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also convinced that all hands at the Ports- spending request for $5.7 billion-there is a the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston. mouth Naval Shipyard recognize the chal- special obligation to scrutinize that budget All these projects would duplicate existing lenge to their efficiency which the assign- with extra care. Yet this is precisely what Air Force facilities, according to the memoment of this ship represents. so far has not taken place.
The space budget has received virtually The field of space flight simulation has KENNETH E. BELIEU,
nothing but tender, loving care in Congress. been especially prone to unnecessary duplicaAssistant Secretary of the Navy,
The few of us who have questioned the wis- tion. A $10.6 million centrifuge for flight Installations and Logistics. dom of funneling funds into an agency at simulation has been approved for Houston,
such a breakneck rate have been buried under along with two others at other centers, a reproving avalanche of votes.
despite the finding by the National Academy PROXMIRE CALLS FOR SPACE PROG- rate of spending are predictable. The moon
The consequences of this mushrooming of Sciences that existing centrifuges and
similar motion devices for research are not RESS WITH LESS WASTE
venture has already fallen three-quarters of being fully utilized. Mr. PROXMIRE. Mr. President, the
a year behind schedule—not for lack of A bulky 530-page survey published by the November issue of the Nation's Business, funds, but because of a serious management National Standards Association lists literally
hundreds of space simulation facilities in the published by the U.S. Chamber of Com
Nobel Prize winning physicist Dr. Polykarp United States, many of them competing and merce, carries an article by me entitled Kusch told the Senate Space Committee overlapping in function and purpose. "Glamour Masks Waste in Space Spend- that the moon program is being carried out In its current budget NASA requested ing."
with "a certain flamboyance, a mood of $131,000 to study its own public relations In this article I make 'hree general haste, that is not commensurate with first- program. This may seem like peanuts comrecommendations on the immense inclass scientific research."
pared to $5.7 billion-but that's just the coin creases in spending by the National Aero- present
space program attempts too much He also said: “It is my belief that the for the survey. The resulting programs
would probably have lapped up additional nautics and Space Administration:
too fast. There is not enough time for pro- millions of dollars, and their propaganda efFirst. More effective safeguards found thought, for imagination to play over fect would be to guarantee the easy enactagainst duplication, waste, and other the demanding problems that occur.” ment of future billions of dollars in approleakages of Federal funds must be built President Kennedy's proposal at the United priations. Fortunately, this is one item on into NASA's own procedures. As a mini- Nations, that this country and the Soviet which Congress flipped the abort switch. mum, the space agency should fully ob- Union jointly undertake lunar exploration, NASA's budget is frequently padded with demands further reappraisal of where we are
nonessential items such as $1.3 million for serve the letter and the spirit of the cost
a fatigue research lab to replace an existing cutting requirements established for the going and how fast.
Whatever the merits of the President's pro- building that was "not ideally suited.” Department of Defense and other Fed- posal, his downgrading of the competitive Rarely does it appear that a serious effort eral agencies.
aspect of the moon program--a major justi- has been made to see if a job can be done at Second. Congress should arm itself fication for our wasteful haste up to now- less cost. with a corps of skilled investigators able strengthens the argument for a slower, more The agency wanted $90 million for three to penetrate and analyze the inner work- rational approach to space exploration. tacking ships for the Apollo project. Careings of the space program.
The real issue is not whether we should ex- ful checking by Congress showed that the
Defense Department could provide not three Third. Private individuals and groups plore space-of course we should. We should
do so rapidly and competently, in the great but five fully equipped ships for $80 million, should apply their concern about excessive and unnecessary Government spend But this does not mean that the space agency tradition of American scientific leadership. saving a cool $10 million.
It should have been no surprise to those ing to the space program. should be handed a license to spend billions
familiar with the space program when the Mr. President, I am convinced that we of dollars unnecessarily on projects that du
General Accounting Office released a report can and should dedicate America's great plicate others, are wasteful, or are nonpro- recently showing waste of some $100 million
in the moon program. resources to the magnificent challenge ductive. of space. But we should do so with far As has been shown over and over again,
While NASA itself has been critical of the
performance of industry, the agency can greater prudence and regard for the tax- frenzied science is not good science. The payers' money than we have in the past. legitimate and understandable desire for hardly duck the final responsibility for getI ask unanimous consent that this rapid accomplishments cannot be satisfied ting what it pays for with the taxpayers'
merely by pouring in ever-larger appropria- money. article be printed in the RECORD at this tions of dollars.
NO MAGIC IN SPACE SPENDING point.
NASA has been able to route its massive What disturbs me is the "anything goes if There being no objection, the article spending increases through the Budget Bu- it's for space" attitude that makes it possible was ordered printed in the RECORD, as reau without anything like the scrutiny for huge spending increases to win congresfollows:
given the budgets of other Federal agencies. sional approval with only a shadow of the
Nor has the General Accounting Office, ConGLAMOUR MASKS WASTE IN SPACE SPENDING
scrutiny applied to earthbound agencies. CONGRESS MUST TAKE MORE CAREFUL LOOK able to stay abreast of the galloping pace of
gress's watchdog on Federal spending, been In this program, too, I firmly believe there TO HEAD OFF UNNECESSARY COST
should exist a strong presumption against the space agency.
