request, that you will please to cause graph of Bolivar's proclamation, has something very the necessary order to be issued by the secretary of magnificent in it: var, for a complete survey to be made of the river Peruvians! The day in which your congress will Susquehannah from New Town, in the state of New meet again, will be the day of my glory—the day in York, to York liaven, in the state of Pennsyivania, which I shall reach the utmost limits of my ambition: with a view of ascertaining the best manner of im- To coinmand no more.' proving the river Susquehannah, for a descending as

Late advices from Colombia, inform us that he had, also an ascending navigation, with an estimate of the for the third time, tendered his resignation of the preexpense, and all other information which may be sidency, but which the congress still refused to accept. deemed requisite for the carrying into effect the pro while on the subject, it is fitting to notice the folposed improvement.

lowing anecdote, related by captain Cochrane, who We remain, with great respect, sir, your most obe- has lately published, in London, a rolume of Travels dient servants,

in Colombia. (Signed) Peter Little,

Thos. Patterson,

“Ata magnificent public dinner, given to Bolivar at Raphael Neale, 1. Thompson, Bogota, one of the company, when called upon for a s Smith,

Joseph Keni,

toast, gare -'Should, at any time, a monarchical goElrari Lloyd, Pl. Y. Markley, vernment be established in Colombia, may the liberaIn. Findlay,

S. E. Eduards,

tor, Simon Bolivar, be the emperor.' A high spiritWuller Lourrie,

Saml. Breck,

ed public character, senor Pépe Paris, then requestWV. Cox Ellis,

Saml. McKean,

ed permission to give a toast, which being acceded George Plumer, James Buchanan, to, he filled his glass, and exclaiming-Should BoliJohn S. Spence,

Janes Wilson,

var, at any future period, allow himself to be delieorge E. Milchell, James S. Milchell. clared emperor, may bis blood flow from his heart in Isaac Mckim,

the same manner as the wine now does from my To the president elect of the United States.

glass,'—he poured the wine out of his glass upon the War department, April 18, 1925.

door. Bolivar immediately sprang from his chair, ran GENTLEMEN-Your letter of the 20 of March last, to senor Paris, and, most warmly embracing him, esaddressed to the president elect, stating that the citi- claimed, -'If such feelings as those declared by this zens of Maryland and Pennsylvania felt great inte-honorable man, shall always animate the breasts of rest in the improvement of the river Susquehannah, the sons of Colombia, her liberty and independence and requesting that orders might be given by the secre- can never be in danger.” tary of war for a complete survey to be made of the

The more we hear of Bolivar, the more we river, from New Town, in the state of New York, to want to know of him. He is one of those rare men York Haven, in the state of Pennsylvania, with a view that seem as if formed for the redemption of a nato ascertaining the best manner of improving the tion. The glory of our WASHINGTON, thus far, is his Susquehannah for a descending as well as ascending -may it be perpetual! navigation, with an estimate of the expense, has beeu received, and referred to this department.

Peru. The Spanish commander of Callao has most The department views the subject of the letter as one of great importance, but has

to regret that it is decidedly refused to give up that fortress, under the not in its power to comply with your request. The convention of Ayacucho. "Having denied access to

an officer sent by the liberator to confer on the subarrangements for the employment of the engineers, and others connected with them, will occupy them ject, it was proposed that the commissioners should during the present season, and will absorb all the be conveyed to Callao in a British vessel of war, the funds applicable to internal improvements at the dis- Cambridge. They were received on board for the posal of the department.

purpose, and the commander of that vessel, having It is proper here to state that your letter above re- arrived at Callao, made known the object of his com ferred to, was received before the organization of the ing—but the governor still refused to receive them, present administration, and, in consequence of the and the commissioners returned to Lima. Such was accumulation of papers in the office during that the state of things at the last advices. A decree on interim, was not attended to as early as it should the subject is inserted below. have been.

The Spanish generals and other officers who capiI have the honor to be, gentlemen, with great re- tulated at Ayacucho, had embarked for Europe, on

board of a French vessel.
spect, your obedient serrant, JAMES BARBOUR.
llon. P. Lillle,

Thos. Patterson,
R Neale, A. Thompson,

To the soldiers of the army who conquered a: Ayacu cho.
S. Smith,
Jos. Kent,

Soldiers !-You have given liberty to South Ame.
Edwd. Lloyd, P. Y. Markley,

rica, and a quarter of the world is the monument of Wm. l'indlay, S. E. Edwards,

your glory-Where have you not conquered? Walter Lowrie, Saml. Breck,

South America is covered with trophies of your 1m. C. Ellis, Saml. McKean,

valor; but Ayacucho, like Chimborazo, rears ber exGeorge Plumer, Jas, Buchanan,

alted head above them all.
Juo. S. Spence,
Jas. Wilson,

Soldiers! Colombia owes to you the glory with
Geo. F. Mitchell, Jas. S. Mitchell,

which you again cover her--Peru, life, liberty and 1. McKim,

peace. La Plata and Chili also are your debtors for

for immense benefits. The good cause-the cause of LAW. A case has been decided, we observe, by the rights of man---las conquered by your arms in the court of last resort, in South Carolina, that an en- her terrible struggle with the oppressor. Contem


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