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changed several times in the course of life. A Neeves so long, that they reach down to the child receives, at birth, from its parents, a ground. Such is the fimplicity of their habit, name, which is retained till it has itself a son ar- that they are soon dressed ; and to undress, rived at maturity. A person again changes his they need only open their girdle, and draw name, when he is invested with any office; in their arms. There is, however, some as also when he is advanced to a higher truft; small variation in these gowns, according to fome, as emperors and princes, acquire a the sex, age, condition, and

The new name after death. The names of wo. very lower forts, as labourers, fishermen, men are less variable; they are, in general, and sailors, have, at their work, in summer, borrowed from the most beautiful flowers. either the upper part of the body naked, so

The dress of the Japanese deserves, more that the gown is faftened only by the girule; than that of any other people, the name of or they have only a girdle, which passes be national ; since they are not only different tween their legs, and is fastened behind. from that of all other men, but are also of the Men of better condition have a short gown fame form in all ranks, from the monarch also, which reaches down to the waist, and to his meanest subject, as well as in both a sort of breeches. The short gown is somesexes; and, what exceeds all credibility, times green, but generally black; when they have not been altered for at least 2444 they return home, or enter their office, they years. They universally consift of night. take it off and fold it carefully, if no superior gowns, made long and wide, of which seve- be present. ral are worn at once, by all ranks and all A dress which is only used on particular ages. The more distinguished, and the rich, occafions, is called the compliment dress; in have them of the finest silk; the poorer sort, this the inferior sort wait on the superior, and of cotton. Those of the women reach down go to court. It is worn on the long gowns, to the ground, and sometimes have a train ; which constitute the general dress of the nain the men, they reach down to the heels: tion. It consists of two pieces, made of the travellers, soldiers, and labourers, either same kind of cloth. The lowermost piece tuck them up, or wear them only down to is the long breeches just mentioned, which, the knces. The habit of the men is gene- for this purpose, are made of white ftuff, rally of one colour ; the women have theirs adorned with blue flowers. The upper piece variegated, and frequently with flowers of is not very unlike the short gown lately degold interwoven. In summer, they are ein scribed; it differs only in being widened ther without lining, or have but a thin one; behind, between the thoulders, and makes in winter, they are stuffed to a great thick- the wearer appear very broad-shouldered. nals with cotton or silk. The men seldom These dresses are partly of silk, partly of wear a great number, but the women thire cotton, partly of linen, which is procured ty, fifty, or more, all so thin, that they from a species of nettle. The higher fort Scarce together amount to five pounds. The wear the finest filk, which in thinness and undermolt serves for a shirt, and is therefore fineness exceeds every thing produced by Eueither white or blue, and, for the most part, rope, or other parts of Asia. But as this thin and transparent. All these gowns are cloth is seldom a foot in breadth, it is jeljom faftened round the waist with a beit, which, brought to Europe as an article of commerce. in the men, are about a hand's-breadth ; in The lower ranks wear cotton, which is prothe women, about a foot ; of such a length duced and manufactured here in the greatest that they go twice round the waist, and af- abundance. terwards are tied in a knot, with many ends Sometimes, though indeed only as a rarity, and bows. · The knot, particularly among the Japanese make a cluth from the rus the fair sex, is very conspicuous, and imme. papyriferus, which is either prepared in the diately informs the spectator whether they same way as paper, or else fpun or woren. are married or not. The unmarried have it The latter, which is very fine, white, and behind, on their back; the married, before. like cotton, is sometimes used for women's In this belt the men fix their fabres, fans, dress. The former, with flowers printed on pipe, tobacco, and medicine boxes. In the it, makes long gowns, which are worn only neck the gowns are always cut round, with. by people advanced in life, such as old Jigneout a collar ; they, therefore, leave the neck taries, and that only in winter. bare ; nor is it covered with cravat, cloth, or In general, it may be faid of the Jaany thing else. The Aeeves are always ill panese dress, that it is very large and warm; made, and out of all proportion wide : at the that it is easily put on and off; that it conopening before, they are half sewed up, so strains no limb; that the fanie habit fuits that they form a fack, in which the hands all; that there is no loss of cloth; and can be put in cold weather; they also serve that it may be made with little art and for a pocket. Girls, in particular, have their trouble ; but that it is inconvenient in mo

ving,

Hing, and ill adapted for the execution The way of dresling the hair is not less peof most things which occur to be done. culiar to this people, and less universally pre

As the gowns, from their length, keep valent among them, than the use of their the thighs and legs warm, there is no occa- long gowns. The men have the head from fion for stockings; nor do they use them in the forehead to the neck; and the hair reall the empire. Among poorer persons on maining on the temples, and in the nape, is a journey, and among foldiers, which have well besmeared with oil, turned upwards, not such long gowns, one sees buskins of and then tied with a white paper thread, cotton. I have seen poor people, at Naga which is wrapped round several times. The laki, with socks of hempen cloth, with fules ends of the hair beyond the head are cut of cotton, for keeping the feet warm in the crossways, about a finger's length being left. severett weather of winter.

