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With every good wish, I remain affection- stronger policy orientation under very favor- That is precisely why, in March of this ately yours. able psychological circumstances.
year, I declared myself Independent, leaving MIGUEL YDIGORAS FUENTES,
A strong line would refuse to recognize the ranks of the National Civic Union, my Constitutional President of Guatemala. the stability of infamy as “stable govern- party of origin. I did so in conjunction with Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I ask
ment” and demand thorough respect for the some other members of that party, because I
freedom of the Dominican people to have became convinced at that time that the unanimous consent to have printed at
their own democratically chosen govern- tendency of their principal leaders was prothis point in the RECORD a letter I re
ment. I believe that such steadfast position coup d'etat, and I was for freedom and for ceived from Luis Tovar, a senator of on the part of the United States would law and order. The events which have just Venezuela, under date of October 17, strengthen democracy in Latin America im- saddened our poor country have proved that 1963, in support of the position I have measurably and that the puppet government I was right. Finally, the leaders of the protaken on the military issue.
and its military masters would crumble and coup parties have attained by force, what There being no objection, the letter
open the way to action both viable and hon- they would not be able to attain by law: to orable in Santo Domingo.
enter the palace. was ordered to be printed in the RECORD,
There is no hatred or bitterness in my as follows:
LUIS MUÑOZ-MARÍN. heart; it is filled only with sadness and pain, [Translation]
but with much pain, not only for the sake (NOTE.—This letter was written in "tele
Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I ask
of the Dominican people but also for those graph style”—the tie-ins were provided by unanimous consent to have printed at
men who managed the insurrection and who this translator.-E.H.)
this point in the RECORD a letter from a now continue to give it moral and material REPUBLIC OF VENEZUELA,
former Senator of the Dominican Re- support.
I read with great interest the editorials
which you have been writing on the politi[DEAR SENATOR:] Your noble fight in the
cal situation of the country and on the newspaper in the Dominican Republic U.S. Senate against military coups in Latin
latest events; I can only congratulate you with the request that it be published. America has earned the gratitude of the
and tell you that the real, honest, and disinVenezuelan workers and people. You are
There being no objection, the letter terested Dominicans understand and apnow showing the best domocratic traditions
was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, plaud you. May history be the judge. of the American people. as follows:
Therefore, I humbly reiterate to you my I feel I interpret the democratic feelings
request for the favor of publishing for me of the Venezuelan people by congratulating
SEPTEMBER 28, 1963. this letter, responsibly signed by me, in Lisyou upon your affirmation of understanding Mr. RAFAEL HERRERA,
tin Diario, because it states my political poand friendship. Simultaneously I implore Director of Listin Diario
sition and I want to put it on record for you to continue your interest in the develop- Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.
the future. ment and stability of democracy in Latin
Dr. ANIBAL CAMPAGNA, you to be so kind as to publish this letter the sure defeat of communism's internain the honest newspaper which is being man
Ex-Senator for the Province of Santiago. tional conspiracy and of the remaining native aged by you with great dignity. I shall ex
Translated by Elizabeth Hanunian, Octooligarchies.
ber 16, 1963.
It so happens that on September 26 of
Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I have Senator and President of Fedepetrol.
this year I called in person at the offices of visited Latin America a number of times. El Caribe and made some statements to Vic
I have spoken with many persons in Translated by Elizabeth Hanunian, Octo
tor Marmol, a reporter, with the request that ber 24, 1963. they be published immediately, and he
many parts of Latin America, including
many officials. I spoke with numerous Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I ask promised that I would be accommodated
without fail. Yesterday morning, when I unanimous consent to have printed at
members of various delegations, not only saw that my statements had not come out from Latin America, but also from many this point in the RECORD a cablegram I
in El Caribe, I telephoned that same reporter other parts of the world, at the time I received from Luis Muñoz-Marín, of
to ask him for an explanation. Mr. Victor visited Peru, earlier this year, to attend Puerto Rico, who is a great friend of the Marmol told me, in effect, that he could not
the inauguration of the new President. United States. Governor Muñoz-Marin explain to himself what had happened.
