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entire or in sections are troublesome, and apt to injure the edges of the maps; sliding doors prove awkward and inclined to stick; while even the blind doors, made like the sliding tops of office desks, and wound around a roller worked with a spring, have been tried at the Hydrographic Office without much success. The roller and its machinery occupy space at the top which could be utilized for shelves, and, like the ordinary self-rolling window-shade, it is continually getting out of order. For myself, I prefer cases without fronts, believing that in rooms of moderate size, with bare floors, they will not need mechanical contrivances for protection. Possibly it would be well to place sheets of heavy wrapping paper on top of each pile to catch the dust.
Thus far I have not spoken of portfolios. These, if used, should have cloth flaps to fold over the edges of the maps; are to be treated as atlases and kept on shelves; and when large require horizontal rolls for supports, with perpendicular roller partitions. Their expense is too great to permit many librarians indulging in them extensively. However, a few can be used most advantageously where certain collec- | tions are much handled, and are, of necessity, carried from room to room.
And now we approach the one illuminated point in the murky atmosphere of perplexities surrounding the harassed map librarian-the cataloging.
The same general catalog rules that apply to books apply equally to maps, the following being the essentials to be noted: locality; title; date; scale; projection; author; if compiled, the authorities; if great accuracy is desired, the engraver; and if a reproduction, the particular character of the process. The size of the neat line and the geographical limits of the sheet, in latitude and longitude, should always be given, for these will determine oftener than any other items whether a sheet must be consulted.
ity of authorities, where maps of exploration are concerned; or the approximate date of maps around cities, where resurveys are frequent; or any other class of information especially needed by the librarian. In this one respect maps hold an advantage over and above all other treasures of the library.
Series of maps, like those of the British Admiralty, should be kept together, and their own serial numbers used in finding them. Such series have their own catalogs, which are as complete as can be made. When a series of maps, like the 16-sheet map of Switzerland, constitute the entire map of a country, they can be bound and used as an atlas, thereby lessening the possibility of losing any of the sheets. Of course there still remain such disadvantages as the awkwardness of handling, etc., which may overweigh any advantages gained by this form. These details each librarian must decide for himself.
Taking it altogether, however, the work of the map librarian is far from drawing to a close. More is known of the world, and although that information has been better charted in the 19th than in any preceding century, it will be long before the task is completed. African maps and the polar regions also give us examples which illustrate our ignorance of even the physical features of our globe. New islands are constantly being raised to view, while the coasts of the continents are crumbling away. All these changes are of the utmost importance to the navigator-as to many others. As long as the forces of nature war with each other, or man seeks to subjugate man, the maps will bear record of the results. Even an eternal peace, while it might prevent the boundaries of nations from changing — were purchase not resorted to for that purpose—would only vary the character of the new data appearing upon the maps; for new cities, railroads, canals, and other innovations would multiply in
Maps can, however, be most effectively cata-proportion as calm and prosperity reigned upon loged by the use of key charts, which, on a single map of large scale, show at once all a library possesses relative to any given locality. And the fact that it has nothing can be ascertained with a much smaller expenditure of time and patience than is required to read many cards about which the seeker cares nothing. By introducing schemes of color and similar devices in the limits of maps, as shown upon the "key," a great deal of information may be graphically imparted, as, for example, national
American librarians should, of all others, show a zealous interest in collecting carefully all existing maps of their own country; for the rapid settling and development still in progress render many maps antiquated and comparatively inaccurate as to cadastral features often before they are ready for issue. Nowhere can history be more readily seen or so quickly apprehended as in a comparison of maps of one locality made at short intervals,
THE TRAINING OF LIBRARY EMPLOYES.-I.
Is it preferable to make appointments
Other than the above, neither the LIBRARY JOURNAL nor the files of library reports have Whitney, Jas. L. Selecting and training li- yielded any information whatever on the subject brary assistants. L. J., 7: 136-9. 1882. of training library employes. And yet there is seldom a day, never a week, whose mail does not bring to the library conducting a training class a query from some perplexed librarian or trustee soliciting aid in the matter of employes.