This part, after being pasted together with Shoxs, or, more properly speaking, flip- oil, is bent in such a manner, that the point pers, are, of all that is worn by the Japanese, is brought to the crown of the head, in which the fimpleft, the meanest, and the mott mi- situation it is fixed, by pafling the sanie thread serable, though in general use among high round it once. Great attention is paid to this and low, rich and poor. They are ma 'e of heal-dress; and the hair is shaved every other interwoven rice-straw ; and sometimes, for day, that the sprouting points may not dis. persons of distinction, of reeds split very thin. figure the bald part. Priests and physicians, They confitt only of a sole, without upper- with interpreters that are not arrived at maleather or quarters. Before there palles over, turity, make the only exception to this rule. transversely, a bow of linen, of a finger's Priests and physicians shave the whole head, breadth : from the point of the shoe to this by which they are distinguished from all other bow, goes a thin round band, which, run- ranks; and interpreters retain all their hair ning within the great toe, serves to keep the till the beard begins to appear. Women, shoe fixed to the foot. The Thoe, being without except such as happen to be separated from quarters, Hides, during walking, like a flip their husbands, shave no part of their head. pet. Travellers have three bands of twitted Such a person I had occafion to see at Jedde. straw, by which they faften the hoe to the She was wandering about the country, and, font and leg, to prevent its falling off. Some with her bald beari, looked particularly ill. carry several pairs of Thoes with them when other women turn their hair upwards with oil they undertake a journey. Shoes may, and viscid suhttances, sometimes quite close to moreover, be bought, at a cheap rate, in eve- the head, and at others spread out at the sides ry city and village. When it rains, and in the form of wings. The unmarried are when the roads are miry, these straw.shoes frequently diftinguilhed by these wings. Beabforb the moisture, and keep the feet wet. fore the knot is placed a broal comb, which, On the roads you may every where see worn- among the lower fort, is of japanned wood; out shoes thisown aside by travellers ; particu- but, among the higher, of tortoise-mell. larly at the brooks, where they can wath Some wear flowers in their hair ; but vanity their feet when they change Mhoes. In rainy has not yet led them to load their cars with and dirty weather, lumps of wood, excavated in the middle, with a bow and a band The head is never covered with hat or for the toe, are used instead of shoes ; so that bonnet in winter or in summer, except when they can walk without soiling their feet. they are on a journey; and then they use a Some have the common straw-shoes fastened conical bat, made of a sort of grass, and fixon such pieces of wood, three inches high. ed with a ribband. I have seen such a hat The Japanese never enter their houses with worn by fishermen. Some travelling wofhoes, but put them off in the entrance, or men, who are met on the roads, have a bon. on a

near the entrance, This net like a shaving-bafon inverted on the head, precaution is taken for the sake of their neat which is made of cloth, in which gold is incarpets. During the time the Dutch reside terwoven. On other occasions, their naked in Japan, as they have sometimes occasion to heads are preserved, both from rain and the pay the natives visits in their houses, and as fun, by umbrellas. Travellers, moreover, they have their own apartment at the factory have a sort of riding-coat, made of thick pacovered with the same sort of carpets, they per oiled. They are worn by the upper ferdo not wear European shoes, but have, in vants of princes, and the suite of other traveltijeir ftead, red, green, or black flippers, lers. I and my fellow-travellers, during our which can easily be put off at entering in. journey to court, were obliged to provide fuch They, bowever, wear stockings, with thoes for our attendants, when we paised thiough of cotton, fastened by buckles. These thoés the place where they are made. are made in Japan, and may be washed when. - A Japanese always has his arms painted on ever they become dirty.

one or more of his garments, especially on

the

ornaments.