One of the strong impressions I carried shares the fears and the concern I have The statements which I made to the news
paper El Caribe were more or less the folexpressed concerning juntas in connec
away from that inauguration was the tion with our military aid program. lowing: On September 25, at about 9 o'clock
almost unanimous opinion that delegates There being no objection, the letter building of the National Congress, to take in the morning, when I wanted to enter the
from embassies and delegates specially
appointed by the heads of their governwas ordered to be printed in the RECORD, my place as Senator with which office the ments expressed to me an opposition to as follows:
Province of Santiago had honored me, sev- the type of military aid that we have Hon. WAYNE MORSE, eral members of the National Police arrested
been giving to Latin America. U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C.:
me and took me to Fortaleza Osana where I have just sent the following cable to I was detained, together with other Members
Also, they expressed deep concern President Kennedy regarding Santo Domingo of Congress, until 5:30 o'clock in the after
about the fact that in the minds of situation: The United States faces a prob- noon. Ir. those statements I had expressed many, the U.S. Government is linked lem, a challenge, and an opportunity. As a my indignation not only because of the fact with the support of military juntas. citizen and as a neighbor of the Dominican of my arrest, but especially because of the Later this afternoon, I shall offer my people I feel it my duty to make my views act of insurrection which they had just con- amendment on military juntas. known to you. summated, destroying that freedom for
I close my, argument now by asking I unreservedly favor taking a hard line which I had been fighting for such a long
the chairman of the Committee on Fortoward the usurping government of Santo time. I ended my statements by calling on Domingo. No recognition, no economic aid.
eign Relations to hear me through on the Dominican people not to lose their faith A soft line would result as I see it in the in the future and their confidence in de- the purpose of the amendment that is following:
mocracy, because though freedom might have now pending. 1. A further demonstration of the power- momentary setbacks, it would never perish. The committee amendment authorizes lessness of the United States to support the Those were more or less my statements an additional appropriation under Pubdemocratic governments in the hemisphere; that day; but now I want to say a few addi- lic Law 86-735 of $175 million. This 2. A chain reaction of military coups in tional words:
amount compares with the request of Latin America (Honduras is now said to be All the Dominican people know with what the administration for $200 million. on the verge);
enthusiasm and energy I was performing The authorization is on a no-year basis 3. A shot in the arm for communism as
my senatorial duties while I held that office the Batista dictatorship in Cuba turned out of which I was very proud because it had
and is intended to supplement the initial to be;
been conferred on me, in free elections, by authorization, now exhausted, of $500 4. Deprive Alliance for Progress of a num- the people and not by the force of machine- million. ber of democratic partners compelling United guns. I fought in that Congress, to the Most of this $175 million is intended States to deal with the oligarchies that op- point of exhaustion, defending the Consti- to replenish the Social Progress Trust pose the reforms that are the basis of the tution and law and order on many occasions, Fund of the Inter-American DevelopAlliance; when I felt that the majority party which
ment Bank, with a small amount to sup5. Depend on military usurpation to com- was in power was violating the Constitution bat communism instead of depending on and the freedom (of the people). I will port development programs run by the democracy;
never be able to support the men who have OAS. 6. Allowing to lapse the opportunity of destroyed the legal state of this country's The SPTT is used to foster improveusing the Santo Domingo situation for a law and order.
ments in housing, land reform, sanitation, water supply, education, and tax If this amendment is adopted, so far man of the committee will see fit to acreform. As of December 31, 1962, the as I am concerned, it will be the last of cept it. SPTF had made 53 loans totaling $320,- my attempts to offer money amend- Mr. FULBRIGHT. As the Senator 562,000. These loans are intended to ments, because it and my other amend- from Alaska has said, the substance of support social reform efforts undertaken ments will make a total saving in this this amendment is now included in the by the Latin American countries them- bill, as compared with the bill as re- House version of the bill, and I believe selves.
ported from the committee, of an even the principle of the amendment has been This is dealt with on page 38 of the $500 million.
lived up to. Therefore, I believe the report, where we find that the commit- Mr. FULBRIGHT. Mr. President, I amendment is unnecessary. tee advises the Senate that the trust fund have considered the Senator's amend- I hope the Senator from Alaska will was created under a trust agreement be- ment, and I am perfectly willing to have not insist on having the Senate adopt tween the United States and the Inter- the Senate vote on it now.
this amendment to the committee American Bank. Under the trust agree- The PRESIDING OFFICER. The amendment, because if this amendment ment, the SPTF is commissioned to sup- question is on agreeing to the amend- is not adopted, this subject matter will port the social reform efforts of Latin ment of the Senator from Oregon to be in conference, and that is desirable. American countries which are prepared the committee amendment, as amended,
The Senator from Alaska has offered to initiate or expand effective institu- in the nature of a substitute.
a number of amendments which propose tional improvements and to employ their
The amendment to the committee
the inclusion of language already in the own resources prudently and efficiently. amendment, as amended, was agreed to. House version of the bill
. I do not beCountries participating in the Alliance
Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I move
lieve these countries have refrained from for Progress are represented in the SPTF that the vote by which this amendment agreeing to the making of such audits of under a system of weighted voting. to the committee amendment, as amend
the accounts. In one case—that of the Then the report states: ed, was agreed to be reconsidered.
