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every necessary. From their narrative, drawn 14th to February 3d, of which period up in that style of artless fimplicity which twenty days were palled in total darkness, affords the Itrongest presumption of veracity, except the light of lamps, which they conti. I shall extract the most material circum- nued to keep continually burning. Wich all stances.
this, it does not appear that any of them were At their wintering place was fortunately a affected with the icurvy, or any other disorlarge substantial wooden building, erected for der; and the degree of weakne's which the use of the coopers belonging to the fish. seems implied by the mention of their recoery. Within this they built a smaller one, vering strength in the spring, may be sufficiwhich they made very compact and warm. ently accounted for, merely from their short Here they constructed four cabins, with allowance of nutritious food. At the return comfortable deer-skin beds; and they kept of the thips on May 25tld, they all appear to up a continual fire, which never went out for have been in health; and all of them returneight months. They were tolerably suppli- ed in safety to their native country. ed with fuel from some old casks and boats The latt relation I fha!) adduce, is one of which they broke up for the purpose. Thus late date, considerably resembling the foreprovided with lodging, their principal care going in several of its circumstances, but still was about their subsistence. Before the cold more extraordinary, weather set in, shey killed a good number of In the year 1743, a Russian fhip of East deer, the greatest part of which they cut up, Spitzbergen, in lat. between 77 and 78, was roasted and stowed in barrels ; reserving some so incloled with ice, that the crew, appreraw for their Sunday's dinners. This I ima. henlive of being obliged to winter there, sent gined mull have been frozen ; as it began to four of their men in a boat to seek for a but, freeze sharply before they were settled in , which they knew to have been crected near their habitation. This venison, with a few that coast. The but was discovered, but the fea-horses and bears, which they killed from men, on returning to the fore, fuurid all the time to time, constituted their whole winter's ice cleared away, and the thip no longer to provision, except a very unfavoury article they be seen ; and indeed it was de er more heard were obliged to make out with, wlich was of. I pas over their first !ra víports of grief whale's fritters, or the scraps of fat after the and despair, and also their niany ingenious oil had been pressed out. These too having contrivances to furnish thermielves with the been wetted and thrown in heaps were moul- necessaries they food most a need of. Their dy. Their usual course of diet ther, for the diet and way of life are treci cumiances pe. first three months, was one meal of venison culiarly connected with iry fubjcct. After every day in the week except Wednesdays fitting up their but as comfortably as they and Fridays, when they kept fast on whale's could, and laying in dit wood colitéied oa fritters. At the end of this period, on exa- the shore for fuel, they turned their attenmining their stock, they found it would not tion chiefly to the procuring of provision. hold out at this rate, and therefore for the Tiree species of animals, which they caught ensuing three months they retrenched their and killed by various devices, conftituted their venison meals to three days in the weck, and whole variety of food. There were rem-deer, appeared their hunger as well as they could white bears and foxes. The felh they eat on the other four days upon the moully frit. almost raw, and without falt; using by way ters. At the approach of spring, they had of bread to it other fleih, dried hard in the the good fortune to kill several white bears, smoke. Their drink was running water in which proved excellent food; and together the summer, and melted ice and snow in the with wild fowl and foxes which they caught, winter, Their preservatives against the fourrendered it unnecessary any longer to flintvy were, swaliowing raw frozen meat brothemselves to so rigorous an allowance; so ken into bies, drinking the warm blood of that they eat two or three meals of freth meat rein-deer juft kille, eating scurvy grass wlien daily, and soon improved in ftrength and vi- they could meet with it, and ning mucha gour. Their only drink during this whole exercise. By there means three of them time, was running water procured from be- remained citirely free from this disease neath the ice on the beach, lill January ; and during the whole of their abode.