the long and thort gowns, on the neeves, or wards serve for parting the rooms. The between the thoulders; so that muhody can whole house, at first, makes but a fugie Ateal; which otherwise might easily happen room, which can be parted into several, by in a country where the clothes are so much liding-boards in the grooves of the crossalike in fluff, shape, and size.

pieces. They use, for this purpose, thin The houses are, in general, of wood and hoards varnished over and covered with thick plaster, whitewashed on the outside, to as opake and painted paper. The ceiling is perfectly to resemble a house built of fone. made of boards jointed close together ; but The beams are all perpendicular and hori. the floor, which is always elevated above the Zental ; none go in an oblique direction, as ground, consists of loole planks. The roof elsewhere is usual in houses constructed of consists of ciles, made in a peculiar manner, such materials. Between the picoes of wood, very thick and heavy. The meaner boules which are square, and but thin, bambous are covered with fabs, upon which an heap are interwoven, which are afterwards plaf- of stones is laid to fix them down. tered with a mixture of clay, fand, and The houses commonly consist of two fto. chaik. Thus the walls are not very thick, ries, of which the upper is feldom inhabited; bat, when whitewashed, they make a tolera- it is very low, and serves for a lumber-room. bly good appearance. There are no parti- Tke houses of the rich and great are larger, Lion-walls within the house ; it is supported and make a greater shew than those of by uprighe pieces, which, at the ceiling, others; but they are not above two stories, and at the floor, have cross-picces pail ng or at most twenty feet in height. between them with grooves, which after

[ To bi continued. ]

For the EUROPEAN MAGAZINE.

FRAGMENTS by L E 0, No. VIII.
The CRITICAL CLUB.- -On the just STANDARD of Homer's MERITS.

Quardnque bonus dormitat Homerus.

AST night, at the Club, Tom Triplet substance which a dog leaves hehind him.

do

cism. A few evenings before he had pro- think to make honey of bat? Bue you that! duced an exle, which he said was written hy not spoil my live; and inttantly he trampled a young man in the country; but which every the poor mistaken animal to death." Tom one present stifpected to be his own. Our Triplet felt the allusion severely, and flipped Zilus, Dick Diftich, passed several cutting the ode into his pocket in profound filence, oblervations upon it, every one of which evi- which he preserved without one effort to dently cut Mr. Triplec to the quick. He speak during the rest of the evening. Dick then turned his cale, and, recovering him. Diftich, who is pofseffed neither of my friend self, faid he had only ascribed the ode to a Tom's ingenuity nor modefty, eagerly feized young man that he might hear our opinions the opportunity of his deep filence, and with on it, but that in reality it was written by a great triumph expatiated on the topics of diyoung lady, whose old maiden aunt, as it con- pute which had formerly been between them. tained a family compliment, was desirous Rhyme, said Dick, is a vile monkith invento have a few copies of it printed, and had tion, as different from what the ancients called jest it to briun to get it corrected for that pur- rybınus, as Homer's exalted poetry is from the pote. He was under great obligacions, he school-boy strains of Virgil. Blank verse is the adued, to the old ladly, and would be happy to brightest glory of our Englith Muses; and he ferve her : then archly turning to his old that cannot read it properly oughe never to antagonist Dick Dittich, and claiming bis open his mouth, when taste and poetry are frien.hip'from luis former profeffions, begged the subjects of conversation. Mr. Pope ought bis afiiftance in correcting the young lady's to have been crucified for pretending to trancle, as he now called it. Dick was a little Date Homer in rhyme ; and is certainly, at puzzled at this request ---Rather than mend a this inomeri, hung up in a basket in Tartzline of it, he would have sat a uliole winter. rus for to doing, like Socrates in Anttonight on the cok ground. At last, looking phanes's comedy of the Clouds. As to Vir. very serious, Mr. Tripler, fays he, I will tell gil's Eneid, Taflu's Jerusalem, and Voltaire's