Diem government, I believe—there was In signing the trust agreement under Mr. FULBRIGHT. Mr. President, I such a refusal; but that is about the only which the Inter-American
Development Bank move to lay on the table the motion to instance of which I know. In that case was vested with the responsibility for adreconsider.
there was a very tense relationship, ministering the Social Progress Trust Fund,
really during a state of warfare, in it was the intent of the United States, and
The motion to lay on the table was
which that government failed to abide of the Bank, that the Fund would be used to agreed to.
by these requirements. But I believe encourage maximum self-help efforts on the Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I thank part of the participating countries, and that the chairman of the committee very to, and it is the policy of the existing ad
that today this requirement is lived up the countries themselves would reform exist- much for his cooperation. As he knows, ministration to do so. ing institutions and practices which impede this has not been a happy situation for
I hope, therefore, that the Senator the fields of ownership and use of land, edu- me—in finding myself in opposition, in from Alaska will not press for a vote by cation and training, health and housing, tax- connection with some amendments, to ation and other aspects of the mobilization my good friend, the Senator from the Senate on his amendment. If the
amendment is withdrawn, this subject of domestic resources. It is clear, further, Arkansas.
matter will be in conference. from the agreement that the performance of
AMENDMENT NO. 297
Section 506 of the existing law prothe borrowing countries is intended to be a
Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, I vides, among other things, thatprimary criterion for the making of loans. have a number of amendments which I
(3) It will, as the President may require, In view of the disappointing perform- hope the chairman of the committee will permit continuous observation and review ance of many Latin American countries agree to accept.
by, and furnish necessary information to, in the area of reform and self-help, it
First, I offer to the committee amend- representatives of the U.S. Government with cannot be said that they have, on the ment, as amended, my amendment No. regard to the use of such articles; and whole, fulfilled the requirements of the 297.
President consents to trust agreement.
other disposition, it will return to the U.S. · The PRESIDING OFFICER. The
Government for such use or disposition as For this reason, I do not believe that amendment of the Senator from the President considers in the best interest the amount authorized for the SPTF Alaska to the committee amendment, of the United States, such articles which are by the bill as reported from the com- as amended, will be stated.
no longer needed for the purposes for which mittee for Public Law 86-735 can be
The LEGISLATIVE CLERK. On page 51
furnished. justified. I urge, therefore, that the
of the committee amendment, as In the existing law there are several proposed authorization be reduced by amended, between lines 13 and 14, it is provisions which I believe add up to the $20 million—from $175 million to $155 proposed to insert the following:
same thing as the Senator's amendmillion.
(k) No assistance shall be furnished un- ment, which merely provides that our I point out that because of the lapse der section 201, 211, or 251 of this Act to representatives shall oversee the use of time that has already occurred and the government of any country which does made of the aid furnished to the respecbecause of the additional lapse of time not agree to permit such reviews, inspec- tive countries. before the final appropriation will be tions, and audits by the United States as the A situation such as that existing in made, this authorization amount can be President may require for the purpose of
South Vietnam-during a very difficult safely reduced.
ascertaining whether such assistance is When these countries do a better job of
being administered within the recipient warfare in which there were considerable
country to carry out the purposes for which differences between the Government and self-help, if they do, there will be no it was furnished.
our Government-is unusual; but I bedifficulty with me in enlarging the fund
lieve the experience in connection with commensurate with the self-help pro
Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, this the developments in South Vietnam grams which these countries develop in
amendment was requested by the Comp- should be a warning to anyone who would connection with the authorization bill of
troller General, and has already been next year. After all, this being Novem- included in the bill as passed by the not be inclined to agree to follow these
provisions. ber, that is not very many months away. House of Representatives. It is merely
So I hope the Senator from Alaska So I urge the Senator from Arkansas
a provision that "no assistance shall be to accept this amendment, which calls furnished under section 201, 211, or 251 will not press for action by the Senate on
his amendment, although I agree with for a $20-million cut. No program will
of this act to the government of any the sentiments he has expressed. be damaged by the amendment; no loan
country which does not agree to permit
Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, in in the offing will be prevented by the making of this cut.