The usual form of such queries, alluding to the training classes in my own experience: "How can we start such classes? How much room do we need? How do you arrange for instructors? etc.," clearly proves that the modus operandi has been thoroughly misunderstood.
So perhaps the first illusion to be dispelled is as to the nature of training classes.
Plainly, they are nothing more or less than the old-fashioned apprentice system, with a competitive examination before admission, and another when the required term of apprenticeship has been completed. The relative standard obtained by the pupil in the second examination determines the pupil's chance for employment.
Such classes have not for their object the giving of general instruction, therefore it should be required of all candidates that they have at least a high-school education, show a serious inclination for the work, and are physically able to cope with it.
The reader will observe that the earliest American recorded mention of the matter of training library assistants is met with in the LIBRARY JOURNAL of 1882 (v. 7: 136-9), one year after the L. A. U. K. Committee of Examinations had been formed.
Mr. Whitney, then speaking for the Hon. Mellen Chamberlain, said: “We are determined to admit to our ranks only such as are worthy to become members of the highest professions, realizing as we do that there are few positions where the difference between an educated and an uneducated assistant is so marked as in a library, and where poor work is so fatal... it has been suggested that classes be formed for instruction, and that lessons and lectures be given by the librarian and others in the various branches of knowledge."
Mr. Vinton at that time, 1882, believed cataloging to be the king-pin of the library system, and after descanting upon the acquirements and requirements of catalogers, he says: "He who has done these things well, and who readily remembers what he has done, is the fittest man to assist inquirers after knowledge.
"This is the service of highest usefulness in a library. The public cannot [italics not mine] be admitted to the alcoves. In a great collection, the cataloger and arranger of a section is the proper intermediary between the public and the shelves.
"It cannot be expected that one person can render this service in respect to many large departments. Specialists must be thoroughly
| trained and kept in place as long as possible. They only will be likely to comprehend the inquirer's special need, and perhaps to open his eyes on landscapes unseen before. Such officers | will be valued and admired by special students, and may be correspondingly happy from the
Carr and Cutter both believe that the librarian should have the power to employ assistants, subject to the approval of the board, and that the board should discharge them upon the recommendation of the librarian.
A library undertaking the organization of training classes should make it a rule to employ only graduates of its classes, in the order of their rank in the final examinations. Nor should pupils, no matter how many credits they may have received in the examination, be allowed to begin service in any but the lowest positions, thus permitting the older members to work up in regular order.
Whenever a vacancy occurs in the staff, the
attendant next in rank at the time should be ap❘ been the experience of one library at any rate, pointed to fill it, and so on down, and the pupil | that it could least afford to do without a trainat the time holding the highest number of ing class during its busiest seasons. credits should be appointed to the lowest position so left vacant.
In this way a civil service system could be grafted on an already established system with no inconvenience whatever.
In the matter of substitutes, all graduated pupils should be divided into groups according to their accredited standings, such groups to correspond with groups of the regular staff segregated according to value of positions, and a pupil should be allowed to substitute only for an attendant of her corresponding group, she together, however, they should prepare a clear outline of the scope of the course from beginning to end, before any further steps are taken.
Upon ratification of the above, either the librarian assumes charge of the class, or a capable assistant is detailed for the work. To
receive the pay of the person for whom she is substituting. (See Rules governing employes." Ann. rpt. Los Angeles P. L., 1894, p. 22.)
It will be seen that while the training class system is particularly adaptable to new and growing libraries, the age or stability of a library need not debar it from conducting classes. No library is secure from incursions of some kind upon its staff.