The afterwards now water melted by hot irons.
fourth died of it, after lingering on to The cold in the miutt of winter was extreme, the sixth year. It is remarked, that this it raised blisters in the fleth ; and when they person was of an indolent disposition, and went abroad tlie; became fore all over, as if could not conquer bis averfion to drinking besten. Inn), on being icucied, stuck to the the rem-deer's blood. The three survivors, imgera, te bie!-!.me. I lie mel ocholy of alier ren aining lix years and three months on Her filloin with variabited by the abience this de:olate and folitav ifiind, were haprily of the fun fiunt: thu krizon, tiom Octuber recued by a ship shiven catually upon this
coast, and returned home in safety. They " that the Laplanders live without corn and were strong and healthy at their return; but wine, without falt, and every kind of artiby habit bad contracted an inability of eating - ficial liquor, on water and flesh alone, and breal, or drinking spirituous liquors. food prepared from them ; and yet are en
To the above relations, I shall add the tirely free from the scurvy."* following short quotations relative to the same Having thus stated the facts which have fubject,
fallen in my way relative to this subject, I In a note to the account of the four proceed to a comparison of their several cirRaffians, it is said, “ Councellor Muller cumstances, and some remarks on the geneLys, the Raftians about Archangel should be ral result. im ted; some of whom every year winter The scurvy appears to be the disease pecu. in Nova Zembla without ever contracting liarly dreaded, and fatal in all the above rethe four y. They follow the example of lated attempts to winter in extremely cold the Sarwedes, by frequently drinking the climates. Whether the circumstance of cold warm blood of rein-deer just killed. The itself, or the want of proper food occasioned hunting of these animals requires continual by it, principally conduces to the generation exercise. None ever keep their huts during of this disease, is a point not clearly ascerthe day, unless stormy weather, or tained. From the preceding narrations, howgreat quantity of snow, hinders them from ever, no doubt can be entertained, that it is taking their usual exercise.”
possible for persons to keep free from the la a manuscript French account of the scurvy, in countries and seasons the most inBands lying between Kamschatka and Ame- tensely cold, provided their diet and manner rica, drawn up by that eminent naturalist of living be properly adapted to such fituaad geographer Mr. Pallas, I find it men- tions; and this without the aid of fresh ve. woed, that the Ruffians in their hunting getables, or any of those other preservatives vofages to these islands, (an expedition gene. which have of late been proposed by ingenimaliy fafting three years) in order to save ex. Ous writers. pence and room in purchasing and lowing When we compare the histories above regetable provision, compose half their crew's recited, it is impoffible not to be immediately of satives of Kamchatka, because these peo struck with these leading circumstances, that ple are able to preserve themselves from the those in whom the scurvy raged, fed upon faany with animal food only, by abstaining Salt provisions, and drank jpirituors liquors; from tbe af of jull."
whereas those who escaped it fed upon from Lastly, in the excellent oration of Lin- animal food, or, at least, preserved without szus, tbe advartuges of travelling in one's fall, and drank water. country, printed in the third volume of
[To be continued] tée szcatates Heademice, it is asserted,
Quid fit turpe, quid utile, quid dulce, quid non. planting and Ornamental Gardening ; a Practical Treatise. 8vo. 8s. Boards. Dodsley. 1785. HIS Practical Treatise opens with the " The intention of this Publication is to
bring into one point of view, and arrange in
* " In Lapplandia observabit homines absque Cerere & Baccho, abfque fale & potu omni mificali, aqua rantum & carne, & quæ ab his præparantur, contentos vivere.
Quare Norlandi, ut plurimum, scorbuto fint infecti; & cur Lappones, contra, hujus borti prorsus expertes ?"