the United States as the President may the committee that withdrawal of the In addition, I think this is the kind of require for the purpose of ascertaining amendment will enable him to have warning and lesson we should send to our
whether such assistance is being admin- greater latitude in the conference, I now Latin American neighbors, so as again to istered within the recipient country to withdraw the amendment. make clear that the determination of carry out the purposes for which it was Mr. FULBRIGHT. I thank the SenCongress is that the United States will furnished.”
ator from Alaska. help with the Alliance for Progress when I think this is a desirable housekeep- The PRESIDING OFFICER. The there is a little more self-help by them. ing amendment, and I hope the chair
ing amendment, and I hope the chair- amendment of the Senator from Alaska
to the committee amendment, as products of that kind which we do not Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, it amended, is withdrawn.
produce. Such a limitation would nul- seems to me that when our country proAMENDMENT NO. 296
lify the whole objective of our program. vides funds for the importation of goods Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, I
The amendment is objectionable on into a foreign country, that country
its merits. The previous amendment should not levy a duty on them. I benow call up my amendment No. 296, and offer it to the committee amendment, as
offered by the Senator from Alaska was lieve that my proposal is reasonable. I
not objectionable on its merits. I think should like to have the reaction of the amended.
chairman to the amendment. The PRESIDING
it was unnecessary. There would be no
OFFICER. The amendment of the Senator from Alaska principle. But in the amendment now objection to it, for we are abiding by its Mr. FULBRIGHT. The amendment
was submitted to and considered by the to the committee amendment, as
offered by the Senator, the following lanamended, will be stated.
committee. The committee rejected it. The LEGISLATIVE CLERK. On page 51 of guage appears:
The amendment would be an attempt to
(f) No assistance shall be furnished unthe committee amendment, as amended,
interfere in a most unacceptable way in der this Act for the construction or opera
the internal affairs of all the various between lines 13 and 14, it is proposed to
tion of any productive enterprise in any countries involved. When we make a insert the following:
country unless the President determines loan to a country for the purpose of the (f) No assistance shall be furnished under that similar productive enterprises within
development of that country and they this Act for the construction or operation the United States are operating at a sub
wish to buy something from our country, of any productive enterprise in any country stantial portion of their capacity. unless the President determines that similar
I do not see how that country could be productive enterprises within the United Our industries go up and down in their expected to make special regulations beStates are operating at a substantial portion activity. I am glad to say that most in- cause of the particular article purchased. of their capacity and that such assistance dustries, with some exceptions, are op- It would also have the effect of inducing will not result in depriving such United erating at a substantially high propor- countries, wherever possible-unless the States enterprises of their reasonable share tion of their capacity. But next year, country were required to purchase the of world markets. The President shall keep hypothetically, there may be a reces- article from the United States—to buy the Foreign Relations Committee and the
sion, and their production may decline. from some other country. Appropriations Committee of the Senate and
Their volume of business is a factor that the Speaker of the House of Representatives
The amendment is an attempt to infully and currently informed of assistance
varies from year to year and almost terfere with what we generally believe furnished under this Act for the construcfrom month to month.
to be the sovereign rights of every countion or operation of productive enterprises Furthermore, I believe that the ob- try to fix its own duties and import taxes. in all countries, including specifically the jective of the amendment is wrong. We I believe that it would be resented by numbers of such enterprises, the types of must compete with plants that we have other countries, and would make it very such enterprises, and the locations of such
helped to create. We believe in competi- difficult to operate the program. For all enterprises.
tion. At least we say we do. Our great practical purposes, questions of taxes, Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, this task is to modernize our own industry and so on, are unrelated to the foreign amendment is designed to eliminate the in order to be competitive. I believe we
aid program. Those questions should destructive competition which may exist can be competitive. In most fields I properly come under the reciprocal trade between concerns in the United States believe we are competitive. Here and program and under tax treaties which and those in other countries as a result there we observe cases in which modern
we enter into with other countries. of our aid program. We have spent a mills, for a temporary period, may be
If discriminatory taxes are imposed, great deal of money in financing the more efficient than ours, but that is a
of course, we should resent them. But construction of steel mills all over the continually changing situation, both in
we should try to solve that problem in world, and they operate in competition our country and abroad.