It may be urged by a sceptical trustee, "In a few words, just of what benefit would such a class be to our library?" to which it may be replied that such a class, aside from establishing a graded system of employment, would always place at the disposal of the librarian a trained number of persons in case of emergency; and, in case of a vacancy occurring, the library, by employing a graduate pupil, would not have to pay a salary to an unqualified person.
Again, the effect of such training classes upon the regular staff is one of constant alertness, and the many opportunities for supervision and explanation give to every regular attendant a continued interest in and appreciation of her work.
Before formally organizing a class, the board should formulate definite rules for its government, the maximum number of pupils to be taken at one time, the required standard of pupils at entrance, the length of service, character of examinations, percentage required to pass, and finally rules governing the relation of the class to the regular staff.
The system may be successfully tried by a library of any size, no matter how small; in fact, in a certain library where the librarian was the only employe, the experiment proved a decided advantage to both library and pupil.
As to the compensation, it is mutual. The library imparts to the pupil a certain amount of experience marketable in other than the library profession, should the latter for some reason not be adhered to. In this way the pupil receives ample acknowledgment for her outlay of time. The library, on the other hand, during | the session of the class, receives the services of six or eight intelligent young women for a period varying from six to twelve months, and it has
The applications of all candidates should be in the handwriting of the candidate, giving at least name, address, place and date of birth ; educational advantages; what business experience, if any; knowledge of languages, if any; state of health; and references.
To these items may be added such as local boards may determine, and a blank form provided for candidates for this purpose will greatly facilitate future reference and ease in filing.
THE Denver Public Library has made interesting and successful use of library lists, leaflets, announcements, and similar "tracts," as a means of stimulating public interest in the library. A collection of these, recently received from that library, comprises lists of books, magazine articles, etc., on Memorial Day, Washington's Birthday, Arbor Day, and similar occasions; and lists on special subjects and questions of the day, each giving call numbers and serving as a check-list if desired. Most of these are sent to the local public schools, with friendly letters to the teachers, urging their usefulness and interest to the children. Various publishers' catalogs, such as the A. L. A. catalog issued by Houghton, Mifflin & Co., the " science lists" of Heath and the American Book Co., and similar good special lists, are also distributed among the teachers, with letters stating that the books listed are contained in the library and will be found useful in school work. Another of the "tracts" is an attractive little oblong folder, asking for old magazines or similar contributions. Of these, 5000 copies were sent through the teachers to the pupils of the various schools. The folders were made up in bunches of 50-about the number of pupils in each room and with each package was sent a letter to the teacher, asking her to put the circulars in the hands of her pupils. The result, while not adding greatly to the stock of the library, brought it some new readers and increased the general interest in its work.
THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY.
back of the proposed building, across the street,
and the Tilden Trust were filed in the office of the Secretary of State at Albany and with the County Clerk of New York-thus establishing the New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox, and Tilden foundations, as a corporate body.
On May 24 the articles of agreement consoli-rises the imposing slope of the main campus, dating the Astor Library, the Lenox Library; throw away is the present university library, with the university buildings proper. A stone'snow greatly crowded, and at some future period the Historical Society. The reading-room of to be given a shelter under the same roof with the new building will then be used in common under the society's direction, but otherwise the autonomy of each institution will be preserved.
