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fordship to ride on out of townes. Another only method of conveyance for all sorts of trottyage gambaldya hors for his lordship to people ; and the Riseen rode behind her ride upon when he comes into townes. An Matter of the Horse, when she went in state amblyage horse for his lordship to journey on to St. Paul's. This fathion, however, predayly. As proper amblyng little nagg for his vailed only in the former part of her reign, for thip when he gaeth on hunting or hawk. and was totally suppressed by the appearance ing. A grec amblynge gelding, or trottynge of coaches. Their introduction occasioned a geiding, to carry his male."

much larger demand for horses than former Such were the horses of ancient days, times had wanted; and such was the number ranked into claties, and allotted to different of them employed in this service, that, at the services.

latter end of the Queen's reign, a bill was The gentil horse was one of a superior and proposed in the Houle of Lords, to restrain diftinguished breed, so called in contrast to the superfluous and exceilive use of coaches. such as were of a mean and ordinary extrac- It was rejected upon the second reading. tion. The Italians, at this day, call their The Lords, however, directed the Attorneynoblest breeds, Razza gertile. Gentleman is General to peruse the statutes for the promounderstood in this sense, signifying a person ting the breed of horses, and to consider of of better birth and family.

some proper bill in its room. Palfreys were an elegant and easy sort of A gret doble trottynge horse was a tall, horses; which for their gentleness and agree. broad, and well.spread horse, whose best able paces, were used upon common occa- pace was the trot, being too unwieldy in fions by military persons and others; who himself, or carrying to great a weight, to reserved their great and managed horses for be able to gallop. Doble, or double, figuifies battle and the tournament. Their pleasing broad, big, swelled-out ; from the double of qualities foon recommended them to the fair. the French, who say of a broad-loined fillet. sex, who, having no coaches, used these ed horse, that he has les reins doubles--and palfreys, and always travelled on horfe. double bides. The Latin adjective duplex back.

gives the same meaning. Virgil, speaking Hobys were strong active horses, of rather of the horse, says, “ a duplex agitur per a finali fize. They are reported to be originally lumbos 1pina." He also uses “ duplex dornatives of Ireland, and were so much liked arid fum," and “ duplex corona," in the sense of used, as to become a proverbial expreslion for very broad and large. And Horace has any thing of which people are extremely fond. " duprice fisik," the large broad fig. Nugs come under the same description as to A cui tal is a horse whole tail is cut or their size, qualities, and employments. Thortened-ia the French curtaud.

Clethek was a cloak-bag horse, as male- A gambaldynge horse was one of thew and be se was one that carried the portmanteau. parade, a managed borse, froin the Italian Hories to draw the chariots were waggon gamba a leg. horses; from the French word charrette, An amblynge horse is too well known to whence the English word cart ; for neither need explanation. The ambie, long before coaches, nor even chariots (in our present this tivne, as well as for a long while after, acceptation of that word) were known ac was such a favourite pace, and so much likod this time. Indeed, the use of coaches was for its ease and smoothness, that almost all not known in England till the year 1580 (in saddle horses were taught to perform it, Q. Elisabeth's reign), when they were intro- e'pecially those who were sode by the rich, duced by Fitz-Allen Earl of Arundel. Till the indolent, and infirm. this period, saddle horses and carts were the

ABRIDGEMENT of a very CURIOUS WORK, (little known) entitled, “ PICTOR

ERRANS," written by M. PHIL. ROHR.