a compendious form, the Art of Planting &c. &c. the propagation of trees and shrubs and Laying-ont Plantations: an art which, adapted to the open air of this climate, formthough in itself an unity, has hitherto been ing only a small portion of their respective treated of as two distinct subjects. Books publications. upon Planting we have many; and those up- 6. Miller and Hanbury, however, are the on Ornamental Gardening are not less nn- oply writers who could afford us the required merous; but a Practical Treatise compre- aisistance; and we were led to a choice of hending the entire subject of conducting ru- the latter, as our chief authority, by three ral improvements upon the principles of mo- principal motives :-Hanbury wrote fince dern taste, has not hitherto appeared in pub- Miller, and having made ample use of Mr. lic. This circumstance, however, is the less M.'s houk, his work contains in effect the to be wondered at, as the mau of business experience of both writers : Miller is in the and the man of taste are rarely united in the hands of most gentlemen ; Hanbury is known fame person. There are many Nurserymen to few; his book, either through a want of who are intimately acquainted with the va- method, a want of language, or through an rious methods of propagating trees and ill-judged plan of publishing on his own acShrubs ; and many gentlemen whose natural count, has never fold : and lastly, Miller's talte, reading, and observation enable them botanical arrangement is become obsolete ; to form just ideas of rural embellishment; Hanbury's is agreeable to the Linnean fylbut where shall we find the Nursery man tem. who is capable of striking out the great de- “ Since Mr. Hanbury's death, the public fign, or the Gentleman equal to the manage. have been favoured with a new and sumpment of every tree and shrub he may with tuous edition of Evelyn's Sylva ; with notes to assemble in his collection ? To proceed by Dr Hunter of York, confitting of botanione step farther, where is the Gentleman, cal descriptions, and the modern propagation or Nurseryman, who is sufficiently conver- of such trees as Evelyn has treated of. There fant in the after-treatment of Wood-lands, notes, however, contain little new informaHedges, and the more useful Plantations ? tion; the descriptions being principally copied In fine, where shall we look for the man from Miller, and the practical directions who in the fame person unites the Nursery- from Hanbury. man, the Land. Steward, the Ornamentalist « Lelt unacknowledged affistance, or affisand the Author ? We know no such man tance acknowledged indirectly, should be laid the reader therefore must not be disappointed to our charge, it is thought proper in this when he finds that, in treating of exotic trees place to particularize the several parts of this and shrubs, the works of preceding writers publication which are written from those have been made use of.
which are copied. " Cook is our first writer on Planting ; “ The INTRODUCTORY DISCOURSES, nevertheless EveLYN has been styled the containing the Elements of Planting, and the Father of Planting in England. It is proba- Outline of the Linnean System, are, as ruble that, in the early part of life, Evelyn diments, entirely new; excepting the quotawas a practical planter upon his estate at tions from Linneus's work, which quotaWotton in Surrey; but his book was writ- tions are extraded from the Litchfield Transten in the wane of life, at Greenwich, Jur- lation of The Syfiema Vegetabilium of that ing a loug and painful fit of the gout. His great man. Sylva contains many practical rules, valua- “ The ALPHABET OF PLANTS, fo far ble, no douht, in his day, but now super- as it relates to TIMBER-TREES, and other seded by modern practice; and may be said NATIVE PLANTS, as well as to some of to lie buried in a farrago of traditional tales the more USEFUL Exotics, is either wholly and learned digresiions suited to the age he our own, or contains such additions as have lived in * Miller at length arose among resulted from our own observation and expe. a group of minor planters; and after him the rience : fo far as it relates to ORNAMENTAL indefatigable HANBURY, whofe iminente Exotics, it is en rely HANBURE'S; exlabours are in a manner lost to the Public. cepting the qtiotations which are marked,
“ Cook and Evelyn treated profeffedly of and excepting the GENERAL ARRANGEFOREST-TREES, Miller and Hanbury in- MENT, which is entirely new. HANBURY clude ORNAMENTALS; but their works, has not less than fix distinct classes for the which are voluminous and expensive, also plants here treated of, namely, deciduous include kitchen.gardening, flouer-gardening, Forest-Trees, Aquatics, evergreen Foreite the management of green-houses, stoves, Trees, deciduous Trees proper for ornament
* The first Edition was printed in the year 1664, baving been previoudy read before the Royal Society in 1662.
