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B.-Countries with fluctuating currencies, 1874–1890.

Countries.

Standard.

Value in terms of the United States gold dollar

on January 1
Monetary unit.
1874. 1875, 1878.

1880. 1883. 1884.

Anstria-Hungary!... Silver..
Bolivia

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Central America
China..
Colombia
Eegador
Egypt:

80,6

India
Japan
Mexico.
Netherlands

Florin $0.47,6 $0.45, 3 $0.45, 3 $0.41, 3 $0.40,1 ! $0.39, 8
Dollar until .96,5 96,5 .96,5 83,6 .81, 2 .80,6

1880; bolivi.
ano there

after.
do Peso

. 96,5 .91,8 ..do

.91,8 Haikwan tael. 1. 61

.83, 6

1.61 .do Peso...

96,5 . 96,5
.do

96, 51
83,6

.81, 2
..do
Gold.

. 96,5 .91,8

.91, 8

.83, 6 .81, 2 Pound (100

. 80,6 4. 97, 4

1

4.97, 4 4. 90 4. 90 Silver

piasters). Rupee

45,8 (Gold..

. 43, 6 43,6 39, 7

38,6

38,3
Silver.
Yen

1.99,7 . 99,7 .99,7 99,7
..do

.87,6
Dollar

.86,9
Gold and Florin
1. 04, 71 99,8 99,8 .90, 9

.88.2

87,5 silver.

. 40,5 . 38,5 . 38,5 40,2 Sol

92,5 91,8
.do

.91,8
. 83, 6
.81,2

.80, 6
Ruble.

. 77, 17 ..do

. 73, 4 . 73, 4 66,9 .65 Mahbub of 20

.64.5 .87, 09 . 82, 9

82, 9

74,8

. 73,3 . 72, 7 piasters.

Silver

Pera Russia Tripoli

Countries.

Standard.

Value in terms of the United States gold dollar

on January 1Monetary unit.

1885. 1886. 1887. 1888. 1889. 1890.

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The law of

2 of that year *** Consular Reports, No. 147, p. 623) established the goid standard.

The wilrer standard prevailed in Austria-Hungary up to 1892.
1 The Egyptian pound became fixed in value at $4.94,3 in 1887.
The Netherlands florin fluctuated up to the year 1880, wben it became fixed at 40.2 cents.

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Bolivia
Central Amer.

ica.

Silver boliviano.. $0.45, 5 $0.44,1 $0.48.6 $0. 18,6 $0.49,1 $0.49, 3 $0.49,7 $0.49
Silver peso.

. 45,5

. 44,1

. 48,6

48, 6

• 49,1

. 49,3

. 49, 7

.49

[blocks in formation]

Cbina

[blocks in formation]

Amoy tael.
Canton tael
Chefoo tael.
Chinkiang tael.
Fuchau tael.
Haikwan tael
Hankau tael
Ningpo tael
Niuchwang tael..
Shanghai tael
Swatow tael.
Takao tael
Tientsin tael
Silver peso.

do...
Silver rupee.
Silver yen
Silver dollar
Silver kran.
Silver sol
Silver ruble
Silver mahbub

Colombia Ecuador India Japan ? Mexico Persia. Peru. Russia Tripoli

[blocks in formation]

72, 4 73, 2 . 79, 8 . 76, 8 49 49 23, 3 52,8 63,2 09 49 . 39, 2 . 44, 2

45, 5
36, 4
41,1

. 44, 1 .35,3 .39,8

1897.

1898.

1899.

Coun tries.

Monetary unit.

Jan. 1. Apr. 1. July 1. Oct. 1. Jan. 1. Apr. 1. July 1. Oct. 1. Jan. 1. Apr. 1.

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Bolivia .. Silver boliviano . $0.47, 4 $0.46, 8 $0.44,3 $0.41, 2 $0.42, 4 $0.40, 9 $0.41, 8 $0.43, 6 $0.43, 9 $0.43, 4 C. Amer Silver peso ......

. 47, 4

• 46,5 ica.

