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BY LYMAN ABBOTT
R. EDWARD EVERETT HALE died in 1909. We course, which fills the student's life so full of prescribed readhave had to wait eight years for this story of his life." ings that he has no time to follow his own literary inclinations.
It was worth waiting for. His son has written, or rather Perhaps the modern method is better for the average boy, the we should say edited, this life with reverencing candor—a com- older method better for the willing student. Those pessimists bination rare in biographers. Most portrait painters flatter. A who lament the tendencies of modern college life might do well few satirize their sitters. The biographer who can give to the to compare the college of 1917 with the following experience of public a dispassionate portrait of one whom he loved and hon- young Hale in the college of 1837: ored is an artist of rare ability. The task laid upon Edward “On conversing this morning with those who had been present Everett Hale, Jr., was for other reasons one of extreme diffi. at prayers, I found that there had been considerable noise, and culty. Dr. Hale once said to me that he had never destroyed a that one or two of our class were drunk. On going to morning letter. He was a great correspondent. He had a tropically fer prayers (they] found a good many panes broken in University win. tile mind and a passion for self-expression. One can well believe
dow. There was a good deal of noise in Dr. Ware's recitation-room. that the amount of material in his biographer's hands was “ very
There were one or two apples and a lemon which were being
thrown constantly from one side of the room to the other, to the great." It included, he tells us, “ thousands of letters, many dia
imminent danger of the heads they happened to be aimed at. In ries and day-books, a great number of sermons as well as lec
the evening after supper ... I heard a tremendous explosion tures and addresses, besides note-books, scrap-books, common
which I thought was a pump blown up. . . . I found that either place books, sketch-books, and other such material. His printed this, or a later explosion which I did not hear, was made by a torwritings also were voluminous, and had never been entirely col. pedo put on the sill of one of the windows of University.” Ex. lected, nor even completely catalogued.” Out of this super. plosions followed every night for several nights, and these grew abundant material Mr. Hale has made a wise selection, though more serious as time went on. Three months later, “when we we could have spared some of Dr. Hale's letters of foreign
went to prayers this morning we found the chapel in great con. travel if their place could have been taken with more letters of
fusion, owing to the explosion of a bomb placed in front of the
pulpit. The windows were all broken, almost every pane of glass an autobiographical and self-revelatory character.
being destroyed, the front of the high platform on which the Edward Everett Hale was born in Boston, May 14, 1822.
pulpit stands was blown in, the plastering broken in several His father was the owner and editor of the Boston “ Daily Adver.
places where pieces of the shell had entered, woodwork of pews, .tiser " when that journal was the recognized organ of the intellect window-panes and seats hurt in some places, the clock injured, ual aristocracy of eastern Massachusetts. The daily paper was part of the curtain inside of the pulpit torn away, and a couple less a gatherer of news than it is to-day, but its editorial pages of inscriptions in immense letters on the wall to this effect: A exercised a greater influence on public opinion. His father was bone for old Quin to pick.'”. a cultivated scholar; he had a fine literary sense; kept up his Graduating at seventeen years of age, young Hale decided to Latin ; read French and German easily. His mother, the son enter the ministry. His mother especially, but also his father, tells us, “was the only woman in Boston who could read Ger. had always desired him to be a minister, and his friends in colman when I was a boy,” by which I understand that he simply lege had known of his general intentions long before his gradumeans that she was the only woman in Boston within his ac ation. “He did not, however, desire to study in the Divinity quaintance who read German. The boy was born into a literary School. Just why is not clear. Perhaps it was in part a piece : atmosphere, and from early boyhood was used to books, news of his lifelong objection for doing anything in a mechanical papers, and magazines, and the machinery of producing them. way, a feeling that made him through life critical of all insti“ All of us," he says, “were born into a home crammed with tutional processes of education." So the son interprets his newspapers, books, perfectly familiar with types and ink and father's motive, I think correctly. Dr. Hale was by temperapaper and proof-sheets and manuscripts." The children wrote ment and training an independent. He had no inclination to and