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174 Universal Tontine....MS. of the late Mr. Flood. had, in vain, called him out to single ment of one filling per share to the agent, combat. Besides, if I mistake not, on the admission of each member; and there is not a little in those distinctions of thus corrected, the allowance to the rank, and those subdivisions of dominion agent, for his trouble in managing the which are established in Germany, that concern, will be three thousand two hun. tends to foment this irritability of ima- dred and twenty-tuo pounts. It must be gination and temper. The pride of birth observed, that this is exclusive of the exand rank ftill reigns there, in its full pence of preparing the articles, of advervigour, infests all the scenes of common tisements, and all other incidental charges; Jife, and continually disturbs the plea- which were paid out of the fines. fures of social intercourse. There are in By an overlight of your printer, the Germany, a very great multitude of following reference to some judicious obpoor nobility, who have nothing but the servations on the unprontable nature of pride and pretensions of high birth, the tontines, for a short term of years, was education, the manners, and the wants omitted. of gentlemen; and who are obliged to * General Introduction to the fifth edit: feek their fortune in the world, amid dif- of Dr. Price's Observations on Reverfionary ficulties with which it often happens Payments,” published in 1792. that their pride can ill brook, to contend. The intercourse too, among the inhabit

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazinea : ants of so many different principalities and states, is necessarily carried on with SIR, a punctiliousness and jealousy, which are

T ,

HE executor of the late Henry not so vigilantly exercised in the intercourse of persons who are, all alike, sub-luable papers, “ The History of the present jects of the fame great kingdom.

Mr: Píltos Administration," from its ccmIf I err not in my inference from mencement to that accomplished senator's these facts and considerations, Schiller decease; complete and ready for the press. and Goethe, and the German writers of The manufcript interspersed with charactaste and fancy in general, are, by it, in ters of the most distinguished ttatesmen a great measure vindicated from that in Great Britain, and containing matecharge of extravagance, which English

rials for two Svo volumes, was commitcritics have too haltily urged against ted to Mr. Edmund Malone, who underthem. What would be with us extra

took with avidity its immediate publica

tion. vagance, is with them but nature. Upwards of four years have Characters not very diffimilar to those of elapsed, fince that sacred deposit of his. Moor and Werter are not unfrequent in friend's fame was made by Sir Lawrence Germany. It is from the state of human Parsons. Through the channel of your fociety in that country, that the wild, valuable miscellany, I therefore alk terrific pathos and sublimity of the Ger- permission to inquire into the fate of a man works of genius, take their origin. production, that I conceive mult contriTo those facts and characters which I bute to the information, not less than the have above cited in explaining my opi. entertair mer.t; of all those who feel intenion, may be added, what the account of rested in the common cause of Great Brihis life by Tiflot furnishes,concerning the tain and Ireland. I remain, Sir, 'your late amiable Dr. Zimnmermann.

obedient servant,


Dullin, January, 1798.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIR,


HE insertion of the following cor OUR correspondent A. P. B. iš rection of the reinarks in

your Magazine for January, treats number, on the London and Middlesex the accounts ci toads having been found Universal Tontine, will be esteemed a alive in folid rocks and trunks of trees, favour, by yours, &c.

as fabulous; and compares them to the March 3, 1798.

J. J. G. vifonary tales of ghoits and spectres; The number of deaths and defaulters, grounding his disbelief principally upon which in the society's advertisement is the uncertainty of the evider.ce, which, printed 986, should be 586, but the re- he justly remarks, has never been given duction which this makes, in the sum I by the eye witneses thems lves, but have stated as the charge of management, through to many channels, that the oriwill be over balanced, by adding the pay- ginal propagator can feldom be traced


New Experiment on a Toad, by Mr. Smith. 175 out to prove his assertions. I am glad to tion; yet, what is rather extraordinary, have it in my power to add something all the time I kept it, I never once saw its towards establishing the truth of this un mouth open ; and it seemed as strong a accountable phenomenon; with the ad- few days before it died as at first; so that vantage of relating only what fell under I attribute its death rather to the fall, my own immediate observation.

than to confinement, or want of food. The I was led to make an experiment on a fides of the glass were so frequently ob. toad, by the perusal of one of Dr. Frank fcured by a dark moisture, that I could lin's clíays ; where he asserts (though scarcely discern the animal through them. only from report) that they will live for Your correspondent A. P. B. doubts, ages in solid rock; and also assures us of very naturally, that a creature furnished a fact equally astonishing, and out of the with lungs should exist when deprived of common course of nature: that flies, air; but what is here related, in my opicorked up in wine in the Welt-Indies, nion, is a proof to the contrary; as the &c. may frequently be restored to life in very finall quantity in the glass, at the England, by exposing them to the heat of time of closing it up, would be vitiated the sun's beams. This he tried himself, and unfit for respiration in a few minutes; and has established beyond any doubt. and I find no difficulty in admitting, that Sir, Franklin, on this occafion, expresses if this animal can (in direct contradiction himself rather romantically; he wishes to all the known laws of animated nature) he, and a few choice friends, could in the exist for fix months, deprived of air, food, fame manner be preserved in a calk of or water, it may, for any argument we Madeira, and revived at the end of a can produce to the contrary, turvive cen. century, to see how his dear country turies in similar circumstances ; nor Ainerica flourished.

