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appear in the royal prefence, branded as merchant in the city, to whom he was you are with the infamy of a notorious foon after bound apprentice. During breach of truft? With what countenance the early part of his fervitude, he difcan you take your feat at the treasury charged his duty fo much to the fatisfacboard or in council, when you feel that tion of his mafter, that he was very foon every circulating whisper is at your ex- indulged with more freedom than is ufupence alone, and ftabs you to the heart? ally allowed to lads in that station. AHave you a fingle friend in parliament fo bout this period, he for the first time faw fhameless, fo thoroughly abandoned, as our English Rofcius, whofe admirable to undertake your defence? You know, performances made fuch an impression upmy Lord, that there is not a man in ei- on him, that he immediately became enather House, whose character, however fla- moured with the profeffion of a player, gitious, would not be ruined by mixing and fome time after entered himself a his reputation with yours; and does not member of the Rofcian Society in Gutyour heart inform you, that you are de- ter Lane, where a number of young graded below the condition of a man, men affembled two or three evenings in when you are obliged to hear thefe infults the week, in order to rehearse fuch chawith fubmiffion, and even to thank me racters, as they afterwards represented in for my moderation? private plays for the entertainment of their friends. In one of thefe performances, our young spouter received fuch uncommon proofs of the fpectators think ing him poffeffed of great theatrical abilities, that he directly applied to Mr. Garrick, who, after hearing him repeat feveral paffages, pronounced he would one day make an actor, but advised him by no means to think of appearing in public, till he had confulted his friends, and fulfilled his engagement with his mafter. This council Holland invariably purfued, and refolutely returned to the bufinefs of the warehouse, which he tranfacted with fuch attention and fidelity, that he gained univerfal esteem.
We are told, by the higheft judicial authority, that Mr. Vaughan's offer to purchase the reverfion of a patent in Jamaica (which he was otherwise fufficient. ly entitled to) amounted to a high mifdemeanor. Be it fo, and if he deferves it, let him be punished. But the learned judge might have had a fairer opportunity of difplaying the powers of his eloquence. Having delivered himself, with fo much energy, upon the criminal nature, and dangerous confequences of any attempt to corrupt a man in your Grace's station, what would he have faid to the minifter himself, to that very privy counsellor, to that first commiffioner of the treasury, who does not wait for, but impatiently folicits the touch of corruption ;---who employs the meaneft of his creatures in these honourable fervices, and forgetting the genius and fidelity of his fecretary, defcends to apply to his houfe-builder for affistance?
This affair, my Lord, will do infinite credit to government, if, to clear your character, you shall think proper to bring it into the of or into the court of K---'s B-----.-But, my Lord, you dare not do either.
His paffion for the ftage, however, did not in the leaft fubfide; all his leifure hours were employed in preparing himself by the most rational methods for making a figure in the profeffion he fo much admired, and he has been frequently known to spend the greatest part of the night in the study of characters which the avocations of the day would not permit him to examine.
In the year 1754, Holland made his appearance upon the ftage in the character of Oroonoko, in which he acquired great reputation, though he was not a little disconcerted the first night, by an accident that befel Mr. Burton, who played the governor, and who was unluckily wounded by him in the face.
C year course feafon per
1733, and after being inftructed in thofe branches of education that are esteemed molt useful to men of business, he was placed by his friends with a turpentine
formed Eumenes in Merope, and feveral other capital characters, in which he was 'received with uncommon applause
by the public. His falary, however, at this time did not amount to more than thirty fhillings per week, but the next winter it was confiderably encreased, and en Mr. Moffop's going to Ireland, he became poffeffed of feveral new parts, and received a further augmentation of
During the theatrical contention in Dublin between Barry and Moffop, they repeatedly invited Holland over to perform in that metropolis, and accordingly in the fummer of the year 1763, he a greed to the propofal of the latter, and played ten nights at Smock Alley thea tre, for which he received the fum of 100l. and a benefit. A confiderable of fer was made him to continue during the winter at Dublin, but his attachment to Mr. Garrick, who had upon various occalions, given him the ftrongest proofs of his regard, determined him to return to London.
A regular theatre being established in Bristol for the fummer season about three years ago, Holland was invited by the late Mr. Powell, with whom he had long lived in the greatest intimacy, to unite with him in the direction of the drama of that city, and in this capacity he acquitted himself fo well, that it was ap. parent the leffons he had received from his great matter, had qualified him no lefs for an excellent manager than a diftinguished a&tor.
