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butter or cheese. Butter is made from cream by agitating it in a churn; and is the oily part of the cream, or a sort of a solid oil. Cheese is made from milk by eurdling it with runnet; and the curd is then pressed, sbaped, and dried.
Ons.---The runnet is prepared from the stomach of calt; wbich, naying been pickled for the purpose, is dried and afterwards infused in water for a few hours, The water, dissolving a kind of acid, ia inired with the milk, which it soon curdles. In commerce these stomachs are called vells. The cheese would be white, if the milk were not previously coloured with Spanish or other Arnella. The largest cheese-farms are in Cheshire and Denbighshire ; and on some of these, 500 inilch cows are kept. 1.47. In England, of late years, selections have been made of breeds of cattle, sheep, &c. from among those which fatten the quickest, which have the best-flavoured flesh, best wool, &c.
48. Among oxen, the kinds that have been preferred, are the middle-horned, or Devonshire, for working, and the short-horned, the spotted, and the Alderney, for milking. 11.49 The long-horned, the Welch, the Kyeloe, and the Fifeshire, have also their separate purposes and recommendations.
49. Among the inproved breeds of sheep, the favourite is the South Down; but the Teeswater, Dartmoor, and Romney-marsh-breeds, are the largest ; the new Leicester and Lincoln areathe next. The fleece of the Lincoln weighs jalbg, cliobase
50. Those sheep which produce the finest wool, are the Merino, the Ryeland, and the Shetland: but their fleeces weigh only from 2 to 8 lbs.
A male sheep is called a tup or rams and 4 female, an ewe. They are usually shorn in Junr; and are called one-shear, twa-shrar, or three #hear sheep, according to their ages.
61. Horses are divided into blood-horses or meers: hackney or riding-horses; coach-borses ; Cleaveland-bays: Suffolk-punches; Clydesdales; and heavy Blacks: eneh of them adapted to dis, tinet purposes of use or pleasure,
57.' Hogs are severally of Berkshire, Ilani shire, Shropshire, Gloucestershire, Chinese, white, and swing-tailed breeds; all different in their shapes and character,
63. Numerous oth productive animals are also objects of the farmer's care; as poultry for eggs; geese, durks, turkeys, Guinea-fowls,' and pigeons ; bees for honey : and fish stocked in ponds. Farmers likewise extract ryder from apples: perry from pears; and delicious British wines from various fruits.
64. Every farin-house is provided with its kitchen garden, for the cultivation of vegetables and fruits. The Art of Gardening forms also, one of the most useful and dwightfal branches of rural employment. Besides Kitchen-garden for raising vegetables, there are fuit-gardens, or orchards, lower-gardens, and pleasure gardens
65. By the art of Gardening, the Freits i one part of the world, are propagated and cultivated in other climates, to whichi, at first, they sceined to be ill-adapted.”
* In the present edition, the long paragraphs have been purposely broken, for the ease of junior students i but the wumbers remain the same.
Thus, in England, our principal native fruits are, the whortleberry, the strawberry, the cranberry, various sorts of plums, hazle-nuts, the acorn, the blackberry, the alder-berry, hips, and haws;
but we now have gooseberries, currants, apples, pears, superior plums, apricots, peaches, nectarines, and grapes-most of them exotics, and first cultivated in England, about three hundred years
since. 56. Within the last seven years, the breadfruit tree has been transplanted from the islands of the South Seas to the West-Indies; and all the rare spices, natives of the East-Indies, are now cultivated in the West-Indies.
57. The Potatoe, so considerable and wholesome a portion of our food, was unknown in Europe, about two centuries ago; but was brought from America by Raleigh. The period is on record (500 years before Christ), when the first wheat was brought into Europe, from Asia Minor. Peas, beans, and all other grain, are exotics in England.
68, Such, also, is the art of man, that he improves whatever he cultivates. By grafting buds of superior fruits on ordinary stocks, he amnends, and even alters, the natural produce of thie tree; aud by managing and selecting bis seeds, he improves and enlarges every vegetable production.
69. By the art of Gardening, two, three, or four, persons may derive ample subsistence, from every acre of ground in cultivation; but there is, in no country, without cultivation,
above one human inhabitant to two square miles; and even on that space, subsistence is obtained with ditliculty: such are the triumphs of ant over nature !
00. In England and Wales there are ten millions of inhabitants; and thirty-seven millions of' acres of ground; of which, nearly thirty mild lions are cultivated, or are employed in grazing cattle; the other seven are waste.
There are, consequently, three acres of cului. vated ground to every person ; and nearly another acre of that which is uncultivated.
Obs.--It having been ascertained, that an acre of land employed as a garden, will produce regular subsistence for four persons ; it follows, that if the ground in Enge land was thus enliivated, it would support of population of 10 millions ; and, with various allowances, a! least 100 millions, or ten times its present number, The ground still uncultivated, might, perhaps, he made to maintain the present number of inhabitants in plenty.
01. Each of the people consumes in every year, one quarter of wheat, being the produce of half an acre; three bushels of harley in beer, being the growth of the cighth of an acre; one sheep, one ciglich of an ox, one-third of a lami call, nod pris, being the product, of two ACTES and in vegetables and fruits, the produce of the eiglath of an acres
Obs. - Heuce, every human inhabitantes the produce of threr acris i and the remainder of love what is co; silmed hy horesor engagri fortuilling, voaitt, helgen rows, and pleasure-Groundhi an arompirt in watero"!
(2. Of the thirty millions of wakivated land, nine millions are employed ii arhite farming i fifteen millions, in proging cattle ; une million and a haly in wood and hedge-runs ox4
million and a hall, in woads, water, and buildtiys; and one million, in hop-enclosures, gardens, and pleasure-grounds'; and the remaining Three millions lie in fallow.
Obs L2The seven millions of Waste conțist chiedly' o? commoos or heaths; and it is computed, that four millions of them are equal to any purpose of cultivation ; the other three, are in mountaina; or have no deptha. of vegetable soil.
63. The number of bullocks killed, annually, in England and Wales, is at least a million; of sheep, nine millions; and of lambs, calves, and pigs, nine millions ; besides thirty millions of poultry and game; and innumerable small birds and fishes. 6. The number of horses is nearly two millions ; of which a million and a half are employed in agriculture and commerce.
Obs.-It is calculated, that borses consume one-fifth of the entire produce of the land ; i.e. the produce of four acres per horse on the whole of the land, or two acres each, of that nine millions employed in raising corn.
* 64. On an average, each man, woman, and child, consumes ten ounces per day, of animal food, or 220 lbs, in the year; which, in animal food, is the annual produce of two acres of land.
It is found, however, that the same two acres, cultivated in Potatoes, would yield, on an average, upwards of ten tons per acre, or forty-four thousand pounds weight; and, consequently, afford' one hundred and twenty pounds of potatbes, per day, the year round!!!
65. If cultivated in wheat, the produce of the same two acres (which produce but 220 pounds of animal food), would produce 4,000 pounds