[By the Late Mr. W. Bowser, Printer, F. S. A.] AINTERS ers; I. In representing the man was expelied from it, Gen. iii, when

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Days" of Dan. vii. 9, censured by Auguftin, plural. See Pole.
Ep. cxxii

IV. Falfely mi ke Noah's ark a square II, la painting the serpent which tempted house placed on a round this, whereas thie Ere without feer; whereas his creeping on a:k itself was more probably round. las belly was inflicted on him as a punith. V. Mic:] by the Vuisale, they represent ment, See Pole's Synopr. in Gen. iii. 1. 4. Abraham with a sword in his hand, when

111. Many of them pl. ce one angel with he was to sacrifice Ifaac, instead of a sacrifia draw sword as a guard to Paradise, when cing knise, as the Hebrew exprelles it, Gea ETROP, Mac,

ji

XX. 1, with which he afterwards new the

his hand, with these words underneath, Deus ram. See Piscator in loc. Pole’s Synops. Chriftianorum Onencbyfis. “ This was that &c.

Anah that found the mules in the wilderness, VI. Falsely represent Isaac kneeling be- as he fed the affes of Zibeon his father."fore the pile of wood, with his face towards What they said of Anah, they ascribed to it ; whereas, as the Hebrew word means, Moses ; and afterwards from the Jews to his hands were tiedro bis fuc; backward, and the Chittians, as Selden tells us, De Diis be was laid on the pile, with his face up. Syntag. II. Vof, de Idul. lib. 11. C. 75. wards, as the sacrifice used to be.

XV. Without any authority or reason, VII. Without any authority from Scrip- they represent Joseph, the husband of the ture, Exod. xii. 12, &c. represents the 16- Virgin Mary, as an old man. raelites eating the Paschal Lamb at their go. XVI. In the Virgin Mary's Conception, ing out of Egypt fianding. The Scripture is some represent Christ as an infant descending filent as to the posture, whether it was from heaven, bearing his cro's in his hand; fitting of standing. See Schmidius on Matth. which, in piclure, is the very sense of the xxvii,

Valenudian berely, VIII. Exod. xxxiv. 29. the Vulgate ren- XVII. In the pictures of the Nativity, ders Quod cornata effet facies fua *; whence an ox and an ars are represented feeding 20 the painters have represented Moses with the manger, which arose probably from the horns coming out of his head. But the He- falle translation of the LXX. Hab. iii. 2. brew word denotes the glory that phone in ríow ota Sumryw wobús, ir medio duorum anihis face as the LXX. have rightly rendered it

malium cognofceris. Jerom, according to the δεδόξασαι το προσωπον αυλs,

Hehrew, renders in media annorum vicificas IX. In Canticles i. 4. the Vulgate reads, illud. Vide Caf c. Baron. Exerc. ii. & ii. Trabe me, poft fe currimus in odorem unguento- From this, joined to lí. iii. 1. ibe ox incas rum iugrun; which Hermanus Hugo having tranNated in his Emblems, lib. ii

. Emblem 8, the cultom of placing those two animals as

bis owner, and the ass bis fiter's eriê, arose has obliged his painter to represent the bride

guests at that solemnity. * groom going before with a censer of frankio.

XVIII. The Magi who came to Christ are cense, of which there is not a word in the

represented as Kings with crowns on their Hebrew, nor in any approved version, the

heads, and to have been three only in numHebrew having only Trabe me poli se.

ber, and one of them of a tawny complexX. Isaiah is painted as lawn alunder, from

ion : for none of which circumstances we the head thro' the body, of which we have

have any authority. no sufficient authority. But as this has been

XIX, Simeon, Matt. ij. 25. is pictured believed by many of the Fathers, we will

in the habit of a priest, and blind, againit all let it país as dubious.

authority, as Bp. Montague observes, Orig. XI. Cornelius à Lapide says, that in an

Eccl. part 1. p. 161. ancient MS. of Bifilius Porphyrogenitus the

XX Matt, iii. 4. Mark i. S. John the prophet Danel is painted as beheaded'; against

Baptitt is usually painted as a fatyr, with the the authority of all history, which tci's us that

Ikin of a camel thrown over him. But he be died 3 natural death, D.:n, xii. 1z. jo

had probaby a coarse vestment made of ca. sephus, Hift. x. 12. The report of tiis heing beheaded is po tenium jubulce & piciile verfion expreifes it.

mei's hair, as Bezz maintains, and Luther's Delirium, lays Reinlius, Var, Lect. lib. i.