The winter before the laft, Mr. Garrick and Mr. Lacy refolved to difpofe of the patent, and a treaty was entered in to for the purchase between those two gentlemen, and Mr. King the celebrated comedian, Mr. George Garrick, and Mr. Holland, who, from their talents and fervices, were favoured with the first offer of the property. Holland upon this occafion received a convincing proof of the refpectable light he ftood in with his friends, who actually raised for him the fum of 15000l. at one day's notice, which, however, was not employed for the purpofe he intended it, as the nego. ciation was fuddenly broken off, by Mr. Lacy's unexpectedly declaring it would be very difagreeable for him to retire.,
At the period when this eminent performer enjoyed a falary of twelve pounds per week for his theatrical labours (which, reckoning according to playhoufe pay, amounted to about 400 l. in the feafon)
and was in the heighth of his reputation ; he was fuddenly leized with the Smallpox, for which his acquaintance had frequently perfuaded him, in vain, to undergo inoculation. The diforder at firft put on a mild appearance, but soon after turned out of the confluent kind ; when perceiving that the gentlemen who attended him, Dr. Schomberg and Dr. Kehlan had but little hopes of his recovery, he refigned himself to his fate with uncommon refolution, and died with great compofure after twelve days illness on the 7th of December 1769, in the 36th year of his age.
A few days before his death, Mr. Holland received the facrament, and dictated his laft will, by which, after bequeathing to Mr. Garrick his diamond ring; to Mr. Foote his golden-head cane; the fum of two hundred pounds to a child who was nearly related to him, and a few trifles to fome of his acquaintance; he left his whole fortune, upwards of 5000l. to his mother and his two brothers, at Chifwick, where he was buried.
An extraordinary circumstance has been told of this gentleman, which tho we hope for many reafons has no foundation in truth, yet from the pofitive' manner in which it has been repeatedly afferted, it ought not to be omitted in this place. It is affirmed that on the morning of his diffolution, Mr. Atkinfon, the apothecary, called at his houfe, and was told he was dead, but that on Mr. Atkinfon's going into his chamber where the nurfe had laid him out, at it is commonly phrafed, in order to take a laft look at his departed friend, he fhewed fome figns of life, on which Mr. Atkinson ordered him to be placed in a warm bed, where he revived for a fhort time, and even called for fomething to drink, not a little to the astonishment and shame of his attendants, who were feverely rebuked by Mr. Atkinson for fuch an unpardonable inftance of neglect.
The characters Mr Holland obtained the most reputation in were Richard III. Brutus, Hamlet, Pierre, Timur in Zingis, Manly in the Plain-Dealer, and fome other parts of weight in comedy. He was not fond of letters, though he applied with uncommon affiduity to his profeffion, and was fo accurate in repeating the words of his author, that he was rarely known to make the most trifling
Mr. Holland's figure was about the middle fize, well proportioned, and athletic; with an agreeable countenance, and an expreffive eye: his action was generally proper; but frequently stiffened by imitation.
He was a great favourite of the ladies, and the distinction with which fome of them honoured him, has rendered him famous in the annals of gallantry: among the chief of his amours ftands his connexion with Mrs. E---le, which occafioned a profecution against him by her husband for crim. con. Various have been the accounts of this not unfashionable business; but the public may depend upon what follows to be genuine.
Mr. Holland had received many letters figned Leonora, fome replete with the moft extravagant praifes of him as an actor; and others declaring "that the wri-, ter fhould have thought herfelf happy, if he had fallen to her lot, as a companion for life; but as fortune had cruelly denied her that extreme gratification, the, fhould enjoy no reft, till he had affured her in the moft folemn manner, that he would attempt nothing against her virtue, if he was indulged with an interview." The letter which contained this laft declaration, inclofed a prefent of four lottery-tickets; and mentioned that a fervant would call for an anfwer in a few days.
Our hero's curiofity was hereby ftrongly excited; and as he was not deficient in point of vanity, his imagination fuggeit. ed, that his perfon and talents had captivated the heart of a woman of the highest ́rank and fortune. He therefore refolved to answer her kind letter, when he affured the fair unknown, in the true tragedy tile, of his gratitude and eternal at tachment; that he thought himself too much honoured by her notice, to attempt
any thing which could be thought difagreeable to a lady, who had laid him under fuch obligations, that a whole life of fervices could not repay," but added,
that he was racked with impatience to fee a fair one, whole beauty was doubtlefs equal to her understanding, condescenfion, and generofity."
