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and prices sliding further downward with but gave no thought to trade with the Com- tion for crop year 1964. His bill calling for a every harvest. Quick action with effective munist bloc.
voluntary wheat certificate program shortly legislation was imperative.
But now, there is a very noticeable and after the vote shows how alert he is to the You know what happened as well as I direct change. We are at odds with the problem that confronts the wheat farmer do. In early 1961-in record time-we passed Common Market over poultry tariffs and next year-and in succeeding years, if nothan emergency feed grains bill--and it was the other import duties, and there is talk at ing is done. I know that during your meetfirst major legislation President Kennedy all levels of the possibility of expanded trade ings and discussions here, you will be consigned into law. The success of the new with Russia and other European countries sidering this proposal and its implications. plan exceeded the highest expectations. in the Red bloc.
If you find that it meets the test of close Feed grain surpluses was slashed some 13 Much of this speculation was touched off scrutiny, I know that you will get behind million tons in the first year alone; and by the Russian-Canadian wheat deal. Canada it. further cuts were made in 1962 and again has sold so much wheat that she had to call But whatever you determine regarding this year. By 1965, the feed grain surplus off further sales until her ports can catch this particular bill, you will always find may well be a thing of the past. up on loading.
GEORGE MCGOVERN fighting in your corner Here in South Dakota, through voluntary An increase in exports seems assured be- for balanced equities for the farmer. signups, about 60 percent of the eligible cause of adverse growing conditions which He is not alone in that fight. The number feed grains acreage has been included in the
caused a short wheat crop in much of of Americans who are regaining an awareness program in the 3 years of its operation. This Europe-particularly Poland and Rumania. of continuing farm problems is growing. single program, in the first 2 years, 1961 and I can see a number of advantages to the There is an increasing recognition of the 1962, meant an additional $31 million income national economy in expanding our trade unavoidable truth that a healthy and prosfor South Dakota farmers-and-on the with Russia and the other countries within perous farm economy is the key to strength basis of 1963 signups, the boost this year her sphere. It would bring a more favorable in every phase of business and industry. will amount to nearly $16 million. That is balance of trade, since Russia would pay When the farmer prospers—so does the close to $50 million added farm income for with gold. We would reduce surplus sup- business of every Main Street in America. your State, from just one new program over plies and storage costs, and the indirect The abundance we have created through the past 3 years.
threat they pose toward farm prices. Direct- the family farm has not been food and fiber Along with the emergency program, higher ly, it means the farmer probably would get alone. An even more important product has support prices for feed grains meant higher
better prices for his grain this year. Wheat been a moral strength that runs through market prices—steadily above 1960 levels
presently is selling for about $2.12 a bushel, every segment of our modern society. It is a for participants and nonparticipants alike. the same as a year ago when the support continuing force that cannot be abandoned. Corn surpluses today are nearly gone and price was 18 cents higher.
We must not give in to the gloomy progprices are at the highest levels in 5 years.
There are even more significant gains that nosticators who say that agriculture and its Storage problems have eased, with more
could be made. It could contribute to a allied businesses are on the decline. space available to farmers and the trade. further easing of East-West tension, and
Rather, we must continue to vigorously More corn is stored where it belongs—on the
bring a more peaceful world atmosphere. seek ways through which agriculture may farms where it is grown-and where it will
And it would help show the world the su- contribute even more to the national wellbe used.
periority of the family farm system over being—and play an even greater role in the Wheat also posed a major problem in 1960.
the commune system of the Communist heritage we today are building for the genLegislation enacted 22 years earlier could no
society. longer cope with the realities of advanced
erations of the future.
There have been other changes, too. techniques. At that time, without planting
Changes in Congress, which is now oriented a single grain, we had enough wheat on hand to an urban society through shift of repre
FUNDAMENTAL CHALLENGES CONto meet our domestic needs for 2 years. A sentation from rural areas to the cities.
FRONTING THE AMERICAN PEObillion bushels of the surplus was Hard Red
The farm bloc is no more. Winter wheat—and that stockpile was equal
PLE-ADDRESS BY MRS. AGNES E.
We must now sell our farm programs to to the demands of both home and foreign
MEYER markets for another 5 years. We
Mr. McGOVERN. Mr. President, my drowning in wheat.
support. We have to be able to justify the Although supports had pretty well main- programs, both as to achieving results for attention has been called to a superb tained prices, which was not the case with
the farm problems and the farmer, but also address by Mrs. Agnes E. Meyer, which feed grains, the critical oversupply situation
as they affect the people who live in the she delivered at the honors convocation
cities. ruled out sweeping the wheat problem under
In other words, the farm program of Syracuse University on April 23, 1963. the rug again. Congress responded in 1961 cannot result in higher food prices, or the
The address is entitled, “What Shall We with an emergency wheat program. Coupling
Congressman who represents a city constitu
Do?" It centers on some of the most the new program with expanded wheat ency just cannot go with it. exports, wheat surpluses have gone down a justify to the people he represents a farm fundamental challenges confronting the quarter of a billion bushels.