Macr. iv, 6. Cur Susiour is represented

as fet lay the devil on a Mary spiret of the XII. The painting rays of glory round

Temple : but as the roofs of the Je with the leads of Christ, the Virgin Mary, and

houtes were flit, furrounded with a para. the Apostles, is an universal custom, taken

pet wall, lo probably a parapet wall was carup without any suficient foundation,

ried round the temple, for omament's sake, as XIII. John the Evangelift painted young, Grotius observes on Dei. **. 8; and Chrilt while writing his Gospel, which be wrote, prob.bly was placed within-fide of that wall. ai lome suppose, at ninety years of age; but

XXI. The painters represent the ioufes all agree, when he was very old.

of the Israelites with 1.aproofs, ke our roXIV. To ridicule the Criftians, some one

dern ore, directly contrary to the cominnd represented a perion in a gon), with atie.'

given then, Deut. xxii 18. Whence we cals, and one foot hoofed, holding a book in

often find mention made of walking on the

C. 17.

* The margin of the quarto edition has fplendens. Epit.

The oz and an als are introduced at the Nativity merely to thew that it haprened in a Itable. Edit. * The original in Matt. iv. 5. and Lukse iv. 9. ja 75 yep, a battlement.

bati's

battlements of their houses, 1 Sam. ix. 25, FLAC ELLIS verberetur. Rich. Montacut, 26. 2 Sam. xi. 2. xvi, 23. See Matt, x. 22. Orig. Ecclef. tom. I. part. poft. p. 390,

XXII, Luke xvi. 21. Lazarus is by some from Jerom. But this Artist does not seem ill-represented, lying along in the parlour of to know that flagellum denoted a twig as well the rich man, as if a man full of sores would

as virga. be admitted within doors. By others he is In this scene of the scourging, two execu. represented lashed by the servants, while the tioners are represented as performing the act; dogs lick his fores, to whom he was grown whereas, according to the Roman custom, familiar by his frequent coming thither:- only one was employed, as appears from the But he would hardly have come again, if he form before cited ; and according to the Jewtiad been scourged away by the servants. ish likewise, as Buxtorf News from the

XXIII. Matt. xxi. 21. At Christ's pro- Mishna. According to which likewise the ceífion into Jerusalem, boughs and the clothes pillar, to which the criminal was bound, was of the populace are represented strewed under only about a cubit and a half; not of that the feet of the ass ; but that, as Lightfoot ob- length in which it is usually painted. serves, would rather have made the ass to XXVIII. Some represent Christ and Simon Stumble. It is probable, therefore, that they the Cyrenian both bearing the cross at once, buit small houses on the rcad. side with expressly against the narration in Matt. boughs, and covered them with their gar- xxvii. 32. ments, as was usual on the feast of Taber- In some pictures the cross on which Christ 02cles. Lightfoot Hor. Hebraic. in Matth. is crucified; is represented like a capital T,

XXIV. Christ is represented fitting at ta- with the upright beam not projecting above ble with his guests the disciples, Matt. xxvi. the transverse; which, though it was the and John, like an infant, before him, in his form of some croises, was not so of our Sabolom. But the Jews, it is well known, viour's, according to Justin Martyr ; and see like the Romans, used at this time to eat Lipfius de Cruce. lying along, as appears from the words Another mistake is committed when they kvariislas and xalaxníveolen used in the reprefent the feet of Christ fastened to the N. T. and from Lazarus being said to be car- cross with one nail only; i. c. with three nails tied to Abraham's bosom, Luke xvi. 12. in all, two through the hands, and one through XXV. The bread which Christ broke with

the feet : whereas Irenæus, Justin Martyr, his difciples, Matt. xxv. 26, is often repre. Cyprian, Nonnus in Paraplır. p. 230, ver. fented as a piece of a great loaf. But the Jews 37, expressly mention four nails. And the used at their meals small loaves, or manchets, fame method is attested by Plautus ; as we find from the mention of breaking them Ego dabo ei talentum primus, qui in crucem fo often mentioned, as Matt. xxvi. 26. Mark

excurrerit, vi. 41. vii. 10, &c. and from the fragments

Se'ea lege, ui affigantur, bis pedes, bis bisa which were left, Matt. xiv. 20. xv. 37.