Near a month elapfed before the impatient Mr. Holland received an answer to an epistle, which had coft him much pains, and many tranfcriptions. This reply, however, at length affured him, in the most tender manner, that the writer's fentiments remained unchanged: that the had been extremely ill, was ordered into the country for the recovery of her health; but that, foon after her return, he might depend upon hearing from her again, She, at the fame time, defired him to accept of the diamond ring inclosed, and to wear it constantly for her fake.
In about fix weeks, from this period, our heroine returned from the country; and in a letter, penned in the usual strain, affured the object of her paffion, that the had now determined to enter on an interview; and that he would call on him at his lodgings under the Piazza, Covent Garden, on the Sunday morning following, as it was a day fhe was fure of his being relieved from the fatigue of entertaining the town.
In this irkfome interval, our tragedian's foul was continually up in arms, and formed ten thousand plans of the manner in which he fhould receive her lady ship or her grace; fome of them as ridiculous as thofe of lady Wishfor't, in her amour with Sir Rowland Witwou'd.
The happy moment at length arrived, and a plump, well dressed female entered Mr. Holland's dining room, when he exerted the utmost powers of his elocution, in thanking her for the unmerited favour the conferred upon him; calling up all the affistance of fage-trick, by counterfeiting confufion, terror, &c. On which the lady accosted him in this manmer. "Sir, you may spare your declarations and tranfports for another person; I am not the lady, who has been your correfpondent for fome time, but an inti
* We cannot gratify the reader by acquainting him, whether this was the best diamond ring, mentioned in Mr. Holland's will.
mate friend, who can refuse her nothing; and, as the found herself incapable of meeting you alone, I undertook the task from motives of pure friendship and compaffion. Her coach is now at the door. She has a villa near town, and, if you please, I will accompany you thither to dinner."
It was almost needless to obferve that Mr. Holland gave his affent in terms of the utmolt impatience; when every thing being adjusted, the carriage moved briskly on, and foon arrived at the place of its destination near Hampstead. Here he was introduced into an elegant apartment, and regaled with chocolate, whilft his fair inamorata was muttering up courage to meet him whom the had often seen in the character of a king, a hero, and a ftatesman. Every decent preparatory step being taken, he was fuffered to approach his princefs, when (as Mr. Hume faid of himself and Rouffeau) a very tender scene enfued.
The reader will readily forgive our not furnishing him with all the particulars of the converfation; firft, because we are not fufficiently acquainted with it; and, fecondly, because we do not think it would prove either inftructive or entertaining. Suffice it to fay, that Mrs. Ele had perfonal charms to rivet thofe fetters her pen had forged; that they came to a perfect understanding; and were fo well pleafed with each other, that the lady removed to a house in Arundel-street, for the convenience of indulging a paffion the had gone fuch lengths, and taken fuch pains to gratify.
Immersed in these fweet moments of enjoyment, our lovers little fufpected the fate that hovered over them; and were greatly furprized, after the affiduous care they had taken to conceal their amour, to find an action brought against Mr. Holland, by the enraged Mr. E---le for trim con. and ftill more fo that Mifs G-lb--t, the complaifant, friendly lady first mentioned in thefe anecdotes, was to be produced by Mr. E---le, as the fole witness to prove the deed. This froke operated like a thunder-storm, and difperfed at once all the loves and graces; the lady retreating to obfcurity, and the gen tleman preparing for his defence. As he had no doubt of the fact being fully proved, his only refource was to prove, from his falary, and other circumstances, that
he was incapable of paying large damages. This precaution was, however, foon rendered unneceffary by a meffage from the profecutor, who convinced the culprit, that it was his intereft to make no defence, as in that cafe no more than fifty pounds damage would be claimed; and even that fmall fum not received. What could our hero do? In this exigence blank verfe could be of little ufe to him; and he therefore fubmitted to his fate, which turned out exactly as he had been promifed, it plainly appearing that the husband's fole view was to get rid of a wife for whom he had no regard, without refunding a shilling of her fortune, which was very confiderable; and that in this honourable purfuit he had effected his purpose, by means of the virtuous lady *, who had infinua ted herself into the confidence of the unfortunate wife, whose virtue she had, in a great measure, contributed to fubvert.