the usual manner-through diplomatic with the U.S. steel industry, which now I object to the amendment on its mer
negotiations and trade treaties. is operating far below capacity. its. I could not agree to it. We shall
For example, if a loan is made to a The same thing has been done in the have to oppose it.
private enterprise in another countrytextile industry. We have created paper
Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, un
which the act tries to encourage—for in mills, rubber plants, chemical plants, der those circumstances, and in view of aluminum plants, and much else. Those the arguments of the distinguished many places it professes its devotion to
private enterprise-that particular comdollars actually cause such industries chairman of the committee, I believe I
pany would then receive a competitive to compete seriously
with ours at a time would prefer to leave him to wrestle with advantage because of tax-free imports. when we have considerable unemploy- the conferees on the part of the House, We would get into some very strange ment.
which has adopted the amendment. I situations. Suppose in a foreign country The amendment is a moderate one. It have pointed out the perils of our subsi- factory A did not receive a U.S. loan; it also repeats the language of the House dizing foreign competition with our dolbill. In view of the fact that there lars against our industries. The
subject would have to pay taxes on materials it
bought. Suppose it should import texcould be no objection to the principle will come up again when the next bill is
tile machinery, on which it would pay a of the amendment, I hope the chairman considered. We shall then have a
tax. On the other hand, suppose that will see fit to accept it. chance to reevaluate it. Therefore, I
company B, which received a loan from Mr. FULBRIGHT. Mr. President, I ask that my amendment be withdrawn.
us, should buy the same machinery from believe this amendment is in a quite dif
The PRESIDING OFFICER. The
a manufacturer in this country under ferent category from the other one. amendment of the Senator from Alaska
the terms of the amendment. Company First, the principle as applied in relation is withdrawn.
B obviously would obtain a competitive to the amendment is unworkable. Fur- Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, I call
advantage, which would cause great comthermore, one of the main purposes of up my amendment No. 233 and ask that
plaint in that country. the program in the past has been to help it be stated.
The amendment would be far-reachvarious countries develop their own pri
The PRESIDING OFFICER. The
ing in its effect and would intervene in vate enterprise to the point at which amendment of the Senator from Alaska
the tax programs of the various counthey could be made self-sufficient. For will be stated.
tries involved. I honestly do not see how all practical purposes, I believe the The LEGISLATIVE CLERK. On page 51,
we could administer it. If we should alamendment would completely nullify a between lines 13 and 14, it is proposed to
tempt to administer and apply it, we major part of the Development Loan insert the following new subsection:
would only create great resentment and Fund. It would be better to abolish the (f) No loan or grant shall be made under
make the administration of the program Development Loan Fund. I do not see any provision of this Act to any country, or how we can apply the principle, because to any recipient therein, unless such coun
much more difficult than it is now. practically every industry that is devel
try shall have agreed to exempt from all cus- One of the reasons why the program oped in any country is, to some degree,
toms duties or other import taxes levied by has run into difficulty in the past is the competitive with our own industry. such country any articles procured in the
multiple restrictions placed by Congress United States or any of its territories with I do not believe the Senator really
the proceeds of such loan or grant, including upon the administration of the program. means that we ought to assist only in any amounts thereof loaned by the original Those restrictions have made the prothe growing of coffee, bananas, or a few recipient to borrowers within such country. gram subject to criticism and resentment
on the part of the countries receiving What happened? He created so much have not spent substantial amounts in help.
chaos that the British withdrew their those cases that I know of. Any undue discriminatory taxes im- proposal to give independence to British I have asked my assistant here to look posed by recipient countries ought to be Guiana. It is still a colony. It is still up those amounts, which he will do in a protested. They ought to be fought by in chaos.
moment, unless the Senator already has our country in the regular way. If the Why on earth should the United States them. I believe he will find that they taxes are too discriminatory, I agree continue to subsidize colonies of that are insignificant. that we ought not to give that country character?