printed books and newspapers. At one time “they wrote model himself after any prescribed pattern, and it would have a whole library. It still exists—the Franklin Circulating been really impossible for him to be run into a mold. He had Library-little booklets of perhaps three or four inches square to be himself. He was preordained to be the architect as well in which are printed by hand youthful tales in many volumes." as the builder of his own mind. Thus the boy was born, not with a silver spoon in his mouth, but The motive which took him into the ministry was not a prowith a pen in his hand, and acquired the kind of culture which foundly spiritual one. “He was not,” his son says, “ very deeply can be acquired only during childhood and in a cultivated home. impressed by the responsibilities and opportunities of a minis
He entered Harvard College at thirteen years of age, after ter's life." And he says himself, “ One prime reason for the four years at the Latin School. There are no advantages with choice of my profession was my desire to be in a walk where I out some compensating disadvantages. To an eager mind might press my general literature." His ambition, however, was accustomed to living among books and getting knowledge by a not merely a literary ambition. He chose the ministry partly process as natural as breathing the mechanical processes of the because it offered an opportunity for a literary pursuit, but also school were wearisome. “I may as well say,” he says, “ first as partly because it offered an opportunity to be “at the same last, that school was always a bore to me. I did not so much time useful and helpful to all kinds of persons who were not so hate it as dislike it as a necessary nuisance.” Nevertheless, he fortunately placed in the world as himself." The first of these proved himself a good scholar, both in school and college. He motives may have been the earlier one, but the second soon had parts in the sophomore, junior, and senior entertainments became and always remained the dominating motive of his life. and exhibitions; won college prizes for two dissertations; was The author of Genesis has described in a figure the secret of one of the first eight in the Phi Beta Kappa ; and graduated man's double nature. He was made of earth, but into him God second in his class.
breathed the breath of his own life. Jesus used this figure in a The college in his time was scarcely less mechanical than the play upon words which I venture to interpret to the English school. The students learned their lessons and recited them to reader by a paraphrase: “The breath of God bloweth where it the professors. He got his lessons as a matter of course, but will, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell found time in addition to read novels, study history, hunt for whence it cometh and whither it goeth; so is every one that is wild flowers, do philosophical experiments, and take an active born of the breath of God.” Dr. Hale has left a record of his part in college student life. I am not sure but that a college experience of this breath of God upon his own soul. He was in course which allowed such students as Edward Everett Hale Albany, where he had gone to aid in an effort which a few were and Phillips Brooks time for their own independent intellectual making to establish a Unitarian church in that city. It was activities would not afford better training than the modern before his first pastorate. He was about twenty-two years of 1 The Life and Letters of Edward Everett Hale. By Edward E. Hale, Jr.
age; he was alone, a stranger in a strange city, and doubted 2 vols. Illustrated. Little, Brown & Co., Boston. $5.
whether the people of the so-called parish even knew that he was in town. Sixty years after he described the experience those needs interpreted to him, made him from the beginwhich then came to him unsought but never to be forgotten : ning of his pastorate a social worker. Long before Dr. Perhaps it was to this loneliness that I owe a revelation which
Parkhurst coined the phrase, “ The church is the minister's stands out in my memories of life. I had been reading in my
force, not his field,” Dr. Hale adopted this principle. Neither musty, dark bedroom by an air-tight stove. I think I was reading church nor pastor was concerned with spiritual experiences the “ Revue de Deux Mondes.” But I put the book down for alone.“ Wherever there were those who had no one else to what people used to call reflection, and I saw or perceived or stand by them in their social life—whether it were to help felt that I was not alone and could not be alone. This Present
them to some work that should give them a daily wage or to Power knows me and loves me. I know Him and love Him. He
offer them some association and fellowship which should make is here, I am here. We are together. And it is a companionship much closer than I could have with any human being sitting in
their lives happier or more effective—there, in his view, the that chair.
Church of the Unity should be at hand to counsel and help.”