program which does not reduce surpluses American people. Overall, the wheat and feed grains proand costs, as well as increasing the buying As the Members of the Senate know,
Mrs. Meyer is one of our most distingrams have reduced our stocks by something power of the farmer. like i billion bushels since 1960, helping We must use gentle persuasion, backed guished Americans. She has long been to raise net farm income nearly $1 billion with strong justification, to get the votes a champion of improved educational over that year's figure—and at the same time to pass farm legislation.
standards for the youth of the United saved more than $800,000 a day in shipping Under such conditions, it is difficult, at
States. Her courageous voice has been and storage costs.
best, to pass farm legislation. When agri- heard through the Washington Post Without minimizing the real magnitude culture interests themselves are divided over of the problems confronting you, I cannot what should be done, when they speak with
which her late husband brought to such agree with the purveyors of gloom and doom many voices at a time when one strong a position of distinction in the world of who say agriculture is dying.
voice is needed, the task is virtually impos- journalism. She is a civic-minded and How can a business that has increased its sible.
public-spirited citizen in her own right of output per hour of labor 200 percent in the One of the greatest needs in agriculture the very first order. last 20 years be dying? How can a system today is unity as to goals and how to achieve
I commend her address to the Memwhich has conquered hunger for 190 million those goals. Agriculture must once again
bers of the Senate and ask that it be Americans let itself be overcome by the prob- speak with one voice. Then your reprelems of abundance? sentatives from the farming States will be
printed at this point in the RECORD. Those who say agriculture is dying simply able to act for you with greater surety.
There being no objection, the address do not know what they are talking about. Your Senator GEORGE MCGOVERN, while was ordered to be printed in the RECORD,
It is true that the number of farmers has among the newest arrivals in the U.S. Sen- as follows: declined. But the number of farmers who ate, is fast becoming one of the most effec
WHAT SHALL WE Do? obtain an adequate income from farming tive farm spokesmen on Capitol Hill. That is on the increase. in a few short months, he has gained such a
(Address by Agnes E. Meyer at Honors ConFamily farms with $10,000 a year or more in firm grasp of the farm situation hasn't come
vocation at Syracuse University, April 23, marketings are the most rapidly expanding as any great surprise to those of us who knew
1963) sector of American agriculture. During the him to be a proven legislator from his fine One of the proudest moments of my life 1950's, the number of farmers making $10,000 record as a Congressman. We know, too, occurred in June 1954 when this distinor more all but doubled-going from 334,000 that he also has a clear picture of world guished university gave me an honorary deto 648,000. agricultural problems and needs, for we had
gree. It had special significance for me beAlong with our changing agricultural witnessed firsthand the amazing job he did cause only a few months previously I had technology, we are witnessing another type in heading up the food for peace program been the first American to condemn the late of change—that which is coming about in during 1961 and 1962.
Senator Joseph McCarthy at the height of world conditions.
I agree with Senator McGOVERN that the his unsavory career as a menace to the AmerA year ago, we talked of expanding our outcome of the May 21 wheat referendum ican way of life. You young people, who have trade with the European Common Market, has left the wheat farmer in a difficult posi- forgotten the neurotic fear of McCarthy that prevaded our country, can scarcely imagine happened to me; I too was a stranger to the compelling us to become ever more efficient how unpopular I was with our powerful world of reality when I finished college and the more our interrelated bureaucracies are rightwing factions. Some fanatics publicly graduate work. Not until the accidents of bound to expand until their tentacles affect berated me; one woman even sought to at- life confronted me with the hypocritical in- the lives of every individual in our mass sotack me physically. What then was my sur- justices of our supposedly democratic society, ciety. And wherever you may be active you prise, my happiness, my gratitude, when your did I taste those springs not only of knowl- will be obliged to play a part in the struggle chancellor, trustees, and faculty, in the edge but of passionate conviction, which fuse to maintain human freedom in these vast midst of such disparagement, had the cour- mind and emotion, integrate the personality, organizations, unless Americans become conage to give me a citation which honored me and bestow upon us that curious sense of tent to imitate the enemy and accept totalias “one of the most forceful and effective freedom which comes from a feeling of com- tarianism. spokesmen of our time for American free- mitment to a great and all-engrossing pur- Long before Communist governments exdom.” pose.
isted, as far back as 1907, Max Weber, the It may interest you to know that at your I am happy and honored to have been famous German sociologist, foresaw the age I could not have foreseen what my life chosen to congratulate all those of you whose menace to democracy in what was then only work was to be. Let me confess that I have distinguished records are being celebrated to- a comparatively small civil service. He not been chosen to address you on achieve
night. But I beg of you to keep your minds pointed out more clearly than anyone has ment day because I was myself a great open to all the adventures of life so that since that an over-routinized civil service has achiever during my college years. Nor were
when unexpected opportunity knocks on a tendency to produce a caste of mandarins, most of the bright undergraduates who were your door you will have retained the fresh- or what we now call organization mentalimy boon companions. “We loafed and in- ness of mind to recognize it, seize upon it, ties, who grow alien to the cooperative, comvited our souls,” to paraphrase Walt Whit- accept it even though it may be a challenge petitive, formative democratic processes man. We indulged in endless discussions as
so serious that the burden is a heavy one to through tenure of office. Max Weber, at the to the meaning of life which interested us carry.