. 44,3 . 41, 2
. 41, 4

. 43, 6

43,9 . 43, 4 Amoy tael . 76, 7) . 75, 7 . 71, 7

66, 4 Canton tael

68,5

.66,2 76,50

.67,6 . 70,6

71 75,5

70. 2 71,5 66, 4 68, 3 .66 Chefoo tael..

. 67, 41 70,4 70,8 70 . 73,3 72, 4 68,6 63,7 65,5 63,3 Chinkiang tael

64, 6 74,9

67,5 67,9 67. 2 . 73,9

70
Fuchau tael

65, 1
. 66, 9

64, 6 66 69
70,9
.70 66,3

.69,3

.68, 6 . 61, 6 .63, 4 Haik wan tael

.61, 2

.62,5 .78

. 65, 3 .65, 6 77 China...

. 73,1 Hankau tael

.67,8 . 69, 7 . 67, 3 71,7

.68,8 . 71,8

72,2 70,8

. 71. 4 .67, 1 .62, 3 . 64, 1 .61,9 Ningpo tael

.63, 2 73, 7

.66, 4 72,8

65, 7 68,9 .64 61,3 63 Niuchwang tael.

67,9 68,2 71, 9 71

67, 5 67, 2

65, 9 62
Shanghai tael

63,4
. 66, 2

66, 5
69, 1 65,5

.60,8 Swatow tael..

. 62, 6

60, 4
.61,7

.64,5
. 70, 81 69,9

61,8 . 66, 2

.64.1 .61,5 .63, 3 Takao tael

61, 1

.62, 4 .65, 2 65, 5 77, 2 . 76, 2

.61, 9 . 72, 2 .67 66 Tientsin tael

. 66, 6

.71 71, 4 74,3

70.7 . 73, 4 Colombia Silver peso

.69,5 .64, 6

66, 4

64,1 .47,4

. 65,5

.68,4 68,8 .68 . 46,8 44,3 Ecuador.

. 41, 2 42. 4 do..

40,9 41,8 . 43, 6 43, 9 47, 4 46,8

43, 4 44,3 41, 2 India

42, 4 40,9 41,8

13,6 43,9 22,5 22, 2 21,1

43, 4

. 19, 6 Japan ?

. 20,1

. 19, 1 . 19, 9 .51, 1

20,7 50,5

20,8

. 20,6 Mexico Silver dollar .51,5 50,8 . 48, 2 Persia... Silver kran

.44,6 46 44, 4 . 45, 4 08, 7

. 47, 4 47,7 . 08. 6

47,2 .08,2 .07, 6

07, 8
Silver sol

.07,5
.07,7

08, 1

.08 . 47, 4

46,8 . 44, 3 Russia?.. Silver rublo

.41, 2 . 42, 4 . 40,9 . 41,8 37,9

.43,9 . 37, 4

. 43, 4

.70

.68

Silver rupee
Silver yen

Peru..

.08
. 43,6

1 Tbo co'umercial value of the rupee to be determined by consular certificate.
2 See footnote, table of fixed currencies.

FORETGX WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

The following table embraces only such weights and measures as are given from time to time in Consular Reports and in Commercial Relations:

Foreign weights and measures, with American equiralents.

Denominations.

Where used.

American equivalents.

Do

Alande
Portugal..

4.422 gallons.
Anieb
Egypt

7.6907 bushels. Are Metric

0.02471 acre. Arule Paragnay

25 pounds. Arratel or libra Portugal..

1.011 pounds. Arroba (ury) Argentine Republic

25.3175 pounds. Do Brazil..

32.38 pounds. Do Cuba

25.3664 pounds. D).. Portugal.

32 38 pounds. Do Spain

25.36 pounds. Do Venezuela

23.4024 pounds. Arriba (liquid) Cuba, Spain, and Venezuela

4.263 gallons. Arsline Russia

28 inches, Archive (square)

do

5.44 square feet. Morocco

1.12 pounds. Baril

Argentine Republic and Mexico. 20.0787 gallons.
Barrel
Malta (customs)

11.4 gallons.
Do
Spain (raisins).