Federal spending. Simply because the pro(By WILLIAM PROXMIRE, U.S. Senator from
I applaud the suggestion, made in the mi
gram involves glamorous orbits of the earth Wisconsin)
nority report on the House space authoriza- does not change the hard fact that every cent The tidal wave of spending on the Nation's tion, that there be appointed an inspector spent on it comes out of the pockets of U.S. space program-unprecedented in a peace- general for NASA, plus a number of congres- taxpayers—the same, hard-pressed source for time program run by a peacetime agency- sional field inspectors to examine and report all other, competing Federal programs. can quickly get out of control.
on the space program. Qualified independ- There is no magic about space spending My special, urgent concern, as a U.S. Sena- ent supervision of a program that is growing thta converts it into private enterprise. Far tor recently appointed to the Appropriations at such a tremendous rate is absolutely from it. In relation to its rapidly growing Committee, is that space budgets should get essential.
volume, the space program is probably the on a rational basis while they are still fairly Despite the absence of careful, detailed most centralized Government spending pro, near the beginning of a period of rising investigations, a number of examples of gram in the United States. It concentrates costs. The $2 billion per year increase can wasteful, duplicating, or unnecessarily lavish in the hands of a single agency full authorbe expected to continue and accelerate. space program outlays have surfaced as a re
ity over an important sector of the American The effort to place men on the moon will sult of their own sheer lack of weight. economy, one that is expanding with each alone cost $20 billion before 1970.
For example, a formal Air Force memo- passing month. (One scientist has jokingly suggested that randum recently showed that NASA is plan- The economic situation created by the if a way could be found to weld together 30 ning to construct $77,671,000 in facilities space program could well be described as billion silver dollars, an astronaut could walk that directly duplicate existing Air Force corporate socialism. There are a large numto the moon.) capabilities.
ber of private corporations and companies It is a safe prediction that the real head- Among the specific examples cited are: a in the aerospace industries, a disturbingly wall on this steeply sloped mountain of ex- life sciences research facility costing $4.9 large portion of which work only on space penditure still lies ahead-and has not been million and a space materials laboratory agency contracts and subcontracts. But for accounted for fully in the understandably costing $3.6 million, both at Ames Research all the goods and services that they produce, conservative projections of the National Center, Calif.; a central instrumentation all the many items and products and techAeronautics and Space Administration. An facility, $31.5 million, at Cape Canaveral; a nologies that they would normally offer for intelligent independent estimate for the mission control center ($8.4 million), launch sale in a freely competitive marketplace, moon probe puts it at $40 billion by 1970. environment and antenna test facilities ($7.5 there is ony one buyer: the Federal Govern
When the budget of a federally financed million), mission simulation and procedures ment. agency grows at the rate of $4 billion in 2 training facilities ($2.2 million) and other It has been made clear to occasionally reyears-as has that of NASA to the current projects (totaling over $5.6 million), all at luctant legislators that the economies of certain States and districts would suffer seri- has been described by one scientist as "a 3. Most important of all, it is essential ously if pending space projects were cut. spectacular balancing act-education sup- that private individuals and groups apply This point was stated explicitly to the House ported by science, science by space, and space their concern about excessive and unnecSpace Committee by NASA officials testify- by the man on the moon."
essary Government spending to the space ing against a proposed cut in the $1.2 billion
OTHER RESEARCH SUFFERS
program. Recent attacks on pork-barrel Project Apollo budget request. The House committee recommended a
projects helped immeasurably to alert the By skimming off a sizable top layer of
country to the misuse of tax dollars. $120 million cut anyhow, seriously questionscientists each year for the foreseeable fu
A similar alertness to signs of waste and ing whether the space agency could conture—especially the young, able ones, freshly
inefficiency in the space program would go ceivably use all that money in 1 year. Un- schooled in up-to-date methodology—the
a long way to combat the "anything goes if fortunately, a large part of the funds was space program may well impoverish the scientific input in other vital areas of re
it's for space" attitude. restored in the House-Senate compromise search and teaching. Schools, medical cen
There are great problems to be solved in signed by the President. Members of Congress can hardly be blamed ters, industry—even other Government agen
space, great returns to those who solve them. for taking an interest in contract awards cies and our Defense Establishment-are
But we risk losing a great deal-our selfrunning into hundreds of millions of dol
respect and the respect of others-if we beginning to feel the pinch. Already, and lars. They know full well that a range of we are still only in the early stages of our
throw billions upon billions into the space consideration going well beyond engineerspace effort, there are 10 times as many scien
hopper without giving careful, sober thought ing and scientific know-how enter into the tists engaged on NASA space projects as are
to the price we are paying. decisions.
working on heart disease, mental illness, and
cancer at the mammoth research centers of
CONCESSIONS MAKES SENSE IN A symbol of congressional interest: NASA themselves have been criticized for overly has now been asked to furnish a list of lavish use of Federal funds.