Mr. GRUENING. I believe the Peace aid. But to apply the requirement, as I hope the chairman will accept this Corps is one of the most outstandingly the amendment of the Senator from amendment. I believe it is a proper successful enterprises in our whole forAlaska would do, as a condition of any one. I believe it will hasten the libera- eign aid program and I support it unloan, would go much too far and would tion of those countries that should be qualifiedly. I believe it has done a magnot be workable.
liberated. If they should not be liber- nificent job. In view of the exemption Mr. GRUENING. I hope the RECORD ated, then the mother country should that has been made for the Peace Corps will show that in the case of the amend- subsidize them, not the United States. would not the proper procedure be, in ment now before the Senate and the pre
Mr. FULBRIGHT. I know of no sub
I know of no sub- these colonies—where the chairman says vious amendment dealing with competi- stantial aid other than to Guiana, which We hope to create a good atmosphere and tion, the AID administration will take is a special case to which I shall refer. are looking to the day of their independthese problems under serious considera- With regard to British Honduras, we ence, to be friendly with them and to tion, and that when the Foreign Rela- are not giving aid. We did at one time, teach our language--to use the Peace tions Committee draws up the foreign aid but not any longer. As the Senator well Corps, which is exempt from these proauthorization bill for the next session of knows, the British had committed them- visions, and cut out all other forms of the Congress, it will take those questions selves to make Guiana independent. aid? I ask that as a matter of principle. under advisement, and take appropriate The reason we had a special interest I believe it is desirable. action.
there was that the largest investments The Peace Corps can furnish the techIn view of the chairman's views on the in British Guiana are American invest- nical aid and the teaching aid and all subject, and the making of the record, ments. Guiana is the original source these other things. I believe that would I withdraw the amendment.
of bauxite for the largest company in be the finest kind of support for these The PRESIDING
colonies, which are not entirely happy OFFICER. The the country. amendment of the Senator from Alaska The hope was that, as a result of the under their present status. They look is withdrawn.
transition, there would be a stable and forward to independence. The Peace Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, I of- viable country. But the situation has Corps could do this interim job. But I fer an amendment which I send to the been so bad that the British nave de- believe that other forms of aid are obdesk and ask to have stated.
layed or postponed the time for Guiana's jectionable on principle. The PRESIDING
The record is being made. I hope the complete independence, because of the OFFICER. The
Peace Corps can be encouraged to proamendment of the Senator from Alaska danger of it becoming another Cuba.
The reason we put aid in there is the vide assistance. will be stated.
I understand we are same reason we have a special interest considering the enlarging of the approThe LEGISLATIVE CLERK.. On page 48, in peace in the Middle East and in other priations for the Peace Corps. That is between lines 3 and 4, it is proposed to insert the following:
places-because of substantial American a people-to-people contact, of the finest
investments. That is the only case I kind. (m) No grant or loan shall be made under can think of which would fall within the I hope that this amendment will be this Act to any country or area which is a restrictions sought by the Senator, in accepted. colony of any other nation.
which any substantial amount is in- Mr. FULBRIGHT. My efficient asMr. GRUENING. Mr. President, that volved. We are not undertaking any sistant, Mr. Holt, tells me that he is amendment has not been previously sub- substantial aid to any other country that unable to find where such is being done. mitted. The amendment would stop the I can think of.
If the Senator has any figures, we might giving of aid to the colonies of nations.
What other countries besides Guiana make a record here and recommend that We have been asking the powers of the does the Senator from Alaska have in it be stopped. Old World, including Great Britain and mind?
Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, will the France, to take a larger part in the pro- Mr. GRUENING. They are not sub- Senator yield? gram. Yet in a strangely contradictory stantial, but I believe the principle is im- Mr. GRUENING. I yield. and paradoxical way we subsidize their portant. We are giving grants to the Mr. MORSE. I do not have any incolonies while they are still colonies. French colonial possessions and to Por- formation other than what is in the How can we justify that? We have tuguese possessions which are still charts. I missed some of the debate, but given financial aid to British Guiana, to colonies of the mother country.
let me read the figures for 1963 aid to Surinam, which is Dutch Guiana,
Mr. FULBRIGHT. But are they not colonies. French Guiana, Hong Kong, and the re- purely in terms of very small technical
Mr. FULBRIGHT. We are talking maining British colonies in Africa, and assistance aid? Are they not an attempt about 1964. We have “phased out” these to the not yet free French possessions. by our Government to try to display its colonial areas, according to Mr. Holt. I think that is all wrong. I believe the interest, looking to the time when those Mr. GRUENING. All the more reason mother country should continue to send countries would be independent and we why we should adopt this amendment, if aid so long as its colonies are still her would have relations with them? Mean- we are going to follow this course anycolonies. I question also the wisdom of while, are we not largely trying to teach how. precipitating ourselves into the aid pic- a few of the inhabitants to speak Eng
Mr. FULBRIGHT. There are excepture in every new nation the minute lish, and nothing substantial in any tional cases, the Senator would agree, that new nation is spawned. Certainly, case?