should I be at all surprised, if it was found I was as doubtful as your correspond to live in vacuo for a considerable time; ent in refpe& to the toads; but did not an experiment, however, I have no inclia presume to dispute fuch high authority, nation to try. I rather think what I merely on account of the improbability have already done needs some apology, of the story, without assuring mylėlt by and shall add a few words in my own the more certain test of experiment, which justification, as it may appear, that in frequently, as in the present instance, baf- this experiment I have permitted curiosity fes our reasoning.

to get the better of humanity. I accordingly caught a large toad, I have read, with abhorrence, the cruel which I confined in a glass tumbler, com experiments of Fontana, and some others, vered at the top with a large piece of where thousands of harmless creatures, cork, closed with fealing wax, lo effec- under the pretext of being serviceable to fually, that no fresh air could be admit- mankind, were put to death, in the most ted, nor any thing, possibly escape. In locking and prolonged tortures : but in this state I left it in my room, and in a the present instance, I felt assured, that if few hours, returning, found the glass, the toad.could live one day without fresh (which I had corked too tight) broken, air, it mult exist by means we are unacand the animal escaped through the win- quainted with, and without pain or effort. dow, and fallen on to the pavement nearly. Indeed, had it suffered vifibly from a few fourteen feet, which must have hurt it, minutes confinement, which I naturally and very probably haftened its death. expected, I should certainly have libera

I coininitted it once more to a similar ted it, and pursued the trial no further; confinement, with more caution, and in but on the contrary, it seemed so perfectly this state actually kept it alive fix months. at ease, that I fully expected it would As I had no thoughts of publishing this have furvived me, and the present generacircumstance at that time, I did not make tion. I beg leave to subscribe mytelf, so many observations as I otherwise ihould Sir, your's moft respectfully, have done; but frequently remarked in

EGERTON SMITH. the tumbler small black substances, re- Navigation Shop, Pool-lane, sembling in shape little animals; and, as Liverpoal, Feb. 11, 1798, these alternately appeared and disappeared, the toad inust have swallowed them; fo that itis possible it poffefies the property

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazin, of the ruminating animals, in a much SIR, greater degree ; for the throat had a con Have lately heard of several instances, itant motion, as if ia the act of maftica in which the scurvy prevailed to a




Mode of Ventilating Ships, by Mr. Abernethy. great degree in ships, wherein the seamen direction through the fire, and open a had a considerable quantity of lime-juice little above it; or it may be made to and vegetables daily distributed to them. communicate with the chimney. In all these instances, the disease broke It would be more convenient if the fire out after a continuance of cold, rainy, was near the place where the tube rises and stormy weather ; which made it ne- through the deck; and, in Indiamen, I cessary to keep the ports fhut, obliged am told, that the fire is in the forecastle ; the feamen to remain much between but the experiment must equally succeed, decks, and allowed them no opportunity if the tube be made to defcend again till of drying their cloaths, I was, in con it is beneath the common fire-place. sequence of such information, led to en The effect that will result from this quire and think of the modes of ventila- contrivance, is obvious ; when the tube ting ships; and one occurred to me, which which passes through the fire, is heated, I cannot but believe would be very ef- the air will afcend with a force proporfectual, requiring no labour, and it tionable to its levity, and the ascending might be put in practice at an inconsider- column can only be fupplied from below, able expence.

consequently it must come from all those The principle of the plan which I pro- parts of the ship with which the main pofe, I find, by looking into the “ En- tube communicates. cyclopædia,” is not new; but I think the When the ports are open, the quantity mode of accomplishing it, which I pro- of air thus exhausted from the ship, will pose, could not have occurred, or it be supplied from all quarters; but if would have been carried into execution. they were all fhut, and the hatchways If Sir, you think well of the plan, you and other openings completely closed, the will oblige me, by procuring its infertion 'renewal of fresh air is made certain by in the Monthly Magazine, as, by this means of the tube which descends in the means, the public may be put in poffef- ftern. The main air tube, where it rises fion of it, and be enabled to judge of its above the deck in the stern, should, ! expediency.

