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readers find equal to the excitement of a stirring romance.

As to Stefansson's personality and methods of work, we cannot do better than quote at some length from the Foreword contributed to the book by Dr. Gilbert Grosvenor, the President of the National Geographic Society:

Stefansson is perhaps the last of the old school, the old régime of Arctic and Antarctic explorers, the worker with the dog and the sledge, among whom he easily holds a place in the first rank. Coming Polar explorers, both north and south, are quite likely to use mechanical means which have sprung into existence within the last few years. According to my own personal impressionsaerial flights; according to Stefansson, he would like to try his chances with a submarine; but whether it be aeroplane or submarine, it will mean the end of the old-time method, with the dog and the sledge and man trudging alongside or behind them.

What Stefansson stands for is this: he has grasped the meaning of polar work and has pursued his task in the

ESSAYS AND CRITICISM TRIUMPH OF THE EGG (THE). A Book of Impressions from American Life in Tales and Poems. By Sherwood Anderson. Illustrated. B. W. Huebsch, Inc., New York. $2. Mr. Anderson has been the recipient of a special prize for American writers


BOOKS FOR YOUNG FOLKS GRAY WOLF STORIES. Indian Mystery Tales of Coyote Animals and Men. By Bernard Sexton. Illustrated. The Macmillan Company, New York. $1.75.

Mr. Sexton as "Gray Wolf" has told many of these Indian myth and mystery stories to boys and girls. In this volume they admirably maintain their ability to interest and amuse. The adventures of Owl Man and Coyote (who lived with Ten Grizzlies) and of Wolf, Boy, Turtle, and the rest are surprising and exciting. They are based on actual Indian originals. Mr. Waugh's drawings and decorations are capital.

Arctic regions section by section. He has profited by experience piled upon experience until he knows how to face and overcome every problem of the North. His method of work is to take the white man's brains and intelligence and the white man's persistence and will power into the Arctic and supplement these forces with the woodcraft, or, I should say. polar-craft, of the Eskimo--the ability to live off the land itself, the ability to use every one of the few possibilities of those frozen regionsand concentrate on his work.

Stefansson has not only fought and overcome those ever-present contingencies of the Arctic region-cold and hunger, wet and starvation, and all that goes with them-but he has fought and overcome sickness-first, typhoid, then pneumonia, and then pleurisy-up in those forbidding regions, and then has been obliged to go by sled four hundred miles before finding the shelter of a hospital and the care of a physician.

"The Friendly Arctic" is certainly a valuable addition to the literature of Arctic exploration.


of fiction. This oddly named book is a collection of odds and ends in verse and prose. They may be classed as often agreeable and sometimes rather startling, but of no very large importance.

BIOGRAPHY MOLTKE. By Lieut.-Colonel F. E. Whitton. Illustrated. Henry Holt & Co., New York. $3.50.

In the eighties American students at Berlin had the privilege of seeing Moltke at the Singakademie chamber concerts; the venerable Field Marshal was devoted to this highest class of music. So in the summers of those years American sojourners at Ragaz had the privilege of seeing and talking with him; he loved the Swiss scenery of the upper Rhine. Those Americans will be disappointed in reading Colonel Whitton's volume, now published in this country. not to find in it more of the

personal touch. But as a survey of history during the ninety-one years of Moltke's life it has merit. During those years German nationalism was recreated and the modern German state was made. Despite all that Germany has done in bringing on the World War, the study of the making of that nationalism and of that state is still interesting.

HISTORY AND POLITICAL ECONOMY GREAT DECEPTION (THE). By Samuel Colcord. Boni & Liveright, New York. $1.50. The author assumes that a very large number of Americans regard the recent Presidential election as a condemnation of any attempt to secure united action with other nations for the saving of civilization and the preservation of world peace. This is "the great deception." The author gives no evidence that there is or has been any such widespread interpretation of the election, and we think the welcome extended throughout the United States to the proceedings of the Washington Conference quite conclusively demonstrates that such misinterpretation does not exist. If any of our readers have so misinterpreted the election, we advise them to read this volume, which shows quite conclusively that a number of the most influential of Republican leaders would have gladly voted for the Versailles League if President Wilson could have been persuaded to accept the Senate reservations.


NEW WORLD (THE). Problems in Political Geography By Isaiah Bowman, Ph.D. Illustrated. The World Book Company, Yonkers, New York. $6.