sbia. XXVI. In the monastery of St. Mary

The two malefactors (ill called thieves), Magdalen at Madgeburgh, Christ is repre

who were crucified with Christ, are repreSented lying down in a brook full of Tharp sented generally with their hands and feet tied fones. A conceit formed from John xviii.

to the cross : but wlay their hands and feet 1. He went forth with his disciples over the

should not be represented nailed likewise, no brook Cedron; and Psal. cx. 7. Hejhall drink

reason can be ailigned. Nonnus is express, of the brook in the way; which is no support xálças dolclóseos. See Montac. Orig. Eccl. for the painter's fancy. XXVII. Some painters represent Christ

tom. I. par. ii. p. m. 393. icourged with rods, others with thongs or

A small seat was in the middle of the upfeurges, Matt. xxvii. 26. Mark x. 26. right beam, as Justin Martyr likewise tefti. Like xii. 33. That the former are wrong

fies; but is usually omitted by the painters of is clear, from the word in the text @galenaõv,

the Crucifixion.

The soldier who pierced the side of Christ Matt. xxvii. 26. Mark xv. 26. and ucesoyên, is generally painted on horseback ; contrary Like zvii. 33. which denote scourges, not to the express teltimouy of John, an eyered. It is said that the Jews vied only witness of the fact, xix. 34. lis tūv seuluotão scourges, Buxtorf, Syn. Jud. c. XX.

And though the Romans used rods, witness that hóxxn autã thu Theugár bizši. The word form, L. li&tor foliiga marius, caput obnubito, spaliuzes, by itself, denotes only a foot-10%$12018 CADITO ; yet this form was left off dier, and the spear aóryn was not the wea. in tme, Cic. pro Rabirio Cos. and scourging pon of the horse. Justly therefore does Sale was introduced in later times.

Sciendum est, masius blame Xaverius the Jesuit for followPilane Romanorum legibus judicium miniftraffes ing this error in the History of Ciwist, pub. quibus lancita ere, qui crucifigitur prins lished by Lud, de Dieu. See Salm, en, ii. ad

Bartholin. The former of these two reasons But it is more probable he was travelling on is a good one, but the latter not fo; for in foot, otherwie his sudden fall from a horse the latter times the horse used dózyn as well would have endangered his life. His compaas the foot: Josephus, pigeon

di on nions, it is said, STOOD fpecebless, ver. 7. ; tudo megi Tòv spalnyóv in shexlos oci názny and ver. 8, that they led bime by tbc band. xe * dorida, - Oudera de coma dicenresleos Had he been on horseback, they would

more probably have set him on his hore οι περι τον τραβηγός επικριται ΤΩΝ ΕΝ

again. ΤΑΙΣ YΛAΙΣ ΙΠΠΕΩΝ. See Schelius in

XXXI. Painters represent Chrift prolHyginum, c. xii. p. m. 297.

trate before the Father, supplicating for our XXIX. In the descent of the Holy Ghost falvation; whereas the Scripture represents on the Apoftles on the day of Pentecost, him as fitting on the right hand of the Fa. Acts ii. 1, some painters represent the Vir- ther. See Rom. viii. 26. 1. John ü. I. gin Mary in the midst of them ; that he way, XXXII. Why Death is usually painted as Beza observes, appear the Queen of the like a skeleton, with an hour-glass and a Apoftolical College.