such as Guiana. At least the facts there so long as they are still colonies, I see no
Mr. GRUENING. I believe the whole involved, really, the defense of our own justification whatever why they should principle is improper. If technical aid is security, and protecting the vast Amerireceive our aid. If aid is needed, it needed, why not let the mother country can investments. There was a great should come from the mother country. provide it? We have been urging mother danger, which we all recognized, of hav
In British Guiana, Cheddi Jagan, who countries to do more in their programs. ing Guiana become another Cuba. All is of rather doubtful character, came to They have disappointed our expecta- Senators—as well as the Senator from the United States prior to his election tions.
Alaska-would be very critical if that and persuaded the AID administration
Mr. FULBRIGHT. I know the French
I know the French should occur. to give him $10 million. As a result, he have given large amounts to their former The Senator would say we cannot give went back to Guiana and was elected. colonies, because they have expectation any aid to this country, which is on the He was elected as a result of telling the of continued trade, and so forth. We verge of becoming independent, when we people that he was "in solid” with the have gone in on the theory that we ex- ourselves hoped the British would delay United States and had $10 million to pect to have relations with them. We the time for giving them their inprove it.
want them to be friendly with us. We dependence, in the hope that something could be worked out to change the situa- ple we should assert. It is late. We have
ple we should assert. It is late. We have tions, which is the committee that deals tion. There is no doubt about the spent 2 weeks on the bill.
spent 2 weeks on the bill. I know that with trusteeships and non-self-governdanger of Jagan and his government. I many Senators have engagements. I do ing territories in the world. I served believe it is wrong on another principle. not intend to press the amendment at during the famous 15th General AssemWhen a legislative body sets down prin- this time, but I should like to have a bly, the Khrushchev shoe-thumping ciples, if abided by they go on from year little further discussion of it before de- assembly. Time and time again the to year and tie the hands of the admin- bate on it is concluded. A very impor- United States was under attack in the istration—whatever administration it tant principle is involved.
fourth committee because we had taken a might be—to meet a situation like this. I was unhappy to hear the chairman wavering and weaving attitude with reI submit that the amount proposed for of the committee state that I have no
of the committee state that I have no gard to the problems of colonialism 1964 is de minimis and thus is not suffi- confidence in the administration, where around the world. That situation has cient to cause concern. I do not believe as he does. That is not precisely so. I improved a great deal since then. the Senator would wish to tie the Presi- have lacked confidence as a result of ac- I am glad that, under the leadership dent's hands in a case like the Jagan tions not of this administration, but some of the President of the United States, government. He would not wish to ex- of the previous administrations of the Secretary of State Rusk, and our Ampose us to the disastrous consequences aid programs, which change every year. bassador to the United Nations, Adlai of another situation like Cuba.
This kind of mistaken aid has been given Stevenson, we are not equivocating in Mr. GRUENING. In the case of by some of the previous administrators. our votes any more. We are not abBritish Guiana, we were subsidizing the When an administrator gives $10 mil- staining when the hot colonial issues "Castro" of British Guiana.
lion to Cheddi Jagan, a Communist, a come before the United Nations. That Mr. FULBRIGHT. What the Senator subversive individual, who has put that is to the everlasting credit of the adminis saying is that we have made mistakes. colony in chaos and prevented it from istration. I do not mean to imply that I cannot defend everything that has been becoming independent, I think I am jus- we have gone far enough in the United done under this program. We have made tified in saying that I do not have con- Nations—because we have not-in dismistakes. I do not believe, however, that fidence in most of the past foreign aid sociating ourselves completely from cowe should take responsibility for Jagan. administrators.
lonialism. But there has been a great I know we certainly did not intend to I would like to foreclose future acts of improvement. allow Guiana to become a Communist that kind. I do not think American tax- The reason why I cosponsored the foothold. Whether the situation was payers should be asked to pour money amendment is that I do not believe we handled right, I do not know. I know into any colonies. I think that is the ought to be pouring money into any colit is a very difficult situation. The con- duty of the mother country.