“ A countryman who was very Heoriade, it is imposible that any man who fond of his hees, took great pleaíure in fceing can read and relith the Greek, can read ten them rove from flower to flower. While lines of them without unspeakable disguite be was elus one day observing his little chy. Every thing that is tolerable in them is bor. milts, an unlucky bee lighted on a certain rowed from Homer; but borrowed and reRected in such a manner as the moon bor. as they may be in the general choice, they rows and reficets the light of the sun. For riever descend to particulars but they are sure my part, I like to drink at the fountain-head; to stumble, and Mew how much they are ia the waters of Helicon lose their spirit, when the dark. My friend Mr. Distich, when conveyed through the leaden and wooden he was all talk the other evening, asserted pipes of imitators and tranflators. After ali that Virgil and Taffo borrowed every thing such evaporating and flattening conveyance, that was tolerable in their works from Hothey may do very well for you, Mr. Triplet; mer ; but it was only as the moou tvorrows but for me, even Milton, with all the advan- ber light from the sun, reflecting back a very tage of blank verse, is but like a tin tunnel feeble ray of the original splendour. Many a conveying the smoke, and but very feldom conceited critic has said the same. But after any of the genuine Aashes of Homer's fire. all, the fact is not altered. And the fact is,' In this manner Dick Dittich triumphed over that Virgil, in his Hell and Elyfium, and in hes flent antagonist ; and it must be owned, many inferior places has lighted a corch at however abruptly he delivered himself, he Homer's candle that has outblazed the origi. spoke the real sense of many a modern critic. nal light. And there is one great fault that As I am rather inclined to think better of occurs, on every opportunity to admit it, it Virgil and Taffo, I ventured to repeat the Homer ; a fault that would nigla damn aoy Ime from Horace at the top of this memo- Modern production; I mean the wretched randum, to which I was immediately an. manner in which he acquits himself in his Iwered by the following well-known line duels. After the grandeft preparations that from Roscommon :

flected

yom a fahle.

can be imagined; imagery, fimilies, and de 1: is noi Homer nods, but we ebat dream.

fcription of the noblett kind exhausted, what

a wretched figure do bis heroes make in Homer in every instance, cried our exult. fingle combat !-- They first hurl their lances at ing orator, which dulness has called napping, one another ; lo far it is well; then they draw is only preparing his auience for a glorious their swords, but do nothing with them ; and burt of lightning and thunder, which his then they throw stones at vno-another, aud feeble imitators can only emulate by 1quibs seem afraid to come within each other's reach : and crackers. In short, Mr. Diftich had all and then, if they happen to survive fucb & the triumph and talk to himself. But last dreadful combat, they tell long stories to one night, as mentioned at the beginning, the another. When Hector islike to be mastered tables were sadly turned against him. Tom by Achilles at lance and javelin toiling, he Triplet had recovered the fit of sickness which draws his sword, and flies at his enemy 25 ar the damnation of his ole had given him, and eagle on his prey ; but we hear no more of the Came amply prepared to revenge himself on sword, but find Hector immediately tugging it Dick Diflict, who, when Tom is in fpirits, a huge stone that ten men of Homer's days

by no means his match. Without taking could not raise, while Achilles looks on quite any particular notice of Distich, Mr. Triplet idle till Hector has rime to throw it at him: expatiated on the absurdity of appealing to he then returns the compliment in kind. the practice of the Greek and Roman poets Hector then takes to his heels, and runs at in defence of English blank verse, the genius least twelve miles at full speed with Achilles of these languages not admitting the smallest after him, drawn by liis iinmortal horses. comparison. I have often found, said he, Nay, fnuile not at the twelve miles, faid Mr. that those who are most supercilious in den Triplet ; for a city of four miles in circumfeo spising every thing except Homer in bis na. rence could hardly contain the inhabitants Live Greek, pretending with what'raplures given to Troy by Homer: yet Hector muit they relich him in his owa tongue, are fre- run three times round it before Achilles's im. queritly, on trial, unable to conftrue three mortal, hories can come up with him; and kunss of that poet together, I have also me then he muit be killed with a lance, at an with many enthusiasts for the superior music opening in liis armour'; a victory much about and dignity of blank verse, who, on trial, as honourable as shooting a man with a pittel have been found to have no ear, and were ut- who has got no pistol to oppose you Interly incapable of reading any one page of their deed Homer's conduct in the death of Hector admired Paradise Loft, the Seasons, or the is fo absurd, that it would have difgraced any Night Thoughts, with the smallest degree of of Blackmore's Arthurs. And what but wie modulation or harmony. The vanity of be- utmost depravity of taste and perverseness of ing thought wiser than their neighbours, and judgement can be blind to the infinite fupeof fuperior taite, is the Will s-she-wisp that riority of Tallo in describing his duels. In leads them on; and pitching on Homer and that modern you see the ligh spirit of chivalry, Milton as the objects of their admiration, acid feword, men in earnelt.-- There you fee they thiak they cannot be wrong. And right done what you expected; no Ychool-boy pelr