WHEAT DEAL ACCORDING TO projects broken down geographically, which Even a decision to locate a juicy Govern- EXPERT in political terms means State by State and ment plum like the proposed Electronics Redistrict by district. search Center in Boston is received with
Mr. PROXMIRE. Mr. President, there One leading science writer recently re- mixed feelings, as local companies and other
is an unfortunate tendency on the part ferred to "NASA's rather blatant pork-barrel facilities ponder whether the new projects of many to regard any criticism of State approach on how to win friends and inwill compete for their top scientists.
Department dealing with Communist fluence people in Congress."
The prestige value of space accomplish- nations as demagogic, or emotional and Grounds for cynicism are provided when ments should not be overlooked. But pres
But pres- ill-informed crackpotism. the case for locating the $130 million (offi- tige, too, has a price tag. cial estimate; more likely total, $200 million) Our Government information activities and
The recent wheat deal is a case in Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston in- many other programs contribute to it. The point. Those of us who have been cludes the argument that this facility will question is whether the investment in space critical of it have been criticized as stimulate a technological boom which will should include extra billions of dollars for against humanity or against peace or as attract people and industries to the area in propaganda.
Red-baiting for votes. large numbers, while the more recent decision We compete with the Soviets on many
The facts are, Mr. President, that the to construct a $50 million space electronics fronts. By concentrating too much atten
position which some of us in the Senate center in the Boston area is justified on the tion on space we run the risk of losing on grounds that large numbers of exceptionally others.
have taken that we should not agree to skilled and trained scientists already live Despite the urgency with which the space
sell wheat to Russia without concessions there.
program is viewed I do not believe the need to freedom has been supported by an It is disturbing but undoubtedly true that for speed can be so great that NASA should outstanding scholar in an article apthe space program has come as a bonanza to virtually ignore competitive bidding. With
pearing on the front editorial page of those who favor big Government spending. all the urgency of military procurement, the
last Sunday's Washington Post. These apostles of big Federal budgets—and Defense Department has a far better record
Now I hasten to add that Professor there are many—see the space program as a on competitive bidding. means of taking up the slack caused by a In addition, the Defense Department has
Brzezinski does approve of selling wheat possible future leveling off of military spend- inaugurated a cost-cutting and control pro
to Russia. But he also insists that we ing.
gram that has already saved $1 billion and should exact concessions-not great conSpace spending is also having other unfa- is expected to realize savings of $4 billion cessions, perhaps, but, as he puts it: vorable effects on our economy.
over a 5-year period. This kind of rigorous With each passing month a larger percent- attention to budget practices is urgently
At the very least our negotiators could in
sist on a clear reciprocal understanding of age of our gross national product goes into needed in our space effort. research and development for the space pro
the technical arrangements involved in WHO HAS RESPONSIBILITY?
Western access to Berlin.
The result of that concession has been maintain an especially high pace of research
gram lean and on target lies in three places: oriented toward the civilian economy to the space agency itself, the Congress, and
driven home three times since the wheat maintain our traditional lead in productivity the public at large.
deal has been announced and right and to offset the higher wages of American
1. More effective safeguards against dupli
now as I speak an American convoy is labor. Otherwise we will soon be shut out of cation, waste, and other leakages of Federal being held up outside of West Berlin. important international markets.
funds must be built into NASA's own proce- Professor Brzezinski added: We cannot simply rely on the spin-off of
dures. As a minimum, the space agency
Similarly we could demand that the Sonew products or the technological fallout of space-oriented research to provide needed of the cost-cutting requirements established
sia. Indeed, a political quid pro quo should forward strides in fields where our industries for the Department of Defense, the U.S.
be sought in the case of other so-called are daily challenged by the productive ca- Army Corps of Engineers, and other Federal
nonpolitical, technical arrangements. pacity of other nations.
agencies. While an occasional byproduct of space or
This includes reliance on competitive bid Mr. President, this is exactly what cermilitary research will have application to the procedures to the greatest possible extent. tain Senators have been calling for and civilian economy, this is not enough. It is important to act promptly, before the
these are among the concessions—any This problem would be less serious if the space program becomes encrusted with habits
of which, in my stated view—would U.S. economy had a limitless supply of re- and ways of doing business which will make sources that could be tapped for research and it harder, and more unpleasant, to change
provide a real concession to freedom in development undertakings. But the fact is later on.
this case. that, in this field in particular, the space 2. Congress must be steadily alert to its
Dr. Zbigniew Brzezinski also points out program is in direct, sharp competition with responsibility of legislative supervision. In that there is no question of starvation in other sectors of our economy for the use of our system of checks and balances, if Con- Russia. There is no rationing. There is a vital commodity, the supply of which is gress abandons its watchdog function, a pro
no plan for rationing. The wheat is by no means unlimited-our unique reser- gram can quickly get cut of hand because voir of highly skilled, trained, and talented there are few other checkreins to keep it
mainly to be used to export to Commuscientific manpower. on course. To this end Congress should arm
nist satellites and to maintain the kind of Each year our universities graduate some itself with a corps of skilled investigators chemical and machine tool production in 3,000 new Ph. D.'s in science and engineering. able to penetrate and analyze the inner work- the satellites on which the military On the basis of the space agency's own esti- ings of the space program. Such a staff
strength of Russia depends. mates of its requirements for scientific man- should be established either within the Govpower in the coming years it can be predicted enrment Accounting Office or in a separate
Mr. President, I ask unanimous conthat by 1970 one in every four U.S. scientists office headed by an inspector general for
sent that this article may be printed at will be at work on the space program. This space programs.
this point in the RECORD.