and thade, evergreen-trees proper for orna. transplanting trees and shrubs in general. ment and thade, and hardy climbing Plants. In this part of the work, the business of the The firft three classes are without any subordi- seminary, of the nursery, and of young p!annite arrangement ; in the last three the plants cations, are distinctly detailed, and the minuare attenged alphabetically, agreeably to their tiæ of each operation described in a compreFanera. This want of himplicity in the ar
hensive manner. tangement renders the work extremely These general rules are followed by a full heavy and isklome to refer to ; and is pro. description, and the modern method of cultidétive of much unnecessary repetition, or of vating each distinct plant adapted to the purtiresome refere:ces from one part of his an. puse of useful and ornamental planting, comwiekdy work to another. His botanical syno- prehending every tree and rub, whether Dyms we have wholly thrown aside, as being native or exotic, which will bear the open burdensome, yet uninftructive ; and in their air of this climate. The plants are arranged piace we have annexed to each Species the alphabetically, agreeably to the generic names trivial or specific name of LINNEUS, which of Linneus, whose admirable system we in one word identifies the plant with a great- find bere briefly explained. As a specimen er degree of certainty thao a volume of of our author's method of arranging the leSyaopşma. Other retrenchments, and a veral species under their respective genera, multiplicity of corrections have taken place : as well as to convey some idea of the manner however, where practical knowledge ap- in which this part of the work is executed, pears to arise incidentally out of our author's we shall lay before our readers an extract own experience, we have cautiously given it from the article Quercus. a bis own words : likewise, where interes
QUERCUS ting information lies entangled in a singularity ef nanoer, from which it could not well be
" LINNEAN Class and Order, Monoecia extricated, we have marked the passages Polyandria : Male flowers containing many containing it, as literal quotations ;-10 uis- stamina, and female Aowers containing one tinguish them from others, which, having pittil, upon the same plans : There are toen written in a manner more properly thirteen SPECIES: duetic, or brought to that form by retrench- 1. QUERCUS Robur : The ENGLISH maent or correction, we consider as being Qax : a well-known tall deciduous tree; naDore fully entitled to the places we have a
tive of England ; and is found in moft parzs feed them.
of Europe. # The articles TIMBER, HEDGES, and 2. QUERCUS Phellos: The WiLLON, WOODLANDS, are altogether new *, being
LEAVED OAK ; a deciduous free ; native of drawn from a considerable share of experi
most parts of North America. ence, and an extended observation.
3. QUERCUS Prinus : The CHESNUT* The article GROUNDS is likewise new, if
LEAVED OAK ; a deciduous free; native of 27 thing new can be offered on a subject upon molt parts of North America. shich so much has been already written. 4. QUERCUS Nigra: The Black Tute, however, is a subject upon which all Oak; a low deciduous srce; native of North ren will think and write differently, even
America, asgh their sources of information may have “ 5. QUERCUS Rubra : The RED OAK; been the same. WHEATLEY, Mason, and
a lait deciduous trees native of Virginia and NAOEKE, with some EXPERIENCE, and Carolina. Duch OBSERVATION, are the principal
“ 6. QUERCUS Aiba : The WHITE Surces from which this part of our work was Oak; a ácciduous free; native of Virginia. draten; if we add that it was planned, "7. QUERCUS Escului : The ITALIAN ad in part written, among the magnificent Oak; or the CUT. LEAVED ITALIAN Oak; cenes of nature in Monmouthshire, Here
a luw deciduous free; native of Italy, Spain, fardhire, and Gloucestershire, where the
and the South of France. nch and the romantic are happily blended, “ 8. QUEROUS Ægilops : The SPANISH a a manner unparalleled in any other part of Oak, or OAK WITH LARGE ACORNS AND we liand, we flatter ourselves no one will be PRICKLY. Cups; a tall deciduous tree ; a na. tist:sfied with the origin : of the production, tive of Spain. les the Public speak."
" 9. QUERCUS Cerris: The AUSTRIAN To this Advertisement succeed such general Oak, or the OAK WITH PRICKLY CUPS Tales for plaating as are applicable to the AND SMALLER ACORNS; native of Austria propagating, training-up, planting-out, and
and Spain. #* Excepting fuch extraits and quotations as are marked, and have their respective auBarities subjoined." Error : Mac.
“ 10. QUER
10. QUERCUS Suber : The CORKBentley, was, at seven feet, thirty-four TREE ; on evergreen free;
native of the There is a large excrescence ac five ar. southern parts of Europe.
feet that would render the measure u! 11. QUENCUS llex: The ILEX, In 1778, this tree was increaseal half an Common EVERGREEN OAK ; an evergreerd in nineteen years. It does not appear : tree; native of Spain and Portugal.
hollow, but hy the trifling increase I cond 12. QUERCUS Coccifera : The KERMES it not found." Extraordinary, however Oak; a tall evergreen jhrub; 11.4tive of these dimensions may appear, they are France and Spain.