beginning of this century, could not forefar more profoundly than our seemingly ir
For even those of you who are now con- see the dangerous but inevitable increase in relevant academic careers. We were con
vinced what your life work is going to be, the many new kinds of bureaucracy in our vinced that the unexamined life was not
great surprises may be in store for you. So modern society. But he warned even then worth living. We were concerned, as one
far you have successfully run the course laid that merely our increasing number of civil member of our little socratic group put it,
out for you by the university. But the real servants, if not kept responsive to the will of “to be and to know and to do.” We were
test will come for each one of you when you the people, might eventually lead democracy what today would be called "poor” but we
enter upon the course you mark out for your- into a new kind of serfdom establishing the were unaware of it because material posses
selves. Achievement is one thing; creativity dictatorship of the expert official. With the sions were not so important then as they
something very different. It is different be- present tendency on the part of democratic are today. Yet we well knew that some day
cause it demands not only knowledge but society to become ever more scientific and we should have to earn a living. What
independence of mind, the courage to differ rationalized, the onward march of various
with authority, endurance, patience, and military-industrial-professional bureaucrastrikes me, as I look back on our enjoyable and not unfruitful irresponsibility, is that ability to accept the inevitable defeats which
cies is the most recent but also the most the whole college atmosphere of the pre
even the strongest cannot escape. To be dangerous contemporary element in the sure, our Nation needs millions of capable
structure of domination. World War I days was very different from workers in the vineyard, but it needs, above
A more recent student of this problem, that of today. Time itself moved at a slower We felt a deeper sense of leisure.
all, the free creative spirits who can give our David T. Bazelon, says in an article in the tempo.
hard-pressed Nation the leadership it so autumn number of Partisan Review: “The We were busy living and less driven to watchsorely needs in every major walk of life. The
issue for the world is planned democratic ing the clock than we are today. For time's
rapid accumulation of knowledge, especially control, or. Soviet type bureaucratic terror measure is change; and since change has scientific knowledge, and the progress of
control. Since the purpose of the new (cold) been so terrifyingly accelerated we have betechnology are so overwhelming that the
war is to preserve the freedom inherent in a come more conscious of time and the presleadership of our complex, urbanized, tech
democratic system, the time to fight for sure to use it for achievement. I am somenological society can no longer come from the
democratic planning is now and the place is times tempted to feel a sense of commiseraself-made man who frequently rose to emi
here. We lose if we do not organize and we tion with the youth of today that the presnence in our former simpler, agricultural
lose if we do not organize on democratic sures for success should be forced upon them era. Henceforth, the humane, highly
lines. The struggle against totalitarianism at such an early age. But it has its advan
trained, wise type of leadership our country is not a simple we-they combat. It is, most tages as well as disadvantages. To learn to
needs can only come from our universities. profoundly, a struggle against the condiwork hard at an early age in a scholarly, sys
Therefore, as one who is confronted by
tions of modern life-ours as well as theirs. tematic fashion is of immense value if you more and more difficulties in the battle to
The war begins at home.” do not allow the present day rat race for marks to obliterate the true love of learning, dom, I wish to outline as best I can some encourage social progress and human free
It will take all our ingenuity to live in
such a highly organized society, while preWe, on the contrary, were more free to rebel of the most serious obstacles to the mainte
serving the highest possible measure of freeagainst academic authoritarianism and nance of individual liberty that our Nation
dom for the creative spirit. I am convinced though we were not exactly beloved by the is facing here at home-obstacles which you,
it can be done if we recognize the dangers faculty, there was more indulgence toward too, will have to face.
we face and make up our minds that the extreme individualism and even eccentricity I realize that our freedoms and our very
problem of democracy versus bureaucracy than there is today. Thus you are more lives are also threatened from abroad. The
must be thought through. But I agree with tempted toward conformity and acceptance maintenance of peace, disarmament, and co
Mr. Bazelon: "How to decentralize power in of the status quo, especially if you see your existence with Communist governments are a highly organized bureaucratic society” is high achievement as a path to joining the
crucial issues. But I shall discuss domestic one of our greatest issues. Bazelon claims lockstep of the status seekers. crises because I have confined my own efforts
it is the one true issue. Therefore, instead of trying to formulate
to creating a more orderly society here at One solution has been found by those truly my own apprehensions of the influence of
home as a big enough task for one person democratic nations, the Scandinavians, who contemporary life upon your thinking, let
and on the theory that we must first grow have established an official watchdog called me quote a distinguished scientist and ed
stronger on the homefront before we can an Ombudsman, an administrative official, ucator, Loren Eiseley, who had this to say be successful in meeting our international or watchdog, whose duty it is to prevent adto a student body at another university: responsibilities.