His first call to Boston, to a church well established and a.conThe biographer thinks that his father was a believer in theo gregation made up of older people, but without Sunday-school logical doctrine. That depends upon what is meant by “theo or benevolent institutions, he declined. The second call to Boston logical doctrine.” Theology is defined by the Century Dictionary won him because the church was largely made up of young as “The science concerned with ascertaining, classifying, and people, energetic, wide awake, eay 'r for work and for some one systematizing all attainable truth concerning God and his rela to guide them. What that church became under his organizing tion to the universe." I do not think that Dr. Hale ever was and inspiring ability, and what Dr. Hale became through its interested in ascertaining, classifying, and systematizing all influence as a leader in every form of Christian philanthropy, is attainable truth concerning God and his relation to the universe. a part of the history of the American Church. In 1874, replying to an inquirer who had asked for some books The other effect which Dr. Hale's religious experience had which would explain to him the Unitarian faith, Dr. Hale upon him was seen in his conversion from a conservative into a replied: “What I do or do not happen to think about one thing progressive. The Boston “ Advertiser," of which his father was or another is of very little consequence, if only I have the infi. proprietor and editor, was a representative of the Whig party nite help of God's holy spirit, which does come to any man who and an admirer of Daniel Webster. His mother's brother was believes God is, that God loves him, and is eager to help him as that Edward Everett who ran as Vice-President on the pacifists' being indeed his child.” It was not the organization of thought ticket with Mr. Bell in the campaign which elected Abraham but the abundance of life that interested Dr. Hale. To this cor. Lincoln. Thus certainly by his training, and I think also by respondent he said, “Live with all your might, and you will his temperament, Dr. Hale was a conservative. In the letters have more life with which to live."
which his son publishes there is no reference found to any of the This consciousness of God was the foundation of Dr. Hale's radically anti-slavery men of his time—Theodore Parker, character and the inspiration of his ministry. “I know," he William L. Garrison, Wendell Phillips-and only the barest wrote in one of his letters, “that that divine spirit which guides references to Henry Ward Beecher and Charles Sumner. He us always, led me, even in boyhood, to choose such themes, shall makes no reference to the capture of Sims and his return to I say, as the fit starting-places for the duties of the pulpit. That slavery, which inflamed not only all Boston but all New England perfect love casts out fear, and that this love must show itself in with fiery resentment. But the abolition of the Missouri Com. action and not in word—this may be said to be a fair foundation promise so far converted Dr. Hale that he took an active part for whatever the pulpit has to say or do." It is true that Dr. in the Emigrant Aid Society, which had as its object the migraHale was always a loyal Unitarian, and did very much to tion of free men to settle in Kansas and make it a free State. inspire modern Unitarianism. What he meant by Unitarianism Before the Civil War he was hoping against hope that there he made clear by referring to its origin. “Unitarians,” he said, would be no war, and when it came his comment was, “ I am “ were first so called (in Hungary, 1563) because they believed exquisitely sorry now that it is here. I did not know that I in the unity of religion for all Christians, whatever their could be so sorry about anything out of the family." especial creed, whether Lutheran, Calvinist, or Socinian." His But there was no doubt of his loyalty to the Union and to Unitarianism was that of Dr. Martineau, who objected to the liberty, and at the war's close he threw himself into the work title, and permitted it under protest. Not the creed, but the spirit of creating what he called “ The New Civilization” with charof a church which insisted that unity should depend on the acteristic energy and enthusiasm. In his college days he had spirit, held them both loyal to the Church in which they were written with apparent approval of a college preacher who comborn. They were Unitarians because they both believed that plained that “Judea has given way to Texas, and anti-slavery the unity of Christendom should depend not on a common creed and Canada take the place of salvation." But during the war but on the unifying spirit of faith, hope, and love.