The appropriation made by the legislature is each dollar of the assessed valuation of the a tax, for three years, of one-tenth of a mill on state. At the present valuation, this would amount to a total of $195,000; but as the speciis hoped that an increased valuation will bring fied three years do not commence until 1897, it the total up to $225,000. While the appropriation does not formally commence until 1897, the building commissioners are authorized to borfrom the state trust funds, so that operations can row in advance, at two per cent. per annum, be commenced early in 1896. A clause in the law allows the commissioners to secure plans for a much larger structure, estimated at $360,000, to house both the libraries; but with the present appropriation to complete only so much as is necessary for the proper housing of the Historical Society, which will probably be able to move into its new quarters three years hence. As for the university end of the building and the that at some subsequent session the legislature completion of the full plans, it is tacitly agreed will vote the rest of the money required. The space now occupied by the society in the capitol will, upon its moving out, be converted into committee and office rooms, which are sorely
Under the terms of the agreement, there are 21 trustees, seven from each of the consolidated corporations, in the new board. As there were 15 trustees of the Astor Library, II of the Lenox, and only five of the Tilden, it became necessary to increase the number of Tilden representatives and cut down the others. In order to keep as many of the former trustees in as possible, the Tilden trustees selected as their additional representation Samuel P. Avery, of the Lenox Library, and Philip Schuyler, of the Astor board. The other trustees of the new board are Dr. T: M. Markoe, Henry Drisler, J: L. Cadwalader, Bishop Potter, S. Van Rensselaer Cruger, Stephen H. Olin, and Edward King, of the Astor Library; Daniel Huntington, Frederick Sturges, Alexander Maitland, J: S. Kennedy, H. Van Rensselaer Kennedy, William Allen Butler, and G: L. Rives, of the Lenox Library; and John Bigelow, Andrew H. Green, G: W. Smith, Alexander E. Orr, and Lewis Cass Ledyard, of the
Tilden Trust Fund.
A fully attended meeting of the consolidated board of trustees was held on May 27, for purposes of organization. An executive committee and committees on finance and library books were appointed, and the following officers were elected: President, John Bigelow; first vicepresident, Bishop Potter; second vice president, J: S. Kennedy; treasurer, Edward King, and secretary, G: L. Rives. It is unlikely that definite action as to site, administration, etc., will
be taken before the autumn.
The Wisconsin Historical Society's library phlets. In 1853 it began business under Secrenow numbers about 180,000 books and pamtary Draper with 50 volumes, contained in a little glass-faced bookcase in the secretary of
THE STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF state's office. Then it moved to the basement of a neighboring church. In 1866 it was given what were then supposed to be ample quarters in the state-house, but by 1882 these were so crowded that the legislature ordered built a large wing to the capitol, and gave the society three-fourths of the space therein. Into these quarters it moved in 1885, but it was soon found that the wing, like the rest of the capitol, was shabbily constructed, structurally unsafe, and a mere fire-trap.
THE legislature of Wisconsin has recently provided for the erection on the "lower campus" of the State University of a library and museum building for the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. The site, a free gift from the university regents, in consideration of the removal to its immediate neighborhood of what has always been, though three-quarters of a mile distant, the chief literary laboratory of the faculty and students of that institution, is attractive in many ways. The land actually given is about 225 by 264 feet, bounded at sides and rear by three streets, and facing the rest of the "lower campus," a plot of ground owned by the university, and equal in area to two ordinary city blocks. This, with the library site, is now used for athletic purposes; but as a new athletic park, of some 50 acres, has been purchased for the students, the "lower campus" will be planted to grass and shrubs as a proper setting for the new library building, and, of course, will never be built upon; thus giving the building a beautiful frontage towards the city. Immediately |
When Secretary Thwaites took charge of the rapidly growing institution, in 1886, he at once commenced a systematic agitation for a separate, fire-proof, and modernly appointed library and museum building. A"campaign of education" was never more successful. The pressing need for a new home has been made known all over the state. The newspaper editors and citizens generally were one by one enlisted in the cause, and the society's annual reports made earnest appeals for the safe housing of the treasures accumulated for the people by this institution. During the biennial sessions of 1889, 1891, and 1893, bills were presented and vigorously pushed to secure this end, but each failed
of passage, although the measure of 1891 was approved by the senate. The measure of 1893 was the first to provide for a union under one roof with the state university library. Finally, the present generous bill was, after three months of warm discussion, passed in the closing hours of the recent session, and the new building of the Historical Society became an assured fact.