ministrative injustice and to see to it that “In this era of carefully directed advising, The threats to freedom and justice within the citizen obtains his rights from his govin this day of grueling college board exam- our own borders are equally serious, and yet ernment. In Denmark his most important inations, and aptitude tests, I have been
we must discuss them one by one. There- power is to investigate any civil or military permitted just once to cry out to our herded
fore, I shall first take up the menace of bu- activity of public officers upon receipt of a youngsters, 'Wait, forget the dean of ad
reaucracy, next the growing influence of the complaint, or on his own initiative, and to missions who, if I came today in youth be- radical right and lastly, though perhaps it bring action against a state authority or a fore him, might not have permitted me to is even more urgent, the growing impatience public officer or employee for alleged error register, be wary of our dubious advice, step of minority groups, especially the Negro, with or negligence. These guardians of individsoftly until you have tasted those springs our shameless indifference to his human ual rights are appointed by the legislature, of knowledge which invite · your thirst. rights as an American.
and though they can be dismissed at any Freshmen, sophomores, with the beautiful
You will be entering a world which ever time, the legislature cannot interfere with gift of youth upon you, do not be prema- since World War II has become more and their handling of individual cases. This is turely withered up by us. Are you uncer- more bureaucratized whether in the armed too hasty a description of an important step tain about your destiny? Take heart. I, services, industry, labor, or the Federal, toward the protection of human freedom at 50, am still seeking my true calling. I State or local civil services. The term "or- from the pressures of civil and military buwas born a stranger. Perhaps some of you ganization man” has become a cliche, as a reaucracy. In our country such protection are strangers, too.'"
byproduct of any technological society. This should be extended to workers in industry I may be quoting Eiseley because I am trend toward bigness and an ever-increasing and to members of big labor unions. It is too timid to make such an impulsive appeal bureaucracy cannot be reversed. The more one proof, however, that we need not sucto you. For his words reflect exactly what efficient we become, and our Soviet rivals are cumb to the enhancement of administrative
power in a modern state, if we are deeply The radical right is a growing movement other Negroes enduring the same hardshipsdetermined to preserve human liberty under precisely because it is an attempt, however is all the more frustrating. any and all circumstances. As experts in fearful and futile, to reestablish "the good As a result racial tensions have become your various fields, you are apt to be in po- old days,” which were anything but good, acute in Washington. We have had one sitions where you can be inffuential in find the simple virtues of individual initiative major race riot at a football game between ing other solutions for this difficult problem. and self-reliance, above all it is an attempt two high schools, when the white team won,
Now let us glance at those groups who to escape from the frightening disarray of and minor rowdyism after a baseball game. consider themselves the only true defenders modern life. It is a pathetic desire to arrest But the whole city lives in fear of worse outof American ideals—the radical conserva- time and change instead of throwing our bursts to come unless we use all of our comtives. They are a greater threat to freedom weight into an attempt to guide change munity resources to ease the existing interthan is generally realized because they con- toward constructive ends.
racial tensions. stitute our most irrational elements in a How then do we defend ourselves against What has to be done to achieve equal period of triumphant irrationalism. Their frustration and pessimism in so complex a rights for the Negro is obvious enough. Speinfluence is growing because their nation- period of transition, when the times are out cial efforts will have to be made to get work wide campaign is well-heeled with money, of joint, when the old beliefs are dead and opportunities, especially for Negro youths because there is no strong, well-organized new ones have not yet come into being? since they represent the future. We must liberal movement to oppose them, and Robert MacIver, professor emeritus of Co- let the Negroes out of the ghetto life to chiefly because it is a passionate movement lumbia University, answers this question in which they are now condemned. This calls in a society most of whose members are too his recent book, "The Challenge of the for more and better housing programs. prosperous and to lethargic to take an in- Passing Years."
Above all, we must provide them equal opterest in anything but themselves. Тоо "It is by dedication to a way of life so ful- portunity for a suitable education, unless we many citizens move about in our technologi- filling to the personality or offering such wish to pay the higher cost of keeping milcal society in a state of shock which makes promise of future fulfillment that the time lions of the untrained, both Negro and them indifferent to social progress, civil is thereby redeemed."
