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lates, in any other

way, the rights of the owner, it is the duty of the usufructuary to give information of the same lo the

and if he fails to do it, he shall be answerable for all damages which may result to the owner, as he would be for injuries committed by himself.

ART. 586.-If the usufruct consists of only one head of cattle, which dies without any neglect on the pari

of the usufructuary, he is not bound to return another, or to pay the estimate value of the same.

ART. 587.- If a whole herd of caltle subject to the usufruct, dies owing to some accident or disease, without any neglect on the part of the usufructuary, he is bound only to return the owner the hides of such cattle, or the value of such hides.

If the whole herd does not die, the usufructuary is bound to make good the number of dead out of the new born cattle, is far as they go.

ART. 588.—The usufi'uctuary is not bound to return other slaves in the stead of such as died during his enjoyment, nor to pay their estimated value, unless they died through his fraud or neglect.

ART. 589.--At the expiration of the usufruct, the usufructuary has no right to claim any compensation for the improvements which he contends he has made , although the value of the thing may have been increased by such improvements.

The usufructuary is bound at the expiration of his usufruct, to abandon, without compensation, not only the buildings and other works which he may have construcled upon the property, whether they have or have not foundations in the soil, but all other moveable things which he may have attached to it permanently.

Nevertheless, he or his heirs may take away the looking-glasses, pictures, statues and other ornaments, which he may have placed there, and which are fastened by

plaister, lime or ciment, but under the obligation of reestablishing the premises in their former situation.

ART. 590.- The usufructuary may set off against the damages which have been caused to the property of which he has the usufruct, the improvements which he has been obliged to abandon to the owner, provided the latter be of the description of those which by law he was authorized to make.

ART. 591. – The undertaker or workman who has made, at the instance of the usufructuary, any building, work or improvement on the property, and who is unpaid at the expiration of the usufruct, preserves his privilege on the same, and can enforce it against the owner under the modifications prescribed in the following articles.

ART, 592.-If the works consisted in repairs, which the usufrucluary was bound to make, or in buildings which he was authorized by law to make, the owner shall be obliged to pay what remains due to the workman, leserving always his recourse against the vsufructuary or his heirs.

If, on the contrary, the works consisted of extraordinary repairs, which the owner was bound to make, he is obliged to pay the price to the workman, without any recourse against the usufructuary or his heirs.

ART. 593. - If the works performed. were not of the description of those which the usufrucluary was authorised by law to make, the owner may retain thein on paying the price of them to the workman, or he may oblige the usufructuary, or his heirs to remove them at their expense, and in that case the workman will have recourse only against the usufructuary and his heirs, for the payment of the price of his work.


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Of the Obligations of the Owner. · ART. 594.- The owner of the thing subject to the usufruct is bound to deliver it to the usufructuary, or to suffer him to take possession of the same.

ART. 595. - He must neither interrupt, nor in any way impede the usufructuary in the enjoyment of the usufruci, or in any manner impair his rights.

ART. 596. — He is not at liberty, either before or after the delivery of the thing, to make any alteration on the premises or things subject to the usufruct, whereby the condition of the usufructuary may become worse, although the estate itself may be bettered by them.

Hence he cannot raise an existing building, nor cause one to be erected in a place where there was none, unless it be with the consent of the usufructuary. He may still less cut down any trees of a wood, demolish a building, or make any other alteration to the injury of the usufructuary; and if he does, he shall be bound to make good the losses and damages which may

result. ART. 597. - The owner of an estate subject to the usufruct, cannot create any new servitude thereon, unless it be done in such a manner as to be no injury to the usufructuary.

ART. 598. - If the usufructuary cannot have the enjoyment, because of soine obstacle which the proprietor is bound to remove, the latter shall make good the losses and damages, which are sustained by the nonenjoyment, as if there be an eviction or any other disturbance against which the proprietor is bound to warrant, or if he refuses the usufructuary any necessary servitude, which he is bound to let hiin enjoy.

ART. 599. — The proprietor is not bound to rebuild Ol' repair that which happens to be demolished or damaged al the time that the usufruct is acquired, unless it

happened by his fraud, or unless he was obliged by the title of the usufruct to put the property in good order.

ART. 600. — The owner may mortgage, sell or alienate the thing subject to the usufruct, without the consent of the nsufructuary, but he is prohibited from doing it in such circumstances, and under such conditions as may be injurious to the enjoyment of the usufructuary.


How Usufruct expires. ART, 601.-The right of the usufruct expires at the death of the usufructuary.

ART. 602.-l'he legacy made to any one of the revenues of a property, is a kind of usufruct, which also ceases and becomes extinguished by the death of the legatee, if the contrary has not been expressly stipulated.

It is the same with all annual legacies as pensions of alimony and the like.

ART. 603.-If the title of the usufruct has limited the right to it to commence or determine at a certain time, or in the event of a certain condition, the right does not commence or determine, till the condition happens or the time elapses.

ART. 604.-If the usufructuary is charged to restore the usufruct to another person, his right to the usufruct expires, whenever the time for making such restitution ar


ART. 605.-The usufruct granted until a third person shall arrive at a certain age, lasts until that time, although the third person should die before the age fixedon.

ART. 606.-The usufruct left to a surviving wife, until her dowry be refunded, continues until the whole of it, capital and interest, is paid, unless the default of payment proceeds from her act.

If there be several heirs of the husband and one of

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them has paid what he owes of the dowry, the usufruct terminates for his portion.

ART. 607.—The usufruct which is granted to corporations, congregations or other companies, which are deemed perpetual, lasts only thirty years.

If these corporatious, congregations or other companies are suppressed, abolished or terminate in any other manner, the usufruct ceases and becomes united with the ownership.

ART. 608.-- The usufruct expires before the death of the usufructuary, by the loss, extinction or destruction of the thing subject to the usufruct.

Thus the usufruct, which is established upon a building, expires, if the building is destroyed by fire or any other accident, or if it falls down through the decay of years.

In this case the usufructuary would not even have the usufruct of the materials of the building, nor of the place in which il stood; for the usufruct is to be restrained to what is specified in the title. But if the usufruct be assigned upon an estate of which the building is a part, the usufructuary shall enjoy both the soiland the materials.

ART. 609.-If it happens that a part of the house be destroyed, and that another part of it remains, the usufruct will be preserved of that part of the house which remains, and of the place on which the part of the house which is destroyed, stood, for such place makes a part of the house, and is an accessory to the part of il that remains.

ART. 610.– The thing subject to the usufruct, is considered as lost, when it undergoes from accident, such a change in its form, that it can no longer be applied to . the use for which it was originally destined. Therefore the usufruct of a field or lot is extinguished, if one or the other be so covered with water by an inundation that is becomes changed into a pond or swamp. But the usufruct revives if the inundation ceases, and the waters,

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