fcythe, we know not. It is not the figure of Tongues in the shape of fire are likewise Death in the Apocalypse, ch, vi. 8, or of represented as fitting on the beads of the Death among the ancients, which was that Apostles : but, according to Ursinu, Ana- of a beast with large teeth and crooked lect. lib. vi. c. 38. the fiery tongues were nails. feen, wohincur, in the mousbs of the Apos- XXXIII. Christ coming to judge the tles ; and what is said to fit or refl upon them world is represented fitting on a rainbow ; was the Holy Spirit, which immediately fol. taken no doubt from Apocalypse, iv. 3o lows, according to the Hebrew construction Compare with Matt. xxv. 31. But it can: (or rather the fire which is just before men- not be Christ who sits on the throne in the tioned) : And tongues, as of fire, were feen Revelations ; for he is represented by the dißributed amongji shem, and it [the fire] Lamb, cap. v. 7, as all commentators refied upon cacb of tbem, and they were all fil. agree. led with sbe Holy Ghost. This, in my opi. XXXIV. The woman who washed the nion, is ro forced a construction, that I re- feet of Jesus with her hair, Luke vii. 38, coromend to the painters to keep to their old is represented fulling down at his feet, when copies.

the text says the stood at his feet. XXX. Paul, at his conversion, is usually XXXV. The sons of Zebedee are repre. represented on horseback, and falling fron fented as children. his burse at the heavenly vifion, Acts ix. 2.

For the EUROPEAN MAGAZINE.
FLORIO and LUCILLA ; or, the VIRTUOUS but FATAL ELOPEMENT.

A MORAL TALE, 1 HE farther we remove from great cities, incidents ; but every incident seems in some

the nearer, generally speaking, do we sense to convey with it 3 moral ; and few as approach to those scenes of guiltless happiness they are, they shall be related with fidelity. which are at once the fruit and the reward Florio was a young, and most accomplishof genuine love that love which, implanted ed Officer, in one of our marching regiments. by Heaves, and cherished by VoRTVE, Soon after the commencement of the Ameriforms to susceptible minds a paradise, if a can war, when every nerve was exerted, but parad se there be on earth. In such peace. exerted in vain, to rear the standard of fui retreats-10 the eternal disgrace of disii, triumph over our revolted colonies, it was puted grandeur--the heroic principles of his lot to be ordered into Wales, as the comhonour are alone considered as the glory of mander of a little recruiting party; and it man, while the ingenuous ones of virtuous was his lot also to be ftationed in a town little fenfibility form the basis of every thing that distant from the abode of the fair Lucilla, is held amiable in woman.

the only daughter of a gentleman of the very Hapless Florio ! hapless Lucilla! why, first consequence in the county of born and educated as ye both were in the It was at a private ball that they first met; borom of Truth and Innocence-wlly, alas! and if ever a love at forl fgbt could be justiwere ye destined to prove to an abandoned fied by the laws of either prudery or prudeace world, that it is not bere but bereafter that it seems to be in the case of Florio and LiTruth and Innocence are to look for either cilla. Formed as it were by Nature for favour or protection?

each other, their eyes no sooner met than in the story of this ill-fated pair--a story whole volumes of love were mutually, but which is already too well known to many iníenfibly, expressed by them. The hit(anulies in these kingdomethere are few

the God had instantaneouity transfixed both

no

their bofoms with one of his most refiftless cilla was worse than ten thousand deaths to arrows; and well might they each have laid, our enamoured hero.-Circumstanced as they as Romey did in a fimilar situation,

were, from the base, or, at best, the absurd " I look'd, and gaz'd, and never, miss'd and worldly, prejudices of a parent, whose " my heart,

breaft had long been insensible to all the soft # It fled so pleasingly away.”

emotions that flow from love, they consulted Like Romeo, alas ! they were also doom- their hcarts, and determined to follow love's ed to expericnce that

difiates; that is, plainly to express it, to “ Fathers have fiinty hearts."