white, on permanent relief. This last solurights, equal opportunity for education, and Pay no attention, therefore, to the radical tion calls for a revolution in public educaespecially to the welfare of the impover- right when it shouts that liberalism is dead. tion, especially in our antiquated provisions ished one-third of American families. Presi- To be sure, it is now on the defensive in
for vocational training. dent Franklin D. Roosevelt said on October our country. But liberalism, as a political Please do not think that I simply preach 3, 1930: "Progressive government, by its very and a social movement, can never die be- these doctrines without acting upon them terms, must be a living and growing thing. cause like democracy itself, it is the middle to the best of my abilities. As I am con* * * If we let up for one single moment, ground between the unendurable slavery of vinced that the best long-range solution of or one single year not merely do we stand rightwing or leftwing authoritarians, be- equal opportunity, not only for the Ameristill, but we fall back in the march of tween our American radical rightwing of to- can Negro but for all of our underprivileged civilization.” In our country today, the day and the Communist governments, both of children, lies in suitable education both for march has all but halted. Rooseveltian lib- whom claim that they and they alone possess the highly gifted and those of less ability, eralism is coasting along on the dwindling the absolute truth. But since the radical I have just launched, with the help of a impetus of the New Deal and, alas, the New right threatens to take over the Republican
right threatens to take over the Republican large membership representing every State Frontier of President Kennedy is not yet in Party and even worries the Democratic ad- in the Union, a grassroots movement calling sight. If the radical right is riding high, it ministration with its demands for war on for more adequate financial support of pubis because the American people are confused Cuba, and war in general as the answer to lic education, whether through local, State, by the multitude of responsibilities they Communist aggression, it behooves all free- or Federal funds. It is called the National face now that we are part of one world, and dom-loving Americans to assert that they re- Committee for Support of the Public Schools. the richest part at that. They are suffering ject the absolutes of our own rightwing, as
It is not a lobbying group. It approaches from what I have often described as moral we reject the absolutes of communism—that the problem of financing public education and mental battle fatigue. Thus the love of we no more wish to impose our absolutes on from a new point of view. At our first naconformity, of standardization of thought, other nations than we shall yield to their ab- tional conference held a week ago, the and running with the herd is no mystery. solutes. Then the middle course or coexist speakers, most of them not educators but
People are too bewildered to do their own ence will become possible. Another name for economists, pointed out that education has thinking. This leaves them wide open to this middle course is liberalism. It is the path always been the explanation of our country's irrationalism and mass hysteria of which of reason and compromise which alone can high per capita productivity, and that better such organizations as the Birchites, and the create unity
out of diversity; it is the
great- public schools geared to this era of automaMinute Men, are good examples. What are est motivating force of democracy, and thus tion will more than pay their cost by a consome of the ideas the medicine men of these the only hope in a world of competing ideol- stant reinvigoration of our economy. movements are peddling to the people? ogies that peace will eventually reign amongst Why do I confront you, on a day that They are against the income tax, social se- men. I must confess, however, that some of should be confined to congratulations, with curity, and aid to foreign countries. Such what I call the fair-weather liberals are now the fact that you will graduate into a danliberal trends, they maintain, are nothing losing their nerve and running away from gerous world? I am told that the young but a preliminary step to communism. "I one of our major battles—that for equal people of today want nothing but security, a equate growth of the welfare state," says Dan rights for our Negro fellow citizens. Now toehold on the ladder of bureaucracy, early Smoot, who is heard on 32 television and 52 that Negro leadership is becoming aggres- marriage, and a nice house in some uninspirradio stations, "with socialism and socialism sive in many parts of our country, even some ing suburb, from which the breadwinner with communism." That leads naturally to of the liberals who formerly supported equal sallies forth each morning to an equally unthe conclusion that the Government is in- rights for all minority groups are complain- inspiring job that promises success as the filtrated with subversives. Robert Welch ing that the Negro wants to go too far, too price of conformity. My friends, I don't bewent so far as to claim that President Eisen- fast. Yet the white leadership cannot run lieve it. You are much better educated than hower was a "tool” of the Communists. In away from this crucial situation without we were at your age, more experienced and fact, rousing the fear of communism to a inviting tragic results. To be sure, what the more sophisticated. I am convinced that frenzy, not only as an external but an in- Howard University sociologist, Franklin you are all, achievers or nonachievers, more ternal threat, is an essential weapon for the Frazier, called the "folk Negro,” in contrast capable, more eager, and better prepared radical right. And this in spite of the fact to the educated, well-to-do members of the than was my generation to rise to the dethat the membership of the American Com- race, is becoming rebellious, and even violent. mands of this historic, difficult period in our munist Party is at its lowest point, and its Instead of behaving like our effete liberals Nation's history. former influence in the labor union move- who wish to stem the tide of Negro demands, But this warning I will add, out of the ment nonexistent. Yet all the mistakes of we must face the validity of their claims for depths of my own experience: unless you domestic and foreign policies, says the ex
recognition as full American citizens who have the courage to walk alone, and suffer treme right, would be impossible for our have waited patiently for justice ever since the arrows of misfortune without flinching, great, undefeated country if our political the passage of the 14th amendment, 90 years I advise you to play it safe and avoid the lifeleaders were not either outright Communists ago.
and-death problems I have all too hurriedly or under their influence.
Those of us who live in the Nation's Capital outlined for you. If you do play it safeHow account for this frenzy and why has are only too well aware how complex the task and refuse to fight for freedom at this crucial it such a wide appeal? Daniel Bell analyzes of true Negro emancipation has become, due period, not for yourselves alone but for man
kind—you will undoubtedly lead a happy but the composition of the radical right as small- 'to the rapid influx into Washington, as into town, middle-class people who have lost their
all major northern cities, of the penniless, a very dull existence. You will be a part of ascendancy in an urbanized, technological slums of the South. They crowd into the illiterate Negroes from the urban and rural the ballast which the winds of freedom prob
ably need, if only to keep the ship of state society. "Today the politics of the radical
District of Columbia with false hopes that on an even keel. right is the politics of frustration," says Mr.
a better life awaits them in the seat of the Life today is exhilarating only to those Bell, “the sour impotence of those who find Federal Government. Given these high ex- who welcome its risks. There are plenty of themselves unable to understand, let alone pectations, the grim reality they encounter reasons why you should not jeopardize your command, the complex mass society that is overcrowded living conditions, no opportu- careers by participating in the grinding orpolity today."
nity for work, no human contact except with deal that confronts all those who would CIX-1315
rather die than surrender to the totalitarian Recently, however, and especially after There being no objection, the article threats that confront us, not only from reading the heavy criticisms in the just was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, abroad but within our own country and published report of the Senate Foreign as follows: within our own breasts.