This is a book of facts, compactly and thoroughly arranged. It would serve admirably as a text-book. But it is also a work for the general reader, so graphically told are the problems confronting the old as well as the new nations of the world; indeed, the text-book becomes a collection of short stories dealing with the drama of existence and national struggles. Not a line seems to have been wasted in the description; not a line, for that matter, could have been spared if the vast field was to be covered within the limits of a single volume. The reader is conscious of a systematic analysis which strips from the story everything save fundamental considerations. Yet care has been taken to omit no factor-economic, historic, political, racial, religious. Each issue is presented with impartial statements of arguments pro and con. The author's occasional comment is peculiarly and searchingly illuminative.


DEVELOPMENT OF EMBROIDERY IN AMERICA (THE). By Candace Wheeler. Illustrated. Harper & Brothers, New York. $5. Mrs. Wheeler is a recognized authority on decorative art. She tells here the history of needlecraft in America from the quill work of the Indians to the finest designs of this day. The narrative is simple and enjoyable and is without excess of technical language. The illustration is full and will delight feminine eyes.

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OPULAR opinion in relation to industry is strongly influenced by the military tradition. We speak of our industrial leaders as captains. We see the manager in popular magazines, a strong-jawed person of commanding appearance, sitting erect behind his flat-topped desk at headquarters. At his side is the telephone for transmission of orders and reports. Before him, cap in hand and with bowed head, at industrial attention, stands an employee, awaiting the captain's commands.

It is true that this picture is being falsified by the progress of the modern industrial movement, which gives the employees representation in the councils of management; but critics of the new movement still hark back to the military tradition, and ask if any army could be led by a committee. As if an industrial process like the making of steel or the weaving of cloth were a summer's campaign, and as if getting out a car-load of lumber were a charge across No Man's Land.

The popular picture of the captain of industry may have been true twenty-five years ago, but it is not true now. Instead of sitting erect and issuing confident orders by telephone or messenger, the manager frequently sits back in his chair with a look of worried perplexity in his face as he ponders questions difficult to answer. Shall he sell his product at prices away below cost or hold it in the hope that the market may soon recover? Shall he run his operation at a loss, or shut it down and let taxes, insurance, and salaries of permanent employees eat up his resources? Shall he try to hold together his organization and maintain his trade connection by forcing a market, or shall he nail up doors and windows and confess himself,

for a time at least, beaten?

Faced with these difficult choices, most operators have run along from day to day doing the best they could to hold their losses within tolerable limits. Some, working in specially favorable situations, have made a profit. The best of them have worried by day and by night over the increasingly difficult industrial situation.

Frequently also the manager has taken counsel with others who are in

terested with him in the industry. Sometimes these have pushed into his office, and sometimes he has invited them in. They have occupied chairs before his desk while he has leaned forward to meet their challenge and to answer their questions.

First have come the stockholders. Their expected dividends have failed. Some of them are in real need. All of them desire regular and sizable returns from their investments. (I talked with one recently who had had only one small dividend in ten years.) When these returns fail, the investors are apt to be inquisitive, suspicious, and even vindictive. They are only partly in

formed concerning local conditions. They may, against the manager's best judgment, demand radical changes in policy.

To the manager in our Northwest lumber industry, with its eight-hour day and its relatively high wage standards, have come stockholders from the Middle West and the South saying: "With the selling price of your product cut in half and the demand for it greatly reduced, why do you not spread your overhead expenses over a ten-hour daily production? Why do you not hire men at the lowest market rate?" Some managers have, I know, been strongly advised by their directors to take this course, and a few have yielded. Others, more mindful of the future good of the industry and of the Nation, have said, "If that policy is to be followed, you must choose some other manager." Generally the stockholders, having asked their questions and expressed their opinions, have said to the manager: "You are on the job and know the men you have to work with. We leave the responsibility here, but we think you are following a mistaken policy."

Second have come the employees. These make up the manager's organization. Many of them have been with him for years. Most have been loyal and faithful workers. They have lately taken reductions in wages and suffered through periods of shutdown. The old confidence in the management and pride in the operation have largely gone from their faces, and, instead, the manager has seen fear, discontent, and suspicion. "Are we not to have enough wages," they have asked, "to maintain our families in decency? We have played square with you. How are you playing with us? Are you taking advantage of our necessity to strengthen your power and increase your profits?" These men must be answered. It will do no good to discharge them. Sooner or later their places must be filled with others like them, only less interested in the operation and harder to deal with; for in these days discontent and suspicion among workingmen are very widespread.