think, have an horizontal one fitted to The plan which I offer is extremely it, which might be made to traverse, fo simple, it consists merely in cauling two that it could be turned to windward ; it tubes to descend from above the deck to might also expanıl at its extremity liks 'the bottom of a veslel, or as low as ven

the mouth of a trumpet ; and thus pertilation is required; and which should fectly freth air must enter, and the force communicate by smaller pipes (open at of the gale would tend to impel it into their extremities) with thiole places de. the yeffel. signed to be ventilated. There should When that part of the tube which be a contrivance for stopping these com- passes through the fire, is red hot, the municating pipes, 1o that ventilation draught which would be thus occasioned, may be occafionally preyented from tak- might, perhaps, be too great, and the ing place, or confined to any particular open pipes which communicate with the part of the vessel.

decks, might emit and imbibe the frelh'air One of the principal air tubes should in.fo direct a stream, that it might be descend as near to the stern of the vessel injurious to those persons within the curas convenient, and the other as near to the stem.

I therefore think it would be better, if Through that tube which is in the those smaller pipes which lead from the head, the foul air is to be extracted; and main tubes were made to run along the through that which is in the stern, the decks, and cominunicate with them by fresh air is to descend to the different numerous orifices. Two pipes opening decks and other apartments of the into the main exhausting tube, might be vefsel.

extended along the tops of the deck, in The extraction of the air is easily ef- the angle formed between the sides and fected, in the following manner: let a the cieling; and thus the air would be transverse tube be fitted to that which de- extracted equally from all parts, and in fcends in the head of the vessel ; it may a manner not likely to occafion injurious be sunk thin the level of deck, lo currents. division of the stream of as to cause no inequality of surface. Let air which enters from the stern, mighe it be continued till it comes beneath the also be made, if it were thought necessary. fire-place, then ascend in a perpendicular Thus, I imagine, a very complete, anit



Mr. Abernethy on Ventilation.....National Debt.

177 in no way injurious, ventilation may be ship. This objection is of no weight, in obtained the air in the vessel would be my estimation ; as the copper pipes may perfectly changed when the fire was be made of any required degree of strength, Itrong, without expence or trouble; and may be placed against the sides of the vefa gradual and falubrious alteration of it fel, and may even be incased in wood. I might, at all times, be made, by a very have neither leisure nor inclination to be little additional quantity of fuel. The obtruding this plan on the notice of those air tubes should confift of separate joints, to whom such schemes are usually preso that occasionally they might be taken fented ; but, Sir, if you think well of it, to pieces.

you will oblige me by laying it before I forbear to dwell upon particulars, as the public. I am, Sir, with much rethere are many circumstances in the con- fpect, your obedient servant, struction and management of a ship, with which I an unacquainted, which might St. Mildred's Court, March, 1798,

JOHN ABERNETHY require alterations in this plan, the prin. ciple and general design of which is all that I suppose myself capable of judg. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. ing.

The draft, I imagine, might be made SIR, fo confiderable, as even to allow of the

I Perfectly agree with your corresponda conveyance of heated air into the interior parts of the vessel, should it, under any the general sentiment of the injustice and circumstances, be thought expedient. impolicy of confiscating the property of

Another advantage, which, as it ap- the public creditor. But I can bý' no pears to me, might arise from this con means accord with all the sentiments contrivance, is, that of being able to dry the tained in his letter, or the arguments upon wet cloaths, by producing a current of air which he builds his conclusion. Adopta: through any allotted part of the ship. ing, as I have done, upon mature déliFor this purpose, the cloaths should be beration, the settled conviction, that every hung up in a close chamber, into which thing that relates to the morals and politwo pipes should be introduced, leading tical institutions of society, ought to be from each of the principal air tubes, and open to free and unreserved discussion; my their communications with every other mind could not but revolt, at finding every part of the vessel should be cut off, so that attempt at investigation on this subject the whole current of air, which the fire most dogmatically proscribed three difproduces, may be made to pass through tin&t times, in one short letter of a fingle this chamber

page. Had the Magazine which contains I have, Sir, already mentioned the this letter reached my retreat at an earlier circumstances that led me to think of period, I should have troubled you with this plan; which appears to me so obvi- my animadversions before: for I am ous and fimple, as to reflect no credit on deeply impressed with the magnitude of the proposer of it. As the subject is to the object; and whatever may be the foreign to my general pursuits, I may confidence of G. C. in legislative deci= probably judge erroneously respecting it; fions, I am convinced that the time is fast but whilft I retain my present sentiments, approaching, when no recognition of miI should feel myself culpable were I not nifters, no vote of parliament, can prevent in some way to make it public. In trans- the discussion he would prohibit. May port vessels, which are crowded with per- that discussion be neither tumultuary nor fons between decks, the enabling them, in' impassioned! May the public mind be all weathers, to breithe fresh air in such

properly prepared to weigh every circuma situation, is so important an object, as stance, and consider this important branch to vindicate me in this intrusion on your of our internal policy in all its relations time, and on the public, although the and consequences! May the crisis of descheme which I have laid before you, cision not precede the hour of mature deshould prove ineffectual.

