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made her observations from nongovernmental forum. I knew Pauline Frederick way back in the days of the U.N. You are a graduate of American University, are you not?
Miss FREDERICK. That is right.
We are very glad to have all of you and we will start off with Mr. Fuller.
Senator Percy, you have a comment.
Senator PERCY. I just wanted to join with you, Mr. Chairman in welcoming four very distinguished and knowledgeable witnesses who have illuminated American life, each in his or her own field, and have made important contributions to American society.
I think it very appropriate for Mr. Buckminster Fuller to start off the hearing this morning. His thought processes are as wide as the world at 80 years young, and he still thinks new thoughts and is uninhibited by tradition. Dr. Fuller I believe you are here partly by courtesy of Southern Illinois University also.
We certainly welcome all of you.
Mr. Fuller, we are very glad to hear from you. We have your paper that will be printed in full in the record. You may deliver as much of it as you see fit.
[Mr. R. Buckminster Fuller's prepared statement follows:]
PREPARED STATEMENT OF R. BUCKMINSTER FULLER
PREPARING FOR A SMALL ONE TOWN WORLD
In my lifetime of 80 years I have seen a great deal of change. I grew up in an era when 99% of humanity travelled only very locally on foot, horse, and bicycle and averaged 1100 miles per year of local linear motion plus 300 miles per year of riding on horses or in vehicles.
Figure 1. shows the pre-airplane and radio world with 88% of humanity consisting of Asia's 52%, Europe's 26%, Africa's 10% all very remote from the Americans' 12%. Seventy years ago, it took three months to get to India. My last trip to India, 1974, was quicker than either my first trip from Boston to New York as a child, or my first trip after World War I from New York City to Chicago on the then blue ribbon New York Central Railway's "Twentieth Century Limited". Now I reach India by telephone in a couple of minutes. I find present world affairs inherently integrated despite the hindering persistence of the 150 national sovereignties as our conditioned reflex heritage from all of the previous milleniums of inherent separation of interests. In 1961, three jet planes out-performed the Queen Mary in one third the time for one half the price. The oceans became obsolete as a means of getting humans from here to there. The era of water surface travel stopped without people realizing what had happened. We have been hurled by evolution into a one small world town within which average humans are travelling 11,000 miles annually ... ten times their coverage of pre-World War I and many millions of worldians such as I cover 150,000 miles per year, and astronauts travel 3,000,000 miles per year.
The standard Mercator projection (Figure 2) was developed for the world oriented to the ocean communication. All the transoceanic nations were connected only by ship. The "Roaring South Forties" latitudes Antarctic winds and waters' west-to-east whirl-around, swiftly interconnecting the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans south of Good Hope, the Horn, and New Zealand's South Island, and the ocean's trade winds altogether formed a pattern of most advantageous voyaging of which the world around trading ships took advantage. The masters of the seas were those who controlled the Antarctic interocean whirl-around by maintaining naval bases at the Southern tips of Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and South America, near to which bases all ships had to pass to get from ocean to ocean unseen and unnoticed to the 90% of humanity living in the Northern Hemisphere. The masters of those Antarctic Ocean integrated shipping lanes controlled the wealth making of our Earth. The Mercator projection was appropriate enough when people sailed around Earth's middle latitudes which it distorts the least, but it is obsolete in air-borne world traffic considerations. The Mercator ignores the poles and distorts the polar regions, showing Greenland three times bigger than Australia.
My Dymaxion map (Figure 3) with the South Pole as its center presents an unfamiliar but most realistic picture of the British Empire's strategic mastery of World One-the pre-airplane and radio Earth. It shows Australia as the continent it is, four times as big as Greeland. With the Dymaxion projection you can see the whole world at once, with no visible distortion of the relative shape or size of any of the parts. If you show 100% of any data against this background, it will read properly, for my map's area and shape proportionality is uniform.
If you rearrange the pieces of the Dymaxion map (Figure 4) with the North Pole at the center, you will see World Two, a one world island. That is the map of our present era. 85% of all the land in the world is north of the equator. Less than 10% of humanity lives south of the equator. 90% of humanity can reach each other via the shortest great circle air routes over the Pole without going near the Atlantic, Pacific, or Indian oceans. The old east/west, north/south separations, with each nation looking out for itself, are no longer valid. The fragmentation of the world into nations that was logical yesterday, when men were inherently divided by time and space, is no longer valid nor socio-economics ally tenable.
We have utter intimacy of communication, and willynilly, we have complete integration of the interests of all humanity.