One manager I know has met his men in frequent conference, explaining to them the difficulties of the market and discussing with them ways of cutting down production costs. In his mill a committee of employees has been at work week by week studying the situation and preparing suggestions for the increased efficiency of the plant and of the working force.

Another manager faced a serious loss last spring in his operation and proposed to reduce wages. The men objected, on the ground that they were already living on a narrow margin. The manager called them together and opened his accounts to them, showing them that he could not keep the mill running unless he could reduce the cost of operation. He asked them to talk the question over among themselves and

propose their own answer. In a few days their committee came to him with a proposal that their pay should be cut a dollar a day all around. The manager's estimate of the necessary reduction was a dollar and fifteen cents, but he accepted their figure, and the operation went forward on a basis of mutual understanding and confidence.

The third group to face the manager has represented the local citizens. It has included business and professional men whose fortunes are bound up with the community. Some of these men have belonged to the same club, lodge, and chamber of commerce with the manager. They have been thinking of their families and of the business and community enterprises to which they are committed. They have asked: "How are bills to be paid, how is the community life to be maintained, if your industry shuts down or pays starvation wages? Stores, churches, schools, the paving of streets and the building of homes are all at stake here. Are you playing fair with us or are you only concerned to save your own gains?" Under this kind of pressure managers have consented to continue operating at heavy loss. The will of the community has prevailed to maintain decent family

support and to preserve some degree of fire-tending in each separate building.

unity and courage among its members.


Behind this group the manager has seen in his mind's eye a larger public waking up to a realization of their interest in all basic industries and their Once equity in all natural resources. this public might be "damned" with impunity, but those old days of managerial irresponsibility are gone. Now the public asks questions and has ways of forcing an answer. Principally it asks, "How important is your service to us, and are you asking a fair price for it?" If not satisfied on these points, the public may stubbornly or clamorously demand "to be shown."

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To all these questions the manager has been tempted to say that his business is to produce, not to talk; that he is doing his best and has no apologies or explanations to offer. But without the understanding and support of the stockholders, the employees, and the public he cannot keep on producing. Their questions are part of his job. Ultimately he will have to talk things over fully and frankly with them and win their confidence and good will. With respect to the first group he has probably recognized this necessity. With regard to the second and third he is beginning to do so. to

be sure, one still finds a manager who system, for individual buildings.

thinks that workingmen may be held to efficient production by fear of hunger or by the speed of machines, but the facts of modern industry are showing against this opinion. We have had authentic and impressive reports recently of production lowered far below normal by discontent among the crew. We have also, it should be said, had equally impressive reports of increase up to twenty per cent above normal where the manager has kept his men continually informed, confident, and co-operative. In

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The Absurd

OUT Far Spread Deception that the people in

his promises, is, in the opinion of many statesmen, the gravest obstacle in the way of our entry into some continuing society of nations for the preservation of peace. The nation now united in applauding the fine achievements of the Washington Confer ence is eagerly waiting to support that next consistent and necessary move. They trust and would not hurry the President who is meeting expectation. Confident that in his own wise way he will fulfill the promise he made in every day of his campaign, to lead us into an association of nations or into the League "amended or revised, if it is so entwined in the peace of Europe that its good must be preserved," they wait to show a united and enthusiastic nation behind him when in his own good time he takes the step.

For a complete exposure of the absurd deception or misinterpretation of the people's mandate, read



the book which by a masterly marshalling of irresistible facts completely annihilates that dangerous misconception.

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Some managers set themselves against this trend toward opening the industry to the workers and the public, fearing the loss of their leadership. These managers face their questioners with folded arms and unexpressive eyes; yet these questioners are, with few exceptions, not enemies but friends. They are willing that large powers of leadership should remain with the managers.

They say, not, "Give way to us," but

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these days a working crew cannot long be forced to efficient labor by fear of unemployment. One discontented man may be driven or discharged, but not a hundred. On the other hand, men may now, as always, be led. They respond readily to open and fair treatment. The wonder is that some managers should choose to follow a crooked and secretive policy in relation to their employees, when successful industrial leaders the country over are proving the value in dollars and cents, as well as in good digestion and sound sleep, of open discussion and straightforward dealing with their employees.

Suspicion and secret hostility have brought an intolerable burden upon industry. A widespread system of esIpionage undermines confidence by systematically mingling falsehood with facts. American industry pays millions of dollars yearly to untrustworthy, trouble-making industrial spies, while the way of conference is open at the mere cost of frank speech, the keeping of faith, and a decent recognition of the common manhood and of the common interests of employers and employees.

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