100 pounds. Berkovets Russia.

361 12 pounds. Pangkal India

832 grains. Bouw Sumatra..

7,096.5 square meters. Bi. Japan

0.1 inch. Pott (side) Spain

140 gallons. Cartiso Malta..

5.4 gallops. Capils India (Bombay).

529 pounds. Do India (Madras)

500 pounds. Cantar Morocco

113 pounds. Syria (Damascus).

575 pounds. Do Turkey

121.7036 pounds. Cantaro (cantar) Malta.

175 pounds. Carga.. Mexico and Salvador

300 pounds. Cativ China..

1.333} (13) pounds. Do! Japan

1.31 pounds. Do Java, Siam, and Malacca.

1.35 pounds. Do Sumatra

2.12 pounds. Centar). Central America

4.2631 gallons. Centner. Bremen and Brunswick.

117.5 pounds. D) Darmstadt

110.24 pounds. Ih) Denmark and Norway

110.11 pounds. Do. Nuremberg

112.43 pounds. Do Prussia

113.44 pounds. Do Sweden

93.7 pounds. Do Vienna

123.5 pounds. Ꭰ0 . Zollverein

110.24 pounds. D. Donble or metric.

220.46 pounds. China.

14 inches. Sarawak.

3,098 pounds. Do Siam (Koyan)

2,667 pounds. Argentine Republic.

4.2 acres. Paraguay..

78.9 yards. Do Paraguay (square)

8.077 square feet.
Do.
Uruguay

Nearly 2 acres.
Cubic meter
Metric

35.3 cubic feet.
Cat.(hundredweight)
British

112 pounds. Dessiatide Russia.

2.6997 acreg.

1.599 bushels. Do

Spain. Drachme Greece.

Half ounce. Egyptian weights and measures (See Consular Reports, No. 144.)

More frequently called "kin.” Among merchants in the treaty ports it oquals 1.334 pounds avoirdupois.

11

(hih. Coran

Cuadra

Do.

Foreign weights and measures, with American equiralentsContinued.

Denominations.

Where used.

American equivalents.

Fanega (dry)

Do
Do
Do
Do

Central America.
Chile
Cuba.....
Mexico
Morocco

Uruguay (double)
Uruguay (single)
Venezuela
Spain
Egypt
Spain.
Argentine Republic.
Mexico
Luxemburg.
Russian Poland.
Metric..

1.5745 bushels. 2.575 busbels. 1.599 bushels. 1.54728 bushels. Strike fanega, 70 lbs.;

full fanega, 118 lbs. 7.776 bushels. 3.888 bushels. 1.599 bushels. 16 gallons. 1.03 acres. 50 pounds. 2.5096 quarts. 2.5 quarts. 264.17 gallons. 0.88 gallon. 15.432 grains. 2.471 acres.

.do

Do
Do

Do.
Fanega (liquid)
Feddan
Frail (raisins)
Frasco

Do.. Fuder. Garnice. Gram Hectare Hectoliter:

Dry..

Liquid.
Joch
Ken
Kilogram (kilo)
Kilometer
Klafter
Koku.
Korree.
Last

Do
Do
Do
Do

Do
League (land).
Li......
Libra (pound)

Do
Do
Do

[blocks in formation]
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2.838 bushels. 26.417 gallons. 1.422 acres. 6 feet. 2.2046 pounds. 0.621376 mile. 216 cubic feet. 4.9629 bushels. 3.5 bushels. 85.134 bushels. 82.52 bushels. 2 metric tons (4,480 lbs.). 112.29 bushels. 117 bushels. 4,760 pounds. 4,633 acres. 2,115 feet. 7,100 grains (troy). 1.0127 pounds. 1.043 pounds. 1.014 pounds. 1.0161 pounds. 1.01465 pounds. 1.0143 pounds. 1.011 pounds. 1.0143 pounds. 1.0161 pounds. 1.0567 quarts. 1.1 pounds. 1.0791 pounds. Square, 50 cubic feet;

unhewn, 40 cubic fees; inch planks, 600 super

ficial feet. 13 acres. 1.727 acres. 0.507 pound. 82% pounds. 39.37 inches. 4.68 miles. 4.61 miles. 1.1493 miles. 0.63 acre. 2.7225 pounds. 2.84 pounds. 3,0817 pounds. 2.85418 pounds. 2.5 pints. 214 inches. 135.64 pounds. 133} pounds. 135.1 pounds. 139.45 pounds. 140 pounds. 0.9478 foot. 0.91407 foot. 27.9 inches. 36.112 pounds. 1.102 pounds. 8.252 bushels. 36 bushels. 101.42 pounds. 130.06 pounds.