he preached a sermon in favor of the war loan, and when it was But Dr. Hale was much more than a preacher of ethical cul. over he wrote to his son that “with the end of the war the ture, much more than a social reformer. It is true, as his son time will come for us not only to colonize the South but to says, the father was 'ne of the pioneers in the modern movement convert the Southern cities by an infusion of all Christian life for social work; but what work was always inspired by his faith and charity in a way they have known nothing of.” The senin the living God.“ Hospitality, education, charity in the life tence is worth quoting as an indication that Dr. Hale, in spite of a church are all subordinate to worship,” he said. This spirit of his broad-mindedness, had not in 1865 gotten free from the ual faith converted his early desire to be helpful into a passion provincialism of the Athens of America. By 1889 he had outfor helpfulness. Charles Lamb and Leigh Hunt ceased to be grown that provincialism and become an internationalist. In his models. He enjoyed literature as a recreation, but he had that year, fourteen years before the First Hague Conference, no interest in merely playing with ideas himself. Thought be- he made in Washington an address in which, so far as I know, came his instrument. His stories were parables. It will be diffi. was first publicly proposed a Permanent International Tribucult to find anywhere a keener satire of that specious interna- nal for the settlement of international controversies. tionalism which repudiates love of one's own country than is I am inclined to think the greatest power that any man may furnished by “ The Man Without a Country;" or a better satire covet for himself is the power of growing. That power Edward on the modern habit of self-measurement by the mere quantity Everett Hale possessed in a remarkable degree. He retained of one's activity, not the quality, than “My Double and How his vigor of mind and body to the end. He attended the inauHe Undid Me;" or a more inspiring interpretation of loyalty to guration of Mr. Taft on March 4, 1909, and would have Jesus Christ by service and sacrifice, rather than by profession, preached, if he could have obtained his physician's permission, than the story " In His Name.” The biographer tells us that on Anniversary week of that year, on June 6. On June 10 he his father regarded that as his best story, and I agree with him. died. The secret of his growth, indeed the secret of his powers, It is not more popular than “The Man Without a Country," he has given to the world in his ever-memorable paraphrase of but it is the interpretation of a profounder life.
Paul's summary of the religion of faith, hope, and love: “ Look Dr. Hale was naturally an individualist. The demands made up and not down ; look forward and not back; look out and upon him by the needs of the community in his first parish, the not in ; lend a hand.” city of Worcester, and the call of his heavenly Father which The Knoll, Cornwall-on-Hudson, New York.
ness, had indication thothing of hristian
BY JEAN BROOKE BURT
When it is over and the Great Cause won,
I know our hearts flame as one fire, and blend
BUSINESS TO WIN
TN discussing "business as usual " we have taken the position “This principle, if applied to all industries, may not only
that business must be unusual, so to speak, during the war. put out of commission some plants which may be later found 1 It ought always to be remembered that all that the Gov- to be essential for Government use and make them unready to ernment and the manufacturer do or determine not to do, as serve the Government immediately when needed, but may have well as all that the individual does or omits doing, should a tendency to disrupt the general production of wealth by which have as its primary principle, not “ Business for Pleasure," or, the war industries must be supported. The question which in the ordinary meaning, “ Business for Profit," but “ Business naturally arises in the lay mind is : Why not, as the necessity to Win."
for each arises, commandeer the plants, together with their In continuing the discussion we here print a communication organizations, while they are in running order, and, in the from Mr. E T. Miller, whose far-sighted activities in the meantime, encourage rather than disrupt general production? months preceding our declaration of war against Germany were “If the purpose of the War Savings Campaign' is the an important factor in providing such measure of industrial immediate present release of labor and plants for future Govpreparedness as we have had. In printing this letter we wish ernment use, then a waste in production will occur before each to acknowledge it as a specially clear expression of our own plant is specifically required.