A commission of nine persons is provided for in the law-three from the Historical Society, three from the state university regents, and three to be appointed by the governor from the state at large. Tentative plans are already in existence, the work of President C: K. Adams, of the state university, who was active in the construction of the Ann Arbor and Cornell college libraries, and Secretary R. G. Thwaites, of the State Historical Society. These plans were used in the legislative campaign as object-lessons, but may be considerably modified in the
final deliberations of the commission after an
architect has been selected. Apparently the disposition is to restrict architectural competition to a few well-known firms, the object being to secure a library building which shall be a credit not only to Wisconsin, but to the entire country.
THE AUTOTYPE REPRODUCTION OF
DR. W. N. DU RIEU, of La Bibliothèque de l'Université, Leyden, has issued a circular stating the unsatisfactory results of his letter asking for the support and co-operation of the principal libraries of the world towards the proposed "Société Internationale pour la reproduction des mss. les plus précieux," which has already been summarized in these columns (L. J., 20: 87 88, March, 1895).
In the present circular he says: "It is with natural regret that I am obliged to acquaint you with the failure of my efforts. For lack of support it appears impossible at the present time establish an international association for the autotype reproduction of rare manuscripts. To 100 of my letters there has been no reply, and I have not thought it advisable to delay any longer before setting forth the state of affairs. Only 33 of the libraries addressed expressed their willingness to become subscribers for 10 years; among 25 others, hampered by their rules, by motives of economy, or by other reasons, several agreed to co-operate. We could have obtained 50 subscribers, but it would be impossible to secure 100, and I am therefore obliged to give up the task which, upon the invitation of several of my colleagues, I had imposed upon myself for love of science and in the interest of scholarship.
"The small number of subscriptions made it impossible to invite the directors of ten or twelve of the most famous European libraries to come to Leyden to decide upon the necessary details of organization. I was aware at once that the necessary expenses would preclude the annual reproduction of a manuscript of several hundred
pages, issued in a manner worthy of the society. 'We sincerely trust that this project may be taken up again in the future, and with more success. In the meantime something will have been won if the editors of heliographic or other reproductions-to whom we already owe many useful works will endeavor to join their interests with those of libraries possessing but limited resources."
ANOTHER LIBRARY GIFT FOR NEW
On May 23, following close upon President Low's gift of $1,000,000 for the library of Columbia College, announcement was made that the University of New York had received from a friend, who desired to remain anonymous, the gift of a central building for its new site on University Heights, above the Harlem River. The building will comprise the museum, library, commencement hall, and administration offices, and
its estimated cost will be about $250,000, though perhaps somewhat in excess of that sum. restrictions are attached to the benefaction, except that the giver's name shall be kept secret, and that the new edifice shall in beauty and cost fulfil its purpose and harmonize with its surroundings.
The building committee of the university has already a set of plans for the building, submitted by Stanford White, the advisory architect of the university, which will probably be adopted. Like the rest of the buildings, either already erected or the erection of which is contemplated, the new central building will be severely classical in its style of architecture, this being the rule adopted by Mr. White at the beginning to secure uniformity of design in the general plan. In view of the probable future before the New York University, it has been thought wise to provide that the new central building shall be so constructed that the parts devoted to the museum and the commencement hall shall be capable of conversion to library uses, giving space altotogether for 1,000,000 volumes. The new library will stand on an elevated site between the hall of languages, already erected, and the hall of philosophy, which is to be a fac-simile reproduction of the hall of languages. The space between these halls will be ample for the erection of a large building, covering over an acre; and the site will command a fine view of the battlefield of Fort Washington, the Hudson River, the Palisades, and the Harlem River. Since the site was selected, in 1892, seven buildings have been provided, all of which are now in active use. The gift of the library is especially notable as the university has never received many important gifts and has always been more or less hampered in its work by lack of means. Its removal from Washington Square to University Heights was a formidable and costly undertaking, and it was feared that it would be long before adequate buildings could be secured. Now that the progress previously made in this direction is crowned by the gift of the central building a bright future amid the new surroundings seems assured.