Relations Committee, I have become All I can tell you as encouragement is that
LET'S HAVE A FOREIGN SERVICE ACADEMY the dangerous life has exquisite compensaconvinced that parts of this program
(Cheers from the author of "The Ugly tions. For most Americans love courage and have now become comparable to coffee
American": We showed this article to Comdr. welcome with relief and with gratitude any a matter of habit.
W. J. Lederer, coauthor with Eugene Burdick voice that expresses their latent hopes and My own experience with foreign aid of the best-selling “The Ugly American," aspirations.
goes back to 1946, when, at the request which deals with the foreign-service personLet me once more quote Professor Eiseley of former Mayor Fiorello La Guardia, at
nel problem. Here's what he says about on the perils of the adventurous life. In Bimini, on the old Spanish Main, a black
Senator SYMINGTON'S proposal: "Senator that time head of UNRRA, I investigated girl once said to him something as valuable
SYMINGTON is justifiably worried because too the Chinese part of his program.
many Americans now stationed overseas are to him as it is to me: "Those as hunts treas
Later that year, I met the mayor in amateurs. In this article he has come up ure must go alone, at night, and when they Cairo and went over in detail what I with a solution aimed at making our reprefind it, they have to leave a little of their had found, reporting that our people sentatives abroad intellectually vigorous, blood behind them."
said the standard 'commission" in China tough and well-trained. His plan is one of It is to me deeply significant that this wise
was 20 percent; but that the commission the best long-range methods for keeping primitive woman should have voiced what on UNRRA products, in some parts of
America strong I know.") our great philosopher, Emerson, said in his China had risen to 80 percent.
Since World War II, the United States has essay on intelligence: “God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose.
spent nearly $60 billion in an effort to pre
We can be sure there is no comparable vent countries from being taken over by the Take which you please. You can never have
“commission” in our current aid pro- Soviet-Chinese empire. both.”
gram; but we also know, based on the It is no secret that, because American repWith that challenge, my friends, I bid you current Foreign Relations Committee resentatives were not properly trained for good night and wish you well. report, that there is a great deal of waste their jobs, much of this money has been
wasted. Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, is Mr. President, is and mismanagement which can only re
Americans sent to a foreign country too there further morning business? sult in less effective results in the actual
often do not speak or read the language. The PRESIDENT pro tempore. Is execution of the program.
How would you feel if a foreign official there further morning business? If
In recent years, I have paid visits to
came to live in your own town who could there is no further morning business, Europe, the Middle East, and the Far talk to you only through an interpreter? morning business is closed.
East. During these trips, I was inter- But judging on the basis of admitted linested in, and constantly asked about, guistic deficiencies of our Foreign Service the foreign aid program.
personnel, this often happens abroad. What stood out consistently was the
WANTED: A FOREIGN SERVICE ACADEMY AMENDMENT OF FOREIGN ASSISTobvious need for more training for most
The United States should have a Foreign ANCE ACT OF 1961
of the people handling the giving and Service Academy to train young people for The PRESIDENT pro tempore. The lending of these billions of dollars of efficient service in diplomatic missions Chair lays before the Senate the unfin- the American taxpayers' money.
throughout the world. ished business.
It would seem that this matter of ade
We now have three schools—West Point, The Senate resumed the consideration quate training should be of special in
Annapolis and the Air Force Academy,
which prepare our youth for a possible hot of the bill (H.R. 7885) to amend further terest to the Congress, because we are
war. Surely, we can afford one which will the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as the ones who have been appropriating equip them to serve their country in the amended, and for other purposes.
this aid money-appropriations that now cold war in which we are now engaged. Mr. ROBERTSON obtained the floor. total over $100 billion, not counting some The Foreign Service Academy should, like Mr. SYMINGTON. Mr. President
$36 billion for offshore military expend- the service schools, charge no tuition. I Mr. ROBERTSON. Mr. President, I itures.
also suggest that both men and women be yield 10 minutes to the Senator from My trips brought out the fact that eligible to attend and that there be no
physical requirements beyond reasonably Missouri (Mr. SYMINGTON] provided it is most Foreign Service members of the
good health. agreed that I may do so without losing State Department are better trained
In the technological, psychological, politthe floor. I understand that he is re- than other American representatives ical and economic fields, the Communists quired to leave the Chamber, to fulfill working in such ancillary agencies of are planning for the years ahead. We are an engagement, and that his remarks State as the Agency for International not. will not exceed 10 minutes. Development-AID.