There being no objection, the article
A NECESSARY FAILURE
For many years, for reasons of political was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, To the Soviet leaders, the wheat deal is po
prestige, and also as a precedent, the Soas follows: litical because two very vital Soviet political
viet Union has been very anxious to estabinterests are involved. The first is the sta
lish direct American-Soviet air links. Per[From the Washington Post, Nov. 3, 1963] bility of the collective agricultural system it- haps there is no reason to oppose such links, POLITICS OF WHEAT DEAL GIVES UNITED STATES self. Over many years, that system has failed
but it might be preferable to negotiate UPPER HAND to deliver the goods, at least insofar as the
about them in the context of a reciprocal So(By Zbigniew Brzezinski) Soviet consumer is concerned. Yet to the
viet willingness to meet some of our political
objectives. (NOTE.—Director of the Research Institute political leadership, the collective system is on Communist Affairs and professor of public essential.
Of course, proponents of the purely "eco
A recent critical revaluation of the Stalinlaw and government at Columbia University,
nomic" approach might say that if our posiBrzezinski is the author of "The Soviet Bloc: ist drive for collectivization, published in
tion is too hard, the Soviet Union will buy
the wheat somewhere else. That may be Unity and Conflict,” “Ideology and Power Voprosy istorii, states quite categorically that in Soviet Politics," and other books.)
the collectivist system was necessary in order true, but the argument is not entirely conIt has been argued that the wheat deal with to build socialism in the Soviet Union and vincing. If the Soviet Union could easily the Soviet Union is desirable on humanitar- for the defense of the country. Mounting buy wheat elsewhere, then why does it not ian grounds. If Russian people are starving, consumer dissatisfaction with the inability
do so? the United States should not stand back, said
It either wishes to deal directly with the of the present agricultural system to proformer President Truman on the radio, and duce adequately might, over the long haul,
United States because that would strengthen he has been echoed by some clergymen and force the Soviet leaders to revise the agri
the impression in the West and elsewhere by various people of good will. cultural system. However, if the Soviet
of an American-Soviet detente-an impresOthers have suggested that the wheat deal
sion which intensifies Western European leadership finds other means of meeting dois purely a matter of economics. The Rus- mestic needs, i.e., imports paid for with gold,
fears concerning the American position; or, sians need our wheat; we can use their gold. it can perpetuate the collectivist system. conceivably, the Soviet Union does not see Their food needs will be met; our food sur
Collectivization was abandoned in Poland
other markets so readily available and the pluses will be diminished. We both gain and Yugoslavia because the leaderships had
American wheat is thus of some economic equally.
no way out. By importing wheat, the So- importance to it as well. The humanitarian argument can be dis- viet leadership sees a way out, and hence the
One may safely assume that the Soviet missed quickly. First of all, there is no wheat deal is necessary to Moscow in order
Union is not anxious to buy American wheat famine in Russia. The Soviet people are not to maintain its domestic system of collecti
merely in order to reduce our balance-ofstarving, and the government has not lost all vization.
payments difficulties and to alleviate our own of its ability to meet a food crisis. It could
EXPORTS POLITICAL, TOO
internal agricultural problems. certainly divert some of its resources from
Finally, it should be stated unambiguous
Secondly, the importation of wheat is necheavy industry to better agricultural man
ly that it would be wrong to conclude that essary to the Soviet Union in order for it agement, and it is still capable of providing to meet its grain export commitments. These
since the wheat deal is political, the United the basic staples to meet Russian needs. commitments are important to the Soviet
States should have no part of it. That is Even if all the Western countries were to leadership primarily for political reasons.
fallacious and extreme. It would be a pity refuse wheat to Russia, no Russian would Last year the Soviet Union exported ap
if we failed to use the limited leverage that starve because of it. There is no doubt, how- proximately 7.8 million tons of grain, of
this particular situation affords. ever, that certain kinds of foods would be which wheat constituted 4.7 million tons.