Manzana

Do. Marc Maund Meter. Mil..

Do.
Milla
Morgen
Oke.

Do
Do.
Do

Do
Pic
Picul

Do
Do
Do

Do.
Pie

Do Pik Pood. Pund (pound) Quarter..

Do Quintal..

Do

Costa Rica..
Nicaragua and Salvador
Bolivia
India
Metric
Denmark
Denmark (geographical).
Nicaragua and Honduras.
Prussia..
Egypt.
Greece.
Hungary
Turkey
Hungary and Wallachia.
Egypt..
Borneo and Celebes..
China, Japan, and Sumatra
Java..
Philippine Islands (hemp).
Philippine Islands (sugar)
Argentine Republic.
Castile.
Turkey
Russia.
Denmark and Sweden
Great Britain.
London (coal).
Argentine Republic
Brazil..

Foreign weights and measures, with American equivalents-Continued.

Denominations.

Where used.

American equivalents.

[blocks in formation]

101.61 pounds. 123.2 pounds. 112 ponnds. 100 pounds. 125 pounds. 220.46 pounds. 6 pounds. 53 pounds. 7 feet. 490 pounds. 0.02451 acre. 1 pound 13 ounces. 11.9305 inches. 1.6 quarts. 165 cubic feet. 14 pounds. 2,700 cuadras (see Cua.

dra). 1.193 inches. 590.75 grains (troy). 0.25 acre. 2 pecks. 40 cubic feet. 3.94783 bushels. 1.36 acres. 6 feet square. 1.41 inches. 4.5 bushels. 1.22 acres. 34.1208 inches. 0.914117 yard. 32.87 inches. 33.367 inches. 33.384 inches. 33.375 inches. 33 inches. 34 inches. 33.384 inches. 2.707 gallons. 71.1 square rods. 0.663 mile. 41.98 acres.

Do

Ꭰ0 . Do. Do

Do

Do Vedro Vergeen. Verst

METRIC WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

Metric weights:

Milligram (1 ooo gram) equals 0.0154 grain.
Centigram (do gram) equals 0.1543 grain.
Decigram (to gram) equals 1.5432 grains.
Gram equals 15,432 grains.
Decagram (10 grams) equals 0.3527 ounce.
Hectogram (100 grams) equals 3.5274 ounces.
Kilogram (1,000 grams) equals 2.2046 pounds.
Myriagram (10,000 grams) equals 22.046 pounds.
Quintal (100,000 grams) equals 220.46 pounds.

Millier or tonnea—ton (1,000,000 grams) equals 2,204.6 pounds.
Metric dry measures:

Milliliter (Toro liter) equals 0.061 cubic inch.
Centiliter (Tuo liter) equals 0.6102 cubic inch.
Deciliter (to liter) equals 6.1022 cubic inches.
Liter equals 0.908 quart.
Decaliter (10 liters) equals 9.08 quarts.
Hectoliter (100 liters) equals 2.838 bushels.

Kiloliter (1,000 liters) equals 1.308 cubic yards.
Metric liquid measures :

Milliliter (ooo liter) equals 0.0388 fluid ounce.
Centiliter (to liter) equals 0.338 fluid ounce.
Deciliter (o liter) equals 0.845 gill.
Liter equals 1.0567 quarts.
Decaliter (10 liters) equals 2.6418 gallons.
Hectoliter (100 liters) equals 26.418 gallons.
Kiloliter (1,000 liters) equals 264.18 gallons.

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