I no longer think of underdeveloped and small nations that need help, and big rich ones that must help them. I see all mankind being integrated into one world pattern despite the still operative sovereign nationalities which in fact are functionally extinct, and their continued presence is the world's number one pollutant. Both the world's political powers and monetary powers have had to go supranational. They leave only the individual humans passport control trapped in 150 national border controlled pens, subject to conscription, taxation, and the social cancer of non-thinking bureaucracy. The mobile young are beginning to live all around the world. As a half century's visiting professor at 420 universities around the world, I find that the natural tendency of students is to regard themselves as world citizens, which is what they are and want to be recognized as. Students from New Guinea and from Africa who go to Europe and America for training, want naturally to go back to their villages to help their people, but they are beginning to find that the village and the family at home want to become part of the greater world too. No doubt there will be a very long period of transition, but there has to be complete accommodation of the new way in which humanity is beginning to think and to live. Economic Revolutions
I was born in a society where 90% of the people had to live on farms to grow their own food. I was a grown man when we learned ways of getting the food into cans, and refrigerated transport to reach people anywhere. After World War I we learned to handle great farms mechanically, almost without human labor. But we have not changed our economic accounting systems which are all based on a seasonal agrarian economy, even though the year no longer has anything to do with the industrial cycle. An industrial generation in 22 years brought about the rate at which the average bulk of all metals are melted out of old uses to be formed into the new. Every time they are recycled the interim 22 year gain in technological know-how has increased so greatly that on an average the same tons of metal serve four times as many humans with vastly improved performance. This brought about an incredible transition, all unexpected by humanity between 1900 and 1975 whereby 52% of humanity is now enjoying a standard of living superior to that of any monarch of 1900 as their life expectancy also doubled within that time. The tasks to be done in our industrial economies may run into thirty, forty, or fifty year cycles. Both business leaders and politicians have to make either monetary or popularity "profits" within three years or they lose their jobs. People don't comprehend or tolerate undertaking of something that is going to take forty or fifty years to develop. The kind of permanent buildings we have were logical if humans stayed put on the land. but they are not doing so. Most of the 90% of humanity which before World War I was on the farm has come temporarily into the cities, hoping for employment and the good life. The cities were not designed to take care of them. Populations are continuing to shift only expediently from country to city, and city to mega-city with landlords reaping harvests of dollars at ever-escalating prices out of the entrapped population. Cities in the Twentieth Century
Men came to cities in the past because there were harbors and warehouses, and that was the place to find jobs, but the jobs have deployed out from the cities, as far as physical production and retail commerce goes. Big cities, instead of being warehouses and centers for the exchange of physical goods, are developing into metaphysical exchanges. For example, New York City's ocean docks are empty as are the surrounding railroad freight yards. Obsolete except as a convention and amusement city, New York is being taken over by the great universities, the United Nations, and the like, for the interchange of ideas, or by wealth value exchanges like the banks and stock exchanges that deal in paper abstractions, bonds, stocks, money, and credit. The big cities are processing the metaphysical, and the physical is increasingly processed outside the cities. The Greatest Revolution
We are entered upon the greatest revolution in the history of humanity : either it is going to be a bloody revolution of trying vindictively to pull the top down in which everybody loses or a technological design science revolution in which all humanity is elevated to higher standards of living than any have ever heretofore experienced.
It is not a matter of who is going to make the most money or political kudos, but how to make humanity a success. That is the challenge. There can be no compromise. We now know enough about how to make our world work to provide all humanity with the option of total and sustainable physical success.
If we are going to be able to take care of humanity, we must find out how most economically and satisfactorily to control our environment. The land building arts are 5000 years behind the ship building and aerospace ship design and production technology. What equipment do we need to do it? Humanity must achieve the success it was designed to be. But we are at the point where there could be a stillbirth. Nothing is so critical as birth, and whether the world survives birth into an entirely new world and universe relationship depends on our individual integrity, not on that of political representatives. We have enough technological know-how at our disposal to give everyone a decent life, and release humanity to do what it is supposed to be doing—that is, using our minds, accomplishing extraordinary things, not just coping with survival. You and I are given hunger so that we will be sure to take on fuel and regenerate our bodies; we are given a drive to procreate so that mankind will be regenerated; we are given brains with which to apprehend and recallably store information. We are also given minds with which to discover metaphysical principles. The function of mankind is to think, to discover and use principles. We are here to serve as local universe information harvesters and as local universe problem solvers employing human mind's unique access through science to some of the generalized principles governing eternally regenerative universe. We are going to have to exercise this responsibility within decades or perish.
Persons per square mile
square kilometer unpopulated
unpopulated less than 3
less than 1 3 to 25
1 to 10
10 to 50
50 to 100
more than 100 Urbanized areas of more than 1,000,000