But in spite of this enormous expense, it The PRESIDENT pro tempore. With- Few people realize, however, the ex
was revealed last year by the Advisory Com
mittee of the Foreign Service Institute that: out objection, it is so ordered. tent to which the great increase in the
Fifty percent of our entire Foreign SeryMr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, number of people now representing this
ice officer corps does not have a speaking would the Senator prefer to have a brief country abroad is concentrated in these knowledge of any foreign language. quorum call?
ancillary agencies. Only recently, one Seventy-five percent of the new men comMr. ROBERTSON. I have no objec
of our colleagues told me that at a sta- ing into the Foreign Service do not speak tion.
tion he visited in a foreign land, of 42 a foreign language. Mr. SYMINGTON. Very well. American representatives, only 4 were
Llewellyn E. Thompson, U.S. Ambassador Mr. MANSFIELD. Then, Mr. Presi
to Moscow, is the only U.S. ambassador in members of the State Department.
a Communist country who speaks the landent, I suggest the absence of a quorum.
After noting the degree of lack of
guage of the country to which he is assigned. The PRESIDENT pro tempore. The training that was characteristic of so
Our representatives don't understand clerk will call the roll. many of these our representatives, in other cultures. Western thinking and
standards just don't go over in some of the The legislative clerk proceeded to call January 1959, I introduced a bill for the
establishment of a Foreign Service important countries of Asia and Africa whose the roll. Academy-S. 15, 86th Congress.
cultures have existed for thousands of years, Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I
The basic idea behind this proposed
and have developed differently from ours. ask unanimous consent that the order
Asians have a new phrase: the “Golden for the quorum call be rescinded. Academy, presented nearly 5 years ago,
Ghetto.” To them it
the plush was that if the United States could afThe PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. NEL
places where American diplomats and other ford three academies to train its youth SON in the chair). Without objection, for the hot war we all pray will never
representatives hold their cocktail parties,
dinners and other social events. it is so ordered.
come, surely it could afford one Acad- Because they have been inadequately WHY THE FOREIGN AID BILL SHOULD BE REDUCED emy to train its youth-in this case schooled in the language and culture of the
Mr. SYMINGTON. Mr. President, women would be included-for the cold country, our representatives live an isolated everyone who has followed the foreign war in which we are now engaged.
life, associating mostly with other Amer
icans. The shifting winds of popular sentiaid program over the years knows the I ask unanimous consent that an ar
ment do not reach them. Our Embassy in great amount of good it has accom- ticle written on this subject in August Baghdad did not know of last year's coup plished, especially during the years 1959 be printed at this point in the in Iraq, for example, until it was well undershortly after World War II. RECORD.
In contrast, the Russians are making a cers are chosen-from the campuses of our planned, determined effort to develop the colleges—Jim Gavin would never have had most linguistically proficient diplomatic an opportunity to serve his country. corps in the world. In Russian elementary That is why, at the Foreign Service Acadand secondary schools, foreign languages are emy I propose, the students who are successcompulsory. Bright students begin to study ful in the competitive entrance examinations languages at the age of 8.
would have their tuition paid by the GovernThe best students eventually end up in ment in return for a commitment to serve the National Institute of Foreign Languages; their country abroad. and there they are given an intensive five- If we are determined to remain a free year course. As a result, an estimated 9 out people, we cannot continue to be indifferent of every 10 Russians sent abroad read, speak to the energetic and effective Communist and write the language of the country to missionaries Moscow is now sending to the which they are assigned.
four corners of the earth. These Russian foreign-service personnel Every Communist revolutionary sent out are thoroughly grounded in the culture and to infiltrate, divide, and conquer must be economy of those countries, are “experts" matched by a free world advocate of “lastbefore they arrive.
ing peace through justice and law"-some
one thoroughly trained in the language, the HOW THE RUSSIANS TRAIN THEIR EXPERTS For some time the Soviets have had an which he or she is assigned.
economy and the customs of the country to Institute of Foreign Relations, supervised
Tomorrow is too late. We must start today by their Ministry of Foreign Affairs. This to train our people to merchandise the most Institute is the principal source of their fu- valuable commodity in the world—the Amerture diplomats. Enrollment is around 1,000; ican way of life, with its individual dignity the course is 6 years long. In the third year and its investment in freedom. students begin to specialize in the problems of a particular area. In the final years they
Mr. SYMINGTON. Mr. President, if study intensively the country to which they the Congress does not take steps to inhave been assigned.
sure that those to whom these billions of The United States does have some insti- dollars are trusted have reasonably adetutions for training diplomats; and some quate training, what right have we to universities have graduate schools with spe- appropriate the money? cial programs devoted to various regions of
The legislation in question was the world. The State Department conducts language courses for Foreign Service officers promptly attacked, however, for various and other interested Government personnel. reasons by various people; and because
But these programs are uncoordinated and the need for better training has now becasual compared to the training efforts be- come so obvious, these attacks were hard hind the Iron Curtain. It will take years to to understand. develop a comparable task force of trained But they were effective. The proAmerican representatives. But we can and posed Academy got nowhere; and so should begin that preparation now. That is why I introduced in the Senate is better than none, 4 years later, last
finally, with the premise that half a loaf last January 9 a bill to establish such an Academy, stating: "The ultimate future of
January, I gave up on my concept of the the world, whether it is to be free or slave, right Academy and volunteered to introwill not be settled on the battlefields, but duce a bill that was drawn up by the rather in the minds of men.
administration-S. 865. “Dedicated, well-trained representatives As will be noted, this latter bill was are at work for the Communist cause all over
also drawn up in recognition of the need the world. We have not matched this ef
for more training, even though the nafort, either in size or degree of training."
ture of the Academy it proposed was This proposed Academy would establish a four-year, tuition-free college for the train basically different from mine. ing of overseas representatives.