liberation! If this should be the case, I I mentioned the plan to some gentlemen make no doubt that the people will be reconversant in nautical affairs ; but they lieved from the oppression of this national thought the tubes would be injured, or burthen, and the public creditor be input out of order, by the rough usage demnified as he ought. But let the fundwhich they would meet with on board a holder reft his claim upon a just founda

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Claims of the National Creditor considered. tion. Lot him not insist upon pledges he hypothesis of an universal pledge? Why, has never receivedy nor call, for the pay. truly, the reasoning is as fitile as the ment, upon those, who have neither conclusion is false. “ Since every man in alked, accepted, nor beep benefited by the kingdom,” says he, “by paying taxes, the loan. That the clergy universally, has guaranteed these ministerial loans, we the land-holders in general, and a large are all become partakers of the confeportion of the mercantile and manufac- quences, and partners in the afts.” Might turing interest, may be considered as par. it not with as much propriety be afferted, ties to the contract, cannot well, I think, that I become a partner in the act of highbe called in question. By their concur- way robbery, by delivering my money rence the funding system has been adopt- when the pistol is at my breast? Far bs ed; by them, in their own persons and it from me to be fo eager a candidate for the persons of their agents, has the debt a solitary cell in Cold Bath-fields, as to in question been contracted; and in the draw an actual parallel between taxation pursuit of their ambitious and rapacious and robbery on the highway: but the projects, has been accumulated the enor- comparison goes far enough to support mous burther under which we groan. my argument; and I concern myself no The revenues of the higher orders of the further. Taxation, it must be admitted, clergy, the salaries of placemen, the per- is not the voluntary act of the party quifites of office, the rent-roll of the taxed ; and I dare say I am not fingular free-holder and the profits of the merchant when I declare, that I would never have and the banker, all have been extended by paid a single fixpence towards the interest this compact with the capitalist---this of a debt, contracted without my consent, wholesale plundering of posterity. No- if I had not known that the laws and the thing, therefore, can be more atrocious, magistrates would compel me fo to do. It than for men of these descriptions to is not what we have suffered, but what we contemplate “ the open robbery of those have gained, that mult involve us, by im. public creditors," with whole capitals plication, in a contract to which we never they have so long been sporting. And assented ; and if the public creditor canyet from these classes (with exception to not prove, at least, a profitable and vothe two last, who are themselves too luntary connivance, the unrepresented deeply interested,) assisted perhaps by a. claffes have assuredly a right to refer few uncalculating enthusiasts, is the at- him, for indemnity, to the contracting tempt to be chiefly apprehended. Thus parties. Upon these, indeed, his claim far, your correspondent G. C. and my- is folid and indubitable. These are the self do not appear materially to differ. real debtors; and, if the power of recoBut I can by no means assent to the in- very is not withheld from these, the cro. discriminating proposition, that, “ the ditor will have a right to prosecute his fund-holder has a right to look for his ca- client; and “ if not to the last shilling," pital to the whole capital of the nation; at least to such a compromise as may di. its lands, its thipping, its foreign terri- vide the lofs, resulting from their inorditories, its buildings, its trade, its manu- 'nate fpeculations, equally and equitably factures, in a word, whatever constitutes between them. its wealth," (including, of course, the This is, in brief, my opinion, as to the industry and ingenuity of its inhabi- justice and morality of the case. I am tants.) These, I say, are not all included far, however, from considering the proin the pledge; for the description em- perty of the fund-holder as out of danger. braces immense bodies of people who My sentiments, in this respect, at present, have never been benefited by the contract, I believe, are far from being popular nor, by themselves or their agents, have with any party; and under the induence joined in the pretended fecurity į but of what circumstances the question may who, convinced in the language of your be hurried to an irrevocable decifion, it correspondent) that this “ Thameful mass is impossible at this time to foresee. A of debt was contracted to accomplish the people groaning under leven and twenty most shameful purposes," would long inillions of annual taxes, may become reSince have embraced the opportunity, if gardlefs of every thing but their own it had ever been offered, of checking the emancipation ; and, considering the career of this hateful fyftem of anticipa- thortest road as the best, may hut their tion, that beggared their posterity to en ears, in their turns, to the voice of reafun flave themselves. But upon what found and the pleadings of compassion; and dedation does G.C.attempt to establish his vote, by one rash act, fixty thousand fa


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