ceeded by those of the BODDINGTON O 13. QUERCUS Molucca : The LIVE a tree which we believe dves not appear Osk; an evergreer. Bi'ce; native of America. wliere upon record, except it be alluite
The ENGLISH (AK will grow to in Mr. Evelyn's lift. This vak grow's great stature and live to a great age. EVELIN; piece of rich grats land, called the whose learning and industry are evident in O‘chard Ground, belonging to Boddin every page of his elaborate work, fatigues Manor-Farm, lying near the turnpikeus with a tedi us account of large trees, between Cheltenham and Tewksbury, it: which eicher were growing in bis time, or Vile of Glocefter. The stem is remark which he found in the mouth of tradition, or collected and foug at the root, the fides o in the pages of learning and history. We trunk being more upright than those of 1 would rather however refer our readers to trecs in general; nevertheless its circur his detail th in either copy or abridge it; rence at the ground, as near to it as one confining ourselves to a few individuals of walk, is twenty paces : measuring wit our own time, which now are or were two-foot rule, it is somewhat more : very lately) actually standing in this kingilom. eighteen yards. At three feet high it i 'l he COWTHORP-Oax, now groumg at sures forty-two feet, and at its smallest Cowthorp. near Weiher by in Yorkshire, menfions, namely, from five to fix feet to has been held out as the father of the forelt. it is thirty-fix feet. Ar about fix feet it Dr. Hunter of York, in bis brilliant edition gins to Tweil out larger ; furming an e! of Mr. Evelyn's book, has favoured us with mous head, which li selvfure has been an engraving of this tree; the vinientions of wilhed with buge, and in all probability which, as he juilly observes, " are almost teufive arms. But age and ruffian w in red ble.' Within three feet of the surface, have sobbed it of a principal part of the Doctor tells us, “ it mesures sixteen grandeur ; and the greatest extent of ain yards, and close to the ground, twenty lix present (1783) is eight yarus from the the yards. Its height in its present ruinous state From the ground to the top of the crow: (1776) is about eighty-five feet, and its princ the trunk is about twelve feet, and cipal limb extends fixteen yards from the greatest height of the branches, by eftima! bule. Throughout the whole tree the fulige forty-five feet. The item is quite bulio is extremely thin, so that the anatomy of the being, near the ground, a perfect shtancient branches may be distinctly seen in the forming a capacious well-sized room ; whi height of summer. When compared to this, at the floor measures, one way, more in all other trees (the Doctor is pleated to lay) fixteen feet in diameter. The hollowne are but children of the forelt." If indeed however, contracts upwards, and forms the above admealurement mighi be taken as self into a natural dome, so that no light the dimenfion of the real fiem, its fize would admitted except at the door, and at be truly enormous, and far exceed that of
aperture or window in the side. It is it any other Osk in the kingilom. But the perfectly alive and iruitful, baring this ye Cowthurp Oik luis a short stem, as mott a fine crop of acorns upon it. It is oblesse very large trees it is observable have, spread able in this (as we believe it is in motto ing wide at the bale, the roots rifinig above trees), that its leaves are remark ihly in the ground like so many butirelles to the not larger in general than the leaves of a trunk, which is not like that of a tall-itein- Huwthorn. med tree, a cylinder, or nearly ä cylinder, " In contemplating these wonderful produs but the fruftum of a cune. Mr. MAXSHAM tions of nature we are led to conjecture li gives us a plain and accurile acount of this period of their existence : Mr. MARSHA. tree. He says, “ I found it in 1568, al in his Paper published in the First Volume om four feet, forty fee: fix inches ; at five feet, the Transactions of the Bath Agriculture So thirty-six feet ax inches ; and at fix leet, bira ciety, has given us some very ingenious cal cy.cwo feet one inch.” Therefore in the poine culacions on the age of trees; and concludes çipaldimenfion, ike fize of the firm, it is exceeded that the Tortworth Chesnut is not less than by the BENTLEY OAK; of which the same eleven hundred years old. We have how Gandid observer gives the following account : ever thewn under the Article Cheinut, tha In 1759, the Oak in Holt-Egrett, near Ms. MARSHAM is mistaken in the dimen