Since the Soviet Union wishes to buy in short supply, and this would create con- The list of clients shows clearly the political gaining position. By all means, we should go
wheat from us, it puts us in a favorable barsiderable social and political difficulties for importance of the exports: The largest conthe Soviet Government.
ahead with the deal, but our approach should sumer was East Germany, followed succes
be very conscious of its essentially political OUTRAGEOUS APPROACH
sively by Czechoslovakia, Poland, Brazil, and
The restriction that President Kennedy deeply rooted in the American tradition,
wishes to impose on the reexportation of and it is not easy to convince an American
American grain to these countries creates a THE CONSTITUTIONAL AMBASSA
technical impediment to such exports. The that the Soviet approach to the problem is
DOR OF THE DOMINICAN REPUBsomewhat different. Yet as George Kennan Soviet Union would not be able to ship them
LIC REPORTS TO THE NATIONAL has amply demonstrated in his book, "Rus
American wheat directly. Nonetheless, the sia and the West,” the Soviet approach to availability of American wheat, and indeed
PRESS CLUB of other Western wheat, would mean that the problem of trade is a highly political
Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, the one.
Soviet grain itself could be exported to the military junta which overthrew the dem
countries concerned. Writing about the Soviet attitude toward
Hence the political ocratically elected government of Juan the West in the very early twenties, Kennan
problem would not be resolved by the prothus projected the Soviet reasoning on the posed restriction.
Bosch in the Dominican Republic 6 subject of trade with the West:
The above comments should not be con
weeks ago, and at the same time dis"We despise you. We consider that you strued as an argument against an American
solved the legislature and annulled the should be swept from the earth as govern
Soviet wheat deal. They are meant to sug- constitution, has now expelled Dr. Juan ments and physically destroyed as individ
gest, however, that this wheat deal ought Cassanovas Garrido, the elected presiuals. We reserve the right, in our private
to be viewed in a political perspective and dent of the senate, who, if the constituif not in our official capacities, to do what
that U.S. negotiators ought to seek politi- tional provisions were carried out, autowe can to bring this about: to revile you cal concessions from the Soviets in return.
matically would be the President of the publicly, to do everything within our power
Naturally, there would be no point in ex
Dominican Republic, the legal President, to detach your own people from their loyalty pecting fundamental concessions. For exto you and their confidence in you, to sub- ample, it would be illusory to expect a Soviet Juan Bosch, and the Vice President havvert your Armed Forces and to work for acknowledgement of our position in Berlin ing previously been expelled by the junta your downfall in favor of the Communist
in return for our willingness to sell Russia and, therefore, not on Dominican soil. dictatorship.
some wheat; there is no political equivalence The Constitution provides that succes"But since we are not strong enough to
between these two interests. However, on sion. destroy you today-since an interval must a number of marginal issues, there is no rea- The purpose of this expulsion of Dr. unfortunately elapse before we can give you son why the United States should not insist
Cassanovas Garrido, is to thwart any efthe coup de grace—we want you during this on a quid pro quo.
fort to return to constitutional rule, interval to trade with us.
An out- For example, it would seem ironical for the
which the State Department is properly rageous demand? Perhaps. But you will accept it nevertheless.
Union to maintain its collectivized agricul- insisting upon. “You will accept it because you are not ture and its politically motivated grain ex
It is my hope, and that, I am confree agents, because you are slaves to your ports and at the same time for this country vinced, of all freedom lovers and believown capitalist appetites, because when profit to endure continued Soviet harassment in ers in the democratic process both at is involved, you have no pride, no principles, its access to Berlin. At the very least, our home and in Latin America, that our no honor. În the blindness that character- negotiators could insist on a clear recip- Government will adhere firmly to this izes declining and perishing classes, you will rocal understanding of the technical ar
position and never grant either recogniwink at our efforts to destroy you, you will rangements involved in Western access. compete with one another for our favor.” Similarly, we could demand that the so
tion or aid of any kind to the usurping One may wonder, in the light of the 1962 viets lift their travel restrictions within Rus
junta in the Dominican Republic. Cuban confrontation and Khrushchev's gen- sia. Indeed, a political quid pro quo should
The Dominican people are bitterly reeral policy of burying us, whether this ap- be sought in the case of other so-called non
sentful of the overthrow of their governproach has changed so very fundamentally. political, technical arrangements.
ment which brought to them the first breath of freedom after 31 years of tyr- Over 90 percent of the professional leaders wealthy businessmen overthrew the legitianny, a fact which is not obscured by the of the country have denounced the coup and mate government on the spurious grounds now controlled press and slanted news
are demanding a return to constitutional that it was encouraging communism and items being released under the police government. The doctors' association, the had allowed the government to be infiltrated
lawyers' association, the engineers' associa. by Communists. state management of the usurping gen
tion, and the various teachers' associations Yet 6 weeks later, the junta has been unerals and colonels and their false facade
have gone forcefully on record to this effect. able to point out any Communists in the of civilians.