ing

ing with dirt and cabbage-stems, and then For my part, I have no such blind complaieither taking some base advantage, or telling fance to either Virgil or Homer. I flatter tales to one another. Homer's duels deserve myself that I can both see and relith their no better illustration. If you say he describes beauties; but no cool-brained man will turn fingle combat as it really was in his time, I knight-errant, as many of their Critics bave deny it. History gives us very different des done, to defend their faults. And so far are fcriptions of the combats when heroes met those paris of Homer which have been called in battle. When Gryllus, the son of Xeno- nodding, from being designed only to prepare phon, killed Epaminondas, at the battle of his audience, as Mr. Diftich and many a Mantinea, there were no long tales told to doughty critic have allerted, for a glorious burst each other; there was none of Homer's of thunder and lightning, that the very contratrifling between them. To say that Homer ry is the fact. All the thunder and sublimity described his single combats from real prac. are exhausted in the grand preparation with tice is just the same as to say, that a man al- which he introduces more circumstances than ready overpowered in the conflict could yet his single combats : for often, after raising ruo twelve miles, or more, ere the Acetest the expectation to the very highest pitch, iben borses of the age, for such are those of Achilo comes Homer's nap, and the reader is left dir. les described, could overtake bim. Nur appointed and chagrined, in proportion as he is Honier less happy in his long tales, often entered into the spirit of the sublime introfo absurdly told by his heroes in the heat duction. When Hector has stormed the of battle. Prejudice itself, if not downright Grecian camp, and is on the point of burning wilfully blind, must own, that the narrative their ships, the council of the Grecian chiefs, of Eneas to Dido, long as it is, is animated who are tired out, and mostly wounded in the throughout, and ihat ibe interest rises to the day's battle, is described with the moft folema end in a masterly manner. But what are importance. They are lost in terror, and Homer's tales? They all either want interest, know not what to do in this their most dan. or propriety of introduction ; and if we will gerous and critical emergency. The wise all jw ourselves to judge from what we do Ulysses nses to speak; all is attention; even feel, we must pronounce them tiresome. the Gods stoop down from Olympus to hear What reader has patience to get through the what he has got to say. And what is it? long old man's goffipping ftory which Phæ- Why, truly, what is only fit for a burlesque Dix tells Achilles, and with which one poem.Connder, layshe, my friends, of the most interesting parts of the Iliad, that fighting requires strength, without u hich the refusal of Achilles to be reconciled to we are sure to be vanquished. Strength de. Agamemnon, is most disagreeably fufpen- pends on the animal ipirits, and those arife ded? The other evening, when I ventured to from good living; from porkers' chines and cite Horace for saying that isor.eft Homer's mule bowls of generous wine : therefore, I advise sometimes fell alicep, I was pertly answered; you to postpone fighting of Hector, and let It is not Homer nods, but we that dream.

us go to supper. --Such is the exact argue

ment of the speech of Ulysses, introduced with The fame critic has faid,

all the preparatory importance and grandeur “ When Virgil seems to trifle in a line, of which the fublime genius of Homer was 'Tis but the prelude of some grand design.” malter:

--Cuiera de furt, CURIOUS PARTICULARS of the HORSES of this COUNTRY in ANCIENT

TIMES. [From the NORTHUMBERLAND HOUSEHOLD Book, first printed in 1768, the MS. of

which is now in the polleflion of the DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND, and which is intituled, “ The Regulations and Enablishment of Algernon Percy, the fifth Earl of Northum.

“ berland, begun anno 1512.”] THIS is the ordre of the chequis eorum of fagdili, vize foame for my horde to ride,

hortys of my oone to lede for my and to lordis and iny ladys, that are apoynted to be at home for my lorde. in the charge of the hous yerely, as to lay : Item, chariot hors to fiond in my lordis gentill bors, palfreys, hobys, nagsis, cloth. stable yerely. Seven great trottyoge hors to Tek hor, malehors,

draw in the chariott, and a pagg for the Firti, gentill hors, to stand in my lordis chariott man to ride ; eight. Again, hors fable, fix. Item, podfreys of my ladys, to for lorde Percy, his lordships fon and her, wit, one for my lady, and two for her gen. A grete doble trottynge hors for my lorde till women, and more for her chamberer. Percy to travel on in winter. Item, a great Four hubys and naggis for my lordis oone doble trottynge hors, called a curtal, for his

lording

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