“ If the purpose of the War Savings Campaign is to reduce "The public has not been urged to cut off all water freight the cost of labor and materials by limiting consumption, then and travel in order to release in advance ships and seamen, why not first attempt to reduce that cost by eliminating profitwhich might later be needed for Government use, as evidently eering of all kinds? The President has stated in his message to this would disperse the crews and lay up the ships. If this Congress, in substance, that the laws of supply and demand are had been done, ships, when required by the Government, now inoperative. would be out of commission and would not be available for “ If the War Savings Campaign results in the general pracimmediate use. On the contrary, the Government has comman tice of hoarding, it will release labor and capital only to cause leveral ships when each could be put to immediate use, and hunger and bankruptcy. the traffic has gradually been accommodated by substitutes or "With the very human tendency toward fear, with the possi
bility of a long war, and with the probability of panies caused " The automobile industry has been allowed to share the use by unexpected reverses, a campaign of unreasoned economy of chrome steel with the Government, to continue the manu- may easily induce the practice of hoandling and result in a facture of cars of all sorts and keep their organisations together serious business depression, causing deficiency of production in running onder, so that the plants and their organizations and lowering our chances of winning the war. may be in rudiness torve the Government in the manufacture “Thrift that employs its savings for production cannot be
of war munitions as fast as detinite work can be assigned to too strongly urged. The "nimble sixpence' is of more service rach. The public has not been try to discontinue the use of to the country than is the slothful pound, both in times of automobiles in order to release these plants and their labor. peace and in times of war. Production in the United States is llar this l*n done the plants would be cut of commission, the factor vital to the sucITS of the Allies: the United States, labor would be dispred, and the organimations woukl ma le in unlike England and France, has the production of no other müdiness to serve the Government promptly as its requirements country to fall back upon. aris
- The general production of our country is said to be about "A puniment financier Nientatie? with the Idministration, forty billion dollars anmully, and the general business about in an der Infore a baly of business man en neemler is one hundrat billion dollar, of which perhaps ninety per cent Quel by the press sharing san: The great things mun aan or more is domestic business. The economie history of the counde the belon win this war is to get the blend of personal respons try has shown that business can withstand many adverse foreign bility that when the p**ye bare a c ar to mani they will intr-7744 but that it is sy affected by internal conditions, we W iar they ran affoni te **ed it in the war they pren af a temperamental nature. päraser IMAO
W e rthe (krnment van afuni ta have she!? The whole world is critins from individualism to governsp**nt it in vår wrthy isn... We mus** that the went outni. It is vital in this control shall be constructive. Khmer Sko fix insan i nxi** te a an. Itin plants or its are needed for the pracution of H. Il ritm C asam a sium,** We the war. her i bare taken wben and as required: but an **kmanin frun ar an W is sinais para verilire non
si plants for possible future Gor*** in wexta Te mas en wat ik met us thubha genre borrott of business or branling * We sine from the ears that wish yo med modern metais innenructive control. de mii de mii fra d
In Tekent sizess bar ide tnited States Chamber of iss Int ing for (AITA . PASKIN. Suurks Cam A1 Azistic or the SENTAIT of War pid: There
GOVOX SISWT t
r which has gone on in the
wealth of the world, and that is a production of new wealth. manner as to maintain and improve the tools of industry, which Therefore the primary funct. a of business is to produce. should be operated with a view to increased efficiency until Government control should encourage production in such a drafted for specific war purposes.
F. T. MILLER.”
WHAT THE WOMEN ARE DOING FOR OUR ARMY AND
. : NAVY
THE HOSPITABLE Y. W. C. A. IN WAR TIME I WAS blue," said a man in khaki, recently; “I was very work among colored girls along the same lines as that for
blue, and I never would have believed it possible to have white girls. I such a good time among strangers."
Among these plans for the protection of all sorts and condiSaid another: “When I go over to France, in the trenches, I tions of girls is that of the Patriotic League. This now numshall think oftener of this house than of all the other places I bers some two hundred thousand members. War workers have have seen since I came to camp.”.
