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George III. from its pedestal in the Bowling Green, and afterwards had it moulded into republican bullets. In Philadelphia, the people illuminated their houses, lighted bonfires, tore down the king's arms from the court-house, and burned them in the streets. In Boston, the Declaration was publicly read in Faneuil Hall, amid the acclamations of assembled thousands.

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311. On evacuating Boston, General Howe went to Halifax, whence he soon after set sail for New York. 8th of July, he had landed 9,000 men on Staten Island, and four days afterwards his brother, Admiral Howe, arrived with reënforcements from England. These, with Clinton's detachment and subsequent arrivals, swelled the British army to 30,000 men. Of these, a large part were Germans, generally known as Hessians, because most of them were furnished by the Landgrave of Hesse Cas'-sel. The British government paid the princes from whom they hired these mercenaries $36 for each man, and guaranteed to protect their dominions from attack.

312. General Howe had been instructed to try conciliatory measures with the Americans. Accordingly, he issued a proclamation, offering pardon to all who would return to their allegiance. Congress caused this document to be published in the papers of the day, to show the people that the king would still be satisfied with nothing but their absolute submission. Howe next sent an officer to the American camp with a letter addressed to George Washington, Esq. Washington would not receive it, inasmuch as it did not thenceforth styled ? What did Washington do on receiving the news ? demonstrations were made in New York? In Philadelphia ? In Boston ?

311. What course did Howe take, on leaving Boston ? On the 8th of July, what did he do? By whom was he joined ? How large an army did he soon have? From what country did a large part of them come? What were they called? On what terms did the British government procure these mercenaries ? 312. What had Howe been instructed to do? Give an account of his efforts at negotiation.



225 recognize his public position. The address was then altered to George Washington, &c., &c.; and the officer who brought the letter tried to satisfy the commander that these and-soforths bore any meaning he might wish to give them. Washington still declined. He would receive no letters, he informed the British officer, that were not directed to him as commander of the American army. He had heard that Lord Howe was empowered to grant pardons; but, as those who were guilty of no fault needed no pardon, he did not see the necessity for any communication.

313. These attempts having failed, Howe determined to assume the offensive without further delay. On the 22d of August (1776), General Clinton crossed from Staten Island to the southwest point of Long Island, with 10,000 men and 40 cannon. Nine thousand Americans had been stationed in and about Brooklyn, under Generals Sullivan and Stirling, and Putnam was hastily sent over from New York, to take the chief command. The British landed without opposition, and advanced in three divisions, by three different roads, crossing the thickly wooded heights that ran across the island and separated them from the Americans. Gen. Grant took the direct left-hand route along New York Bay. The British centre, consisting of Hessians under Gen. Heister [hise'-ter], advanced by the Flatbush road. Clinton, who commanded on the right, was to take a circuitous route and fall on Sullivan's rear. The attack was skilfully planned and well carried out.

On the morning of the 27th, Grant advanced as far as the hills now embraced in Greenwood Cemetery. Here he was met by Stirling with 1,500 men, and an engagement ensued, without any positive advantage on either side. Heister pushed on to within a short distance of Gen. Sullivan, and kept up a brisk cannonade on his front. It was answered with spirit by the Americans, till, to their dismay, they heard a distant

313. On what did Howe now resolve ? What was done by the British, August 22d, 1776? How many Americans were stationed near Brooklyn? By whom were they commanded? How many roads crossed the heights of Long Island ! Give an account of the British advance. What was Clinton's division to do?

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firing behind them. Clinton had gained the Jamaica road, and was rapidly advancing on their rear.

Almost surrounded, they could hope for safety only in a hasty retreat. This Sullivan attempted; but it was too late. The British already held the road, and drove his men back on the Hessians. Only a few forced their way through Clinton's ranks. After a desperate struggle, Sullivan, with many of his officers and men, was obliged to surrender.