This lucky escape was not a fufficient warning for Mr. Holland to avoid all fu ture connexions with married women; for if report is to be credited, a very ftrict intimacy subsisted between him and Mrs. B------, the actress, a confiderable time before his death; and she is faid to have been fo deeply affected at his lofs, that she was not able to make her appearance upon the stage for fome time after, though her name was conftantly in the bills during that period.
been exceedingly well fallowed for a year and half, by many ploughings, harrowings, &c. By which operations the furface is laid mott completely level, fo that not the leaft trace of a furrow is to be diftinguished; with the corn, 12lb. of white Dutch clover, and eight bushels of finely-dreffed bay-feds are fown. At harvest the oats are reaped, and 6lb. more of clover feed fown over the ftubble, which is then mown, and raked off, and confequently the feed pretty well buried in the ground; a very rich compoft is immediately spread on the field, and well harrowed in, by which means the feed is completely covered; in this manner it is left the first winter. The crop is next year left until the feeds are ripe enough to shake in the mowing and making, by which means the land gains a fresh fprink ling, and the whole furface enfured a total and thick covering.
The fuccefs attending this method is fo very great, that, in feveral large fields which I viewed, the after-grafs was eight and nine inches high, foon after clearing a crop of hay of two tons per acre, and this the first year of the lay. No one would have known, from walking over the field, that it was not of fome years growth, fo thick and matted on the ground was the first year's produce. This grafs, in any part of the kingdom, would have lett for 30s. an acre, and for 40s. in mott: An improvement of a noble kind, when the rents, before this management, were no more than 8 and 9 fhillings per acre, and lett at their value.. Adjoining to several of thefe new lays, fome of the old pastures are to be feen yet in tenants hands; they are poifoned with fuperflu ous water, and over-run with every fpecies of trumpery and weeds, the grafs of a poor fort, and the quantity trifling. In lays of three or four years old, the aftergrafs, had it been mown, would have yielded at leaft two tons of hay an acre.
It is obfervable upon this plan, that no part of it is beyond the reach of a common farmer; a principal view of his lordfhip in all his bufbandry. Here are no two-years fallow, nor any lofs by laying without a crop of corn; the feeds indeed are in large quantities, and amount in total price to near fifty fhillings an acre; but then it is to be confidered, that the thickness of fowing gives it a moft excellent crop the very fit year, which, in
the common management, is generally the very contrary; and it is incontestible, that his Lordship's method pays its own expence in the very first crop. Suppose the farmer's feeds cot him 20s. the excefs on the fide of the better manner is then, we will fay, 25 s. a fum in the value of hay that does amount to little more than a fifth of the first year's produ&t.
But Lord Rockingham, in scarce any thing, has acted with greater spirit, than the improvement of the turnip culture by hoeing; for the disgust he feit at feeing the common flovenly management of the farmers, in refpect to this crop, made him determine to introduce the excellent practice of hoeing, common in many of the fouthern parts of the kingdom. With this view, he endeavoured to perfuade his tenants to come into the method, defcribed to them the operation, pointed out its advantages, clearly explained to them the great confequence of increasing the fize of the roots in the luxuriance of its growth, and the equality of the crops; he reminded them of the poor crops of fpring corn, gained after turnips, for want of a better culture, from the difference of following a crop of weeds, which will not feed cattle, and confequently not improve the land: and fucceeding a large produce of valuable roots, which, by their thick fhade, and the quantity of cattle they maintained, enriched the land, at the fame time that all weeds are deftroved by the hoeing.
Uncontrovertible as this reasoning, fo clearly founded on facts, mult appear to the unprejudiced, yet, with a fet of men of contracted ideas, used to a stated road, with deviations neither to the right or left, it had very little effect: Turnips continued to be fown, but were never hoed. His Lordship then finding, that dicourfe and reafoning could not prevail over the obstinacy of their understandings, determined to convince their eyes. He fent into Hertfordshire for a husbandman uled to hoeing of turnips, and gave directions for his management of a large crop. This he continued feveral years; and by this means, by degrees, he introduced the practice, which is now (though not univerfal) the common practice of all the good common farmers. Much does this neighbourhood owe to fo patriotic a defign, which was truly planned with