compiled a directory of all girls in communities affected by the These two men were speaking of Hostess Houses. Fifty-eight war, with information as to nationality, addresses, guardian's of them have been built at the various camps in this country, name, social, business, and religious life, etc. The button of the or contracted for, and thirty-three are now in active operation. Patriotic League indicates that the wearer is an adherent of
If any one is inclined to wonder what the Young Women's the type of patriotism and morale for which the Young Women's Christian Association can possibly have to do with war, he will Christian Association stands. What it indicates can be told in find his answer-or at least one answer—in those houses. the words of a young mill girl who, when asked by a new girl What purposes these houses serve can best be told, perhaps, in what the button meant, answered : “ Well, as far as I can get such pictures as are reproduced on the two following pages. The it, when you wear a button and a young gentleman friend sees houses serve for the soldier as the hospitable home of a friend and it, he says, “Nothing doing here." neighbor, and they provide what these men need but otherwise It is not only, however, in or near the camps that the Young would not have—the normal and wholesome company and influ- Women's Christian Association is doing its war work. War ence of women. We wonder whether the men of any other armies has transformed the country, and, in particular, the country's in history could ever find the recreation, the education, and the industry. For instance, in the gun division of the Ordnance homelike environment that are here pictured. Traditionally Bureau at Washington, the majority of the fifteen hundred there has been little of good associated with women in army employees are women. Hundreds of other employees are needed. carnps. In the category of “ camp followers” there has been in In industries throughout the country positions left vacant by former years a special stigma attached to the women of the men called to the colors are being filled by women. More and camps. The Young Women's Christian Association has brought more the work done in munitions factories will become woman's about a revolution. These pictures that come from North, North- work. Even ships will be built by women. Indeed, the other cast, and West, and from the eastern and western South, record day an English officer predicted that the time may come when that revolution at a glance. These Hostess Houses are monu English battle-ships will be entirely constructed by women, ients to the patriotism and fine influence of the young American from the submission of the first blue print to the slipping off woman.
the ways. As may be seen by the pictures, these houses vary in design; These new and, according to familiar standards, abnormal but each house is planned so as to include a large reception conditions have not been without their menace to the physical room, where the mothers, wives, sisters, and sweethearts who go and moral well-being of women. To meet these conditions the to visit the soldiers in camp may meet them in homelike sur. Young Women's Christian Association is making provision. roundings ; a rest-room for women waiting until the soldier is In particular, the Association has felt the need of making off duty ; a nursery where children may be left by visiting provision for the housing of these women and girls. The Govparents; a cafeteria where men as well as women may eat. ernment in this respect has been laggard. The Young Women's Telephones or couriers summon the soldier to the Hostess Christian Association also feels that it must make provision House on the arrival of his friends. No summons is needed, for the wholesome social life of these women and these girls ; however, for many a soldier who goes because he craves a bit of for they will not be good workers unless they are contented. home cooking or a place that has the atmosphere of a hos More especially, the Association is assigning social workers to pitable friend's home.
groups of foreign women and girls to accustom them as soon It is not only in the camps that the Young Women's Chris as possible to American habits and to the English language. tian Association provides hospitality for the men under military To meet these and other new requirements the Young Women's training, but also in communities adjoining the camps. In those Christian Association has undertaken to raise a fund of five communities the Young Women's Christian Association has million dollars. It is estimated that this sum will meet opened no less than sixty-one centers to provide recreation for demands up to the 1st of July next. As a consequence of its the soldiers and for other purposes. In these centers girls are “drive” which culminated on January 17, practically all of this taught proper respect for the uniform of the country, and ad- sum has been raised. vised as to how they should conduct themselves in the company The President of the United States has expressed his admiraof soldiers, who are regularly entertained under careful chaper. tion for the work of the Young Women's Christian Association onage. These and all the buildings and cafeterias of the Asso and the high value which he puts upon its work, and the Chairciation are open to all men of the Army and Navy. These man of the Government's Commission on Training Camp places afford not only meeting-places for soldiers and those who Activities, Mr. Raymond Fosdick, has said that the War come to call on them, but also entertainments, concerts, and Department's “attempt to rationalize the environment of our dances. In these centers, as well as in the Hostess Houses, there army camps would suffer considerably if it were not for the is in this way provision made for soldiers to have the company splendid efforts of the Young Women's Christian Association." of women under proper auspices.
What we have described here has to do only with the work Of the thirty-three Hostess Houses now in use five are for of the Association on this side of the ocean. There is no doubt colored women. The very fact that a safeguard is being thrown that its work in France, for the nurses at the front, for the about white girls makes any menace to the colored girl more girls in the French munition plants, and for our men who go real. She is certainly subject to every strain and temptation in overseas, will increase. war times that is put upon her white sister. So these Hostess It is evident that the country ought to do what it is called upon Houses for colored women have been provided, and colored sec- to do by the legend on Mr. Benda's effective posters designed retaries are directing Young Women's Christian Association for the Association--"Stand behind the country's girlhoodi.“