These are obviously no radical hotheads; government. This was probably no surprise Today, at the National Press Club, En- they are the educated, middle class, respected
they are the educated, middle class, respected to them, but they were surprised to discover riquillo del Rosario, the Ambassador of leaders of the country.
how united the people are in indignation at the legal and constitutional Government
These professional groups have been being deprived of their basic rights of selfof the Dominican Republic, made an ad
jointed by virtually all the labor unions and government. And the junta has also been
civic organizations in a demand for the dis- surprised that the U.S. Government has not dress pointing out how tragic the situa
solution of the junta and a return to consti- recognized and supported them. They had tion is for the people of the Dominican
tutional government. Both university and deluded themselves into believing that the Republic, and urging that the United secondary school students, moreover, have United States has a certain fondness for milStates continue to insist on the return of made repeated demonstrations in favor of itary dictatorships, a delusion shared by the law and order, constitutional governdemocratic self-government.
Communists as well. ment, and the democratic regime which
It is no exaggeration to say that 90 percent The Communist line has been that the was so ruthlessly overthrown.
of the people of the Dominican Republic are United States withdrawal of recognition and
not only indignant, but increasingly indig- economic aid is sheer hypocrisy, and that Mr. President, I ask unanimous con
nant, at being deprived of their democratic the United States secretly sympathizes with sent that the address by Ambassador En
rights. And they are fully determined, by the military junta and will shortly find a riquillo del Rosario to the National whatever means, to regain their liberties and formula for recognizing it. And they are Press Club be printed at this point in the right to have a government of their waiting hopefully for such recognition as the my remarks; together with two dis- choice.
basis to start a major propaganda campaign patches published in the New York Times
In the face of the growing desire to throw throughout Latin America to the effect that for Thursday, October 31, 1963, entitled
the junta out, the police and military have the United States really prefers military dic
used threats, tear gas, and even bullets tatorship, which is indifferent to the misery "Leaders Bar Policy Shift," and "Gains
against demonstrators. They have started in Latin countries, over democratic governSeen by United States," which show that
to fill the prisons again with prodemocrats, ment. It is with this big lie that the Comthe usurping junta is not preparing to
and have outlawed the basic rights of free munists hope to make Cubas of all Latin make any concession whatsoever and assembly guaranteed by the Constitution. America. that the United States already sees some The usurpers still have the arms, but they Ironically, the junta and the Communists benefits from the policy of “no recogni
know that the people are united as never are now united toward the same objective. tion” and will adhere to it. before against them.
Both want the military junta to be recogThere being no objection, the address
The recent imprisonment and forced exile nized. The junta wants it in order to per
of Dr. Juan Cassasnovas Garrido shows the petuate the privileges of the wealthy few. and dispatches were ordered
ordered to be
junta's fear of any return to legality. Dr. The Communists want it as a weapon to deprinted in the RECORD, as follows:
Cassasnovas was the President of the Senate stroy not only the reactionary forces, but STATEMENT OF ENRIQUILLO DEL ROSARIO, AM- of the legitimate Government. In the ab- also the democratic ones as well.
BASSADOR OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERN- sence of the legal President and Vice Presi- The next few weeks will probably be critiMENT OF THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC TO THE dent, both of whom were forcibly expelled cal in my country. Pressure on the State UNITED STATES, AT THE NATIONAL PRESS from the country, Dr. Cassasnovas was Department to find a modus vivendi with the CLUB, NOVEMBER 5, 1963
clearly designated by the Constitution and junta will probably increase. The junta will It is now 6 weeks since the democratically
confirmed by the legislature as the legal suc- make periodic threats of impending chaos elected government of the Dominican Re
cessor to the Presidency. But the junta, and Communist takeover if they are not public was overthrown by military force.
fearful of any possible rallying point for backed. And they will continue to track And it is important to establish very clearly
reestablishing legal government, tracked down, imprison and exile all democratic leadat this time how the Dominican people
down Dr. Cassasnovas last week, captured ers with a constitutional right to govern. themselves feel about the coup d'etat which
But the key fact is that the democratic him, beat him, imprisoned him, then forced terminated constitutional government in my
him into exile. The same junta which is forces are in an overwhelming majority country after only a few months' trial. It
trying to dupe public opinion in the United among the people of my country, and it is has been said that they were indifferent to States by saying that it wants to prepare for
their wishes which must be respected, not this act, and that they are relatively content a return to constitutional government,
those of the present junta, who represent no under the present government.
cynically throws out all persons who consti- one but their own selfish interests. In this This is utterly untrue.
tutionally are designated as the country's calvary of democracy in one small Caribbean Never before in history have the Dominican leaders.
country, there is still very much at stake for people wanted democratic government and In the last week, nonetheless, various the entire hemisphere. Democratic forces self-rule as deeply and as passionately as European governments have recognized the look to the United States for moral support, now. Being deprived of self-government by junta. Let me say that this contrasts and are calling for that support. And it is a military-dominated junta has made them sharply with the fact that the Dominican
unthinkable that the United States should even more aware than before of how precious people definitely do not recognize the junta,
people definitely do not recognize the junta, now or later-destroy the hopes of the demodemocracy is to them. They are well aware and this is the capital point. Sovereignty cratic forces in the Dominican Republic and that the illegal junta which has seized resides in the people. They alone have the
in other Latin American countries by recogpower in the Dominican Republic represents right to determine who shall govern them nizing the antidemocratic junta. This is only a few wealthy men and ambitious off- and in what framework. It is this basic
not an indifferent minority calling for backcers, and that these people do not want any democratic right which is at stake, and for ing. It is the great majority, passionately real democracy. And they are equally aware which the Dominican people are fighting.