ony of any country. We never know test in Guiana between the two parties, Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, as a co- when the people of that colony are going from what I have read about it, is an sponsor of the amendment, who would to take a stand for independence. It is extremely difficult thing to handle. support the amendment if it came to a easy to overlook the fact that we had
It is an extremely difficult problem to vote, although I do not have the 1964 been giving them aid for their benefit. handle. I do not think we can lay down figures, I shall include in the RECORD the That is the only reason we have given policies for the administration in day figures for the years up to 1963. But if money to those colonies, so far as motivato-day situations. Our committee staff I understood the chairman of the com- tion is concerned. But motivation can chief cannot find any other colonial area mittee and I was not present to hear all easily be misinterpreted. The charge to which aid is proposed to be given. the debate—it is not contemplated that will be made that, after all, we supported
Mr. GRUENING. Unless we include in 1964 we are going to be supporting col- Great Britain, France, and the Netherthe prohibition, there is no evidence that onies.
lands in maintaining a stranglehold over they will not resume giving aid to British Mr. FULBRIGHT. Mr. President, if certain colonies by pouring money into Honduras.
the Senator will yield, many of these them. Mr. FULBRIGHT. The Senator ap- areas that have been getting aid have
That principle is very important. It is parently has no confidence in the ad- achieved their independence; they are
why I was very happy to join the Senator ministration. I cannot accept that no longer colonies. Many have become from Alaska in the amendment when he principle. I will accept the idea that it independent. Jamaica, for example, is
first discussed it with me. has made mistakes, but I cannot accept no longer a colony. The amount pro- A wonderful record has been made by the idea that they are complete idiots vided for that purpose is very small. the Senator from Alaska and by the and will never follow a reasonable policy. There are only one or two that are called chairman of the committee. I shall disThere is no proposal that we know of for colonies. They are not scheduled to get sent from one observation made by the any such program. much for 1964.
chairman of the committee in a moment. Mr. SYMINGTON. Mr. President, Mr. GRUENING. It was folly to give First I wish to put into the RECORD figwill the Senator yield? such aid to them.
ures that are not classified. The 1964 Mr. GRUENING. I yield to the Sen
Mr. FULBRIGHT. The Senator will figures are classified, but the figures are ator from Missouri. get no argument from me about that.
small in amount and apply to only one Mr. SYMINGTON. I was about to Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, may I colony. It would be extremely difficult make a point brought up by the Senator ask the Senator from Arkansas a ques- to deny the type of aid that goes to from Arkansas. I voted with the Senation? The figures just shown to me by that colony.
that colony. The aid seeks to benefit tor from Alaska on amendments de
Mr. Holt, of the committee staff, show the people, and not the British Governsigned to reduce money authorization, that colonies that heretofore have been ment. but it seems to me this amendment goes receiving some aid—and I shall put that May I ask the chairman if he can obtoo far into legislative prerogative, the amount in the RECORD shortly–will not tain information for me as to whether normal functions of the executive receive any, except for one colony. Is some of the aid has been in the form of branch. I would have more confidence that correct?
Public Law 480 funds? in this administration than expressed Mr. FULBRIGHT. Looking at the Mr. FULBRIGHT. I am sorry. I did by the amendment. I submit this think- worldwide chart, that is correct.
not hear the question of the Senator. ing to my able colleague from Alaska. Mr. MORSE. If I may have the at- Mr. MORSE. Some of the aid that we
Mr. GRUENING. I say to my friend tention of the Senator from Alaska, who have given to certain colonies in the from Missouri and my friend the chair- is the author of the amendment, of which past has really been in the form of Pubman of the committee that I think we I am a cosponsor, I think he has made lic Law 480 aid. Is that correct? have accomplished a great deal in im- a great record on this amendment, as he Mr. FULBRIGHT. The chart says proving the bill. It is a much better bill. has on all his other amendments. I “worldwide." I would have to look it up. We have, in effect, rewritten it on the want to go on record as saying that the Mr. GRUENING. That refers to aid floor of the Senate. We have a good administration has made mistakes in we had been giving to Hong Kong. legislative record.
giving support to colonies of other Mr. FULBRIGHT. That was really I say for the RECORD that for the countries. I think we would have a hard nothing but relief. United States to give financial aid to a time answering why, on principle.
Mr. MORSE. I want to draw that colony of Great Britain, or France, or I served on the fourth committee of distinction. There is a distinction. any other country, is folly. It is a princi- the General Assembly of the United Na- When aid goes to a colony for food pur