I ask unanimous consent that the bill Students would be selected on the basis in question be printed at this point in of merit, and required to take competitive the RECORD. entrance examinations.
There being no objection, the bill was Although the Academy would be under the ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as direction of the Secretary of State, it would
follows: prepare young men, and women, to serve in
S. 865 any of the governmental agencies which operate overseas.
(In the Senate of the United States, FebBesides the usual basic college courses, the ruary 20, 1963, Mr. SYMINGTON (for himself, Foreign Service Academy would offer instruc- Mr. SALTONSTALL, Mr. BAYH, Mr. BOGGS, Mr. tion in the language, culture, history, and
BREWSTER, Mr. BYRD of West Virginia, Mr. economy of foreign countries.
CANNON, Mr. CLARK, Mr. ENGLE, Mr. FONG, Its faculty could be drawn partly from the
Mr. GRUENING, Mr. HART, Mr. HUMPHREY, Mr. ranks of retired foreign-service officers. To INOUYE, Mr. JAVITS, Mr. LONG of Missouri, our young people, the latter could transfer Mr. MANSFIELD, Mr. McGEE, Mr. MCINTYRE, the immense value of their personal experi- Mr. MONRONEY, Mr. Moss, Mrs. NEUBERGER, ence as gained in years of oversea assign
Mr. RANDOLPH, Mr. RIBICOFF, Mr. SMATHERS, ments.
Mr. WILLIAMS of New Jersey, and Mr. YARBesides producing better trained diplomats, BOROUGH) introduced the following bill; a Foreign Service Academy could also give
which was read twice and referred to the more of our youth a chance to serve our
Committee on Foreign Relations:) country. Minor physical handicaps bar a A bill to provide for the establishment of great many brilliant and responsible young the National Academy of Foreign Affairs, men from the military academies. A Foreign and for other purposes Service Academy would give them their chance. And it would offer opportunities to
Be it enacted by the Senate and House
of Representatives of the United States of women, too.
America in Congress assembled, That this
Act may be cited as the “National Academy
of Foreign Affairs Act of 1963". Army's great strategic planners, with a hero's combat record, was an orphan at the age of
FINDINGS AND DECLARATION OF POLICY two. He was adopted into the family of SEC. 2. The Congress hereby finds that the a Pennsylvania coal miner. A college educa- security and welfare of the United States tion was beyond his dreams. If Army officers require that our commitment in the strugwere picked, as nearly all Foreign Service offi- gle for peace and freedom throughout the
world continue to be strengthened by the development of better trained and more knowledgeable officers of our Government and others concerned with the increasingly complex problems of foreign affairs. The complexity of such problems is clearly evidenced by the threat of world communism, the rapid emergence of new countries striying to be politically independent and economically viable, and new patterns of thought and action affecting the political, economic, and social intercourse among nations.
The Congress further finds and declares that our responsibilities can be fulfilled more effectively by the establishment of an institution at which training, education, and research in foreign affairs and related fields may be undertaken on an interdepartmental basis which would support integrated United States efforts overseas and at the seat of government. The United States can assure that its position as a leader among nations shall be maintained and improved through maximum utilization of its potential by pooling the best of American minds and resources to create a great institution that will carry forward our American tradition of academic freedom and will serve as America's complete and total commitment to freedom and peace in the world. ESTABLISHMENT OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF
FOREIGN AFFAIRS SEC. 3. There is hereby established the National Academy of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter referred to as the “Academy") which shall be an agency of the United States, and shall be located in or near the District of Columbia. The Academy shall be established for the purposes of training, education, and research in foreign affairs and related fields, both in the United States and abroad, and for promoting and fostering related programs and study incident thereto. The Academy shall be maintained for officers and employees of the Government, and others when deemed to be in the national interest. BOARD OF REGENTS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY
OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS SEC. 4. (a) There shall be a Board of Regents of the National Academy of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter referred to as the “Board"). The Board shall determine policy and provide guidance to the Chancellor of the National Academy of Foreign Affairs in the execution of the powers, functions, and duties of the Academy
(b) The Board shall consist of
(1) the Secretary of State, who shall be the Chairman;
(2) four members designated by the President, from time to time, from among the officers of the United States who are required to be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate;
(3) five members appointed from private life by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate; and
(4) the Chancellor of the Academy. Members appointed from private life shall be United States citizens of outstanding attainment in the fields of public and international affairs or education. The first members so appointed shall continue in office for terms of three, four, five, six, and seven years, respectively, from the effective date of this Act, and the term of each shall be designated by the President. Their successors shall be appointed for terms of five years, except that any person chosen to fill a vacancy shall be appointed only for the unexpired term of the member whom he shall succeed.
(c) The Board may
(1) establish visiting committees from among its membership or otherwise to inquire periodically into matters relating to the Academy which the Board desires to be considered; and
(2) call in advisers for consultation.