wanting a return to democracy, which appeals that any promises by the junta for a return As the lawful representative of the con
to the American people not to let them down. to democratic government are cynical and stitutional government of my country in the insincere, entirely contrived to mislead peo- United States, let me add that the people
[From the New York Times, Oct. 31, 1963) ple in the United States. of my country will not recognize or honor
LEADERS BAR POLICY SHIFT The Dominican people definitely want a any commitments or agreements entered into SANTO DOMINGO, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, Ocreturn to constitutional government, and not by the illegal government which is tempo- tober 29.-The provisional Government of in 2 years or even 6 months. They want it rarily in power. Any loans accorded to the the Dominican Republic, operating under now. They are united in their contempt junta, for example, will in no way obligate growing pressures of extreme rightwing ciand distrust for the illegal junta. And the people or their legitimate government, vilian and military factions, has decided not despite the fears engendered by 32 years of and will be undertaken at the risk of the to make political concessions as a price for living under a brutal police state, they have lenders. The Dominican people have given recognition by the United States. taken considerable risks to show their deep no authorization whatsoever to the junta to The present disposition of the Dominican desire for return to democratic self- undertake any fiscal or contractual obliga- ruling groups is to stand firm on the refusal government. tions in their name.
to do anything to speed the return to the Very few newspapers in the United States The basic situation in the Dominican Re- democratic process beyond the original promhave given any idea of the scale and intensity public is very clear. The people elected the ise of general elections more than 2 years of these antijunta feelings. But they are first democratic government in 36 years by from now. very revealing. 'Here is just a fraction of an overwhelming majority in free elections. Although the three-man civilian junta in the evidence of what the Dominican people In a few months after its installation, a mil- nominal control of the country appeared to themselves are feeling and doing.
itary coup backed by a tiny handful of be inclined last week to allow presidential CIX- -1326
and congressional elections perhaps before POLITICAL SITUATION IN VIETNAM was governed by the fear that if this country the end of 1964, it has now become clear that
didn't coddle President Ngo Dinh Diem and
Mr. CHURCH. Mr. President, almost the powerful military-supported rightist
his all-powerful brother, Ngo Dinh Nhu, overnight, the political situation in South these headstrong leaders might scuttle a war groups would not tolerate even such a concession to win quicker recognition.
Vietnam has changed, and our policy which the United States, with its interest in In fact, the Dominican rulers are taking toward the new government of that coun- defending the whole of southeast Asia, was the position that the country can go on in- try will change accordingly. The U.S. desirous of winning. definitely without Washington's recognition Government-both the executive branch The Kennedy administration also did not and U.S. economic aid. Both were suspended and the Congress-has, since the se
want to scare off the Diem-Nhu regime's last September 24, when the military ousted vere repression of the Vietnamese stu
backing of a strategic hamlet program which President Bosch from the presidency after
the United States was convinced would give dents and Buddhists by the Diem gov7 months in office.
rural Vietnam the protection from the VietThe Kennedy administration indicated at ernment this summer, hoped for the cre
cong and the sense of identification from a the time that diplomatic relations, aid under ation of an atmosphere in South Viet- caring central government necessary to win the Alliance for Progress and military assist- nam which might regather popular sup- the war. ance would remain suspended until at least port behind the war effort.
But, according to one U.S. policymaker, a semblance of the democratic process re- I think that the President has fol- May 8 became the turning point. This turned to the Dominican Republic. Dr. lowed the correct course in relation to
was the date of the first massacre of BudBosch was the Dominican Republic's first South Vietnam. Although we have fa
dhists by government troops in Hue. freely elected President in 36 years.
From May 8 on, the Kennedy administraIt is becoming increasingly clear that the vored reforms, we have left it entirely to
tion became increasingly aware that its old the will of the Vietnamese to implement policy of placating Diem and Nhu would basic alternatives for the United States is to refuse recognition indefinitely, in the hope that reform. If they themselves had not get nowhere. These changes followed: of stimulating internal change, or to restore so strongly desired the change, we would Ambassador Frederick E. Nolting, Jr., who full relations on Dominican terms, which have seen no coup in South Vietnam. was sent to South Vietnam with explicit would imply a capitulation by the Kennedy My one regret about the recent coup was
instructions to appease Diem in the hopes administration. the violent death of Diem and Nhu, and
of restoring his confidence in the United TIES WITHOUT AID SUGGESTED all others who fell in the fight.
States, was called home for reassignment.
Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge, a bigSome observers here believe, however, that It will be no easy task to reestablish a
name politician known for his bluntness, the best solution would be a restoration of stable and effective government in South was sent out with instructions to use his formal diplomatic relations, without a re- Vietnam, a government which can rally head and stand up for things he believed in. sumption of economic and military aid.
the Vietnamese people to victory over Lodge did just that. He suggested that Such a policy, these observers say, would
the Communist Vietcong guerrillas. Nhu be relieved of his duties; he openly maintain Washington's condemnation of the anti-Bosch coup, but at the same time However, I hope we will share in helping countered Mrs. Nhu's criticism of u.s. sol would end what is becoming an untenable the leaders of the new Vietnamese Gov- diers; and he put an end to all of Nolting's international situation. ernment to successfully prosecute the obsequious visits to the palace.
President Kennedy in an extraordinary Although the Dominican leadership has war against the Communists, so that the
Labor Day TV interview, called for "changes refused to make concessions as a price for many Americans there can come home
in policy and perhaps with personnel”-an recognition, its inability thus far in finding again.
explicit encouragement to the Vietnamese international acceptance is among the fac
The effects of our policy in South Viet- military leaders who at that time had come tors causing pressures from the rightist civilian and military groups that placed it
nam were well summarized in an article to the United States asking for support if in office. by Warren Unna which appeared in the they attempted a coup.
The military leaders called off that earlier The groups are also publicly finding fault November 5 issue of the Washington
coup attempt. But the Kennedy administrawith the leadership for its alleged failure to Post. I ask unanimous consent to have
tion, on its own, proceeded to suspend two "eliminate Communists” from the adminis- this excellent article printed at this point
vital economic aid programs to South Viettration and other sectors of national life. in the RECORD.
nam and cut off the $3 million a year the The reason given for the coup was that it
There being no objection, the article CIA had been paying special forces troops would defend the country from communism. was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, whose anti-Communist efforts Nhu had reBecause the rightist groups' concept of as follows:
directed against his own Buddhists. what constitutes a Communist is extremely elastic, the Dominican leadership is increas- BRIGHTER OUTLOOK: SAIGON COUP BOOSTS
The apparent assassination of both Diem ingly faced with the choice of instituting a
and Nhu reportedly was not in the cards.
The administration believes the coup leaders' major purge one that could lead to a
(By Warren Unna)
assertion that they risked three costly hours breakdown of public administration or
The Kennedy administration's policy to- at the height of the rebellion in holding finding itself replaced by a new, more respon
ward South Vietnam, despite all the cynical their fire on the palace in the hope that sive junta.
predictions of it being either nonexistent or Diem and Nhu would accept their guarantee The leaders were criticized, in a letter
negative, suddenly seems to emerge smelling of safe conduct out of the country. published in local newspapers last week, for like a rose.
But after the white flag was flown and the slowness in finding and ejecting Communists.
As things stand now, South Vietnam even trucks wheeled into the palace to pick up The letter was from Dominican Independent may lose its eligibility for becoming a whip- Diem and Nhu the coup leaders found they Action, the civilian group principally respon
ping boy in next year's election campaign. had been duped and that the brothers had sible for pushing the military into the anti
Last week's coup in Saigon accomplished escaped. Bosch coup. two things:
Yesterday the U.S. Embassy in Saigon was A month after the end of the Dominican 1. South Vietnam gained a new govern- instructed to convey Washington's disapRepublic's brief experiment in democracy, ment which now at least has a running proval of the brothers' deaths. the country finds itself in the midst of chance of gaining the popular support needed
The Kennedy administration is well aware growing confusion and dangers from both not only to win the war against the Viet- that there is no such thing as an ideal govthe right and the left. With rapid polar- cong Communist guerrillas, but to keep the
ernment in South Vietnam. But now at ization, rightists as well as Communists and
country stable enough to move forward once least the United States can hope for working their allies are seeking to build up their that war is won.
out mutual problems with a sovereign govforces for a showdown that many Domini- 2. The United States which contributes $1.5 ernment more representative of its people. cans fear may end in bloodshed.
million a day and some 16,500 military ad-
war effort, managed to stand by its principles GAINS SEEN BY UNITED STATES
and encourage last week's coup without FUND TO HELP FINANCE EXPERT WASHINGTON, October 30.The adminis- "playing God” and being its instigator.
ASSISTANCE FOR INDIANS IN tration believes that its refusal to recognize As some of the Washington pundits ob
CASES BEFORE INDIAN CLAIMS the de facto regimes of the Dominican Re- served, “CIA couldn't have been behind this; public and Honduras is beginning to bear it worked too well."
More concrete proof of the U.S. innocence Mr. ANDERSON. Mr. President, yesThe objective of this policy is to hasten as instigator is the fact that one of the very terday President Kennedy signed into the return to constitutional order in both key State Department officials concerned with countries.
South Vietnam was out of town at the time, law H.R. 3306, which establishes a fund U.S. officials reported today that the Do- enrolling his children in school in the South. to help finance procurement of expert minican junta has indicated its willingness The Kennedy administration's policy to- assistance for Indians in cases before the to negotiate the early restoration of demo- ward South Vietnam was not always so
Indian Claims Commission. It is now cratic procedures.
clean cut and decisive. Until last May, it Public Law 88–168.