Cornwallis [korn-wol'-lis] hastened on towards the Bay, to cut off Stirling's division. A sharp conflict ensued, and the Americans, driving the enemy back, reached Go-wan'-us Creek. In trying to cross the stream, a number were drowned; others feared to attempt the passage, and were

[See Map.-what bay east of Brooklyn? Where did the British land ? What British vessels below the Narrows ? What village near Gen. Sullivan's position ?] Give an account of Grant's movements. Of Heister's. Of Clinton's. How was Sullivan's retreat cut off? What became of him and his men ? Describe Stir


227 made prisoners. Stirling himself was taken, and comparatively few of his men reached Fort Putnam in safety. The British were completely victorious. Their loss was but 367 in killed and wounded ; that of the Americans amounted to 1,650, 1,100 of whom were prisoners. The latter, doomed to suffer in loathsome prison-ships, almost regretted that they had not fallen on the field.

314. While the battle was still raging, Washington crossed from New York. With anguish he beheld the slaughter of his best troops; nor could he attempt their relief with men from the fort, for already the garrison was too small for its defence. All he could hope to do was to save the remnant of the army. Fortunately Howe did not attack the fort, but, encamping about a third of a mile from it, waited for the fleet to come up. The next morning (August 28th), the British commenced firing on the fort. At midnight a heavy fog arose, which hid the armies from each other throughout the following day. On the evening of the 29th, the men were silently paraded, and about midnight they commenced embarking from the point now occupied by the Fulton Ferry. The boats moved noiselessly with muffled oars; and in the course of six hours, the whole army, with their baggage and munitions, the heavy artillery alone excepted, crossed in safety to New York. Washington remained till the last company had embarked. He had not slept for two days, so great was his anxiety to save his men.

315. Secure of his prey, Howe had no suspicion of what was going on. A woman living near the ferry discovered the movement, and sent a negro to the British general with the intelligence. But providentially falling into the hands of the Hessians, who could not understand what he said, he was detained till his information was too late to be of value. When the discovery was made, soon after dawn, a troop of .

ling's engagement with Cornwallis. What was the fate of Stirling's division ? What was the loss on both sides ? What was the fate of the prisoners ? 314. What is said of Wasbington ? Where did Howe encamp ? Give an account of the movements of August 28th and 29th. Describe the retreat to New York. 315. By whom was the movement of the Americans discovered ? How was the intelligence prevented from reaching Gen. lIowe? What was found soon after dawn?


British horse was despatched to the river, but the last boat of the retreating Americans was beyond their reach. Mortified that he had allowed the enemy to escape, Howe took possession of Fort Putnam, and allowed his men a few days' rest.

The overthrow on Long Island was every way disastrous to the Americans. Besides their actual loss, it deprived the army of their self-confidence, led to the desertion of hundreds, and prevented many from espousing the republican

The defeat of the Americans is attributable in part to their total want of cavalry, but principally to their neglecting to have a sufficient guard on the Jamaica road. It is said that a single regiment at the proper point could have prevented Clinton's advance.

316. Supposing that the Americans might now incline to peace, Howe sent Sullivan on parole with a proposition to Congress. A committee was appointed by that body to confer with the British general; but, as neither party would make concessions, nothing was effected. Franklin was on this committee; and, when Howe spoke of England's being ready to protect the colonies, he begged to assure his lordship that the colonies felt fully able to protect themselves.

317. The British army was soon ready to attack New York, and Washington felt that, with the means at his command, he could not successfully oppose them. Accordingly, he removed his stores to the forts above the city, and commenced-retreating to the north. It being highly important to gain some knowledge of Howe's movements, Captain Nathan Hale, of Connecticut, undertook to visit the British camp as a spy. He reached the English lines in safety, and obtained the desired information. On his way back, however, he was recognized by a tory relative, who arrested him and took him to Howe's head-quarters. He was executed on the 22d of September. The services of a clergyman, and

What did Howe do? What was the effect of the battle of Long Island ? To what is the defeat of the Americans attributable? 316. What attempt at negotiation was now made? How did it result? What answer was made by Franklin ? 317. What were Washington's next movements ? What dangerous enterprise

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