ELOPE, and seek for happiness in each Lucilla—who long had been denied the other, even at eartli's utmost verge, should {weets of maternal tenderness and indulgence, Fate conduct them thither. lived under the roof of a father who loved On the eve of her departure, Lucilla her dearly. Frequently in his hours of good. wrote a letter to her father, conjuring him humoured fondness would he call her his in the most endearing terms of filial duiy and angel-kis goddess; but in fact the only idols tenderness, not to reproach her for an action, he cordially worshipped, were his guineas, which, as being unavoidable, the trusted his acres, and the genealogical table of a fa- was in itself blameless; an action, wbich mile as old as that of the famed Cadwallader, would be no wise painful to herself, farther and doubtless, though he scrupled not to pro- than as it might alarm a rigid but affectionnounce himself a lineal descendant from it, to ate parent for the safety of a beloved child; the full as visionary also.

on which head, however, he might reft perAvarice and pride! What a coalition fectly easy, fince, having committed herself of paffions in the breast of a parent, who to the protection of a man of virtue, her seemed no longer to know any real felicity own virtue, as hitherto, would, and thould, bur in the fordid or self-consequential gratifi. remain inviolate. cation of them!

By some means, an anonymous copy of They were indeed an insuperable bar to this letter found its way into the London Pathe hopes of our lovers; for Florio had little pers; and so elegantly, yet mysteriously, was to boast on the score of pedigree, and sti!! it worded, that in every polite circle it beTess on that of fortune. Lucilla was came the topic of admiration, conjecture, and stranger to these circumstances; and they enquiry. served only to encrease her tenderness for The event to which it alluded, happened Florio ; though, at the same time, the was near the close of the year 1776; and by aware, shat, with her father's corseni, she fome readers it may be recollected, that about Rever should have the happiness to call him this period a number of advertisements apHUSBAND.

peared in the daily prints, foliciting (under In the mean while, Florio was a daily vi. the initials of D. W.) the return of a cerfitor of the old gentleman, with whom he tain fair fugitive, and urging her again to to highly ingratiated himself, that he could take shelter under the wings of a father, who have obtained from him almost any gilt, but was distracted from the loss of her, and who the only one for which his soul panted—the could not defcend to the grave in peace, till, gift of his DAUGHTER. In this gist a Yup- beholding once more his child, he might have posed contamination of the blood of an ancient it in bis power to gratify her litmoft wish hy Briton would have been included ; and too uniting her with a parental benediction to the well did our lover know, that, tould he man of ber heari. dare to utter to him a single syllable on the Would to Heaven that he had thus expres. subject of a matrimonial connection, he fed bimself sooner ! - Long had he known, would never more be permitted to enjoy even or, at least, blind must be have been, had a fight of his adored Lucilla.

he not perceived that the mutual passion of Many weeks, however, were not suffer- Florio and Lucilla was uncontroulable as it ed to elapse before the feelings of both Florio was unbounded ; and now was it reserved and Lucilla were put to a cruel test, in con. for him to feel — bitterly to feel - that in obsequence of the arrival of an express, com- Itructing their happiness, he had literally unmanding the young officer immediately to dernuined his own. join his regiment, in order to embark for His advertisements, like many other notiAmerica.

ces of the kind, appeared ioc lute; and alreaAMERICA ! Fatal was the found, when dy were our lover's fifely landed at New it reached the ears of Lucilla, and awfully York (where Hymen finally sealed their ominous was it to the fond, the darling vows) before the wretihed father, sepsible youth of her innocent affections.

of his folly, endeavoured to terminate the What was to be done ? - Lucilla could memory of an irreparable misfortune, by not live but in the presence of her Florio ; terminating the daily repetition of it. and the idea of leaving helsind him his Lų. " Wrathed father," hus i Leen faid?

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