« ПретходнаНастави »
gots. Of their good will to the established to look at, separates it from the adjacent church they give an annual proof, rarely land, in the bottom of which the sea breaks found in any other part of Ireland. When with an uninterrupted roar over the rocks. they have got in their own harvest, they The inand itself is inaccessible on every side give the parlon a day of their hories and except one spot, where, under the shelter carts, and bring the entire tythe home to his of an impending rock, a luxuriant herbage farm yard."
flourishes ; but the wildness of the coast The author nexe describes Ballycastle, the and the turbulence of the sea make it very ftate of its manufactories, and collierics. In difficult to land here. these about twelve years ago, the workmen “ In this perplexity there is no celource, unexpectedly, in pushing forward a new adic except in attenripting to throw a bridge of tou ard the coal, broke through the rock to ropes from the main land to the inand, a cavern, which on examination was found which accordingly the fishermen every year to be a complete gallery, cart.eu forward ma- accomplish in a very fingular manner. Two ny hundred yards, branching off into various Itrong cables are extended across the gulph chambers, with pillars left at proper inter- by an expert climber, and fastened firmly rals to support the roof. The discovery of into iron rings mortised into the rock on this colliery, Mr. Hamilton thinks, tends either side. Between these ropes a number strongly to thew, that there was an age of boards about a foot in breadth are laid in when Ireland enjoyed a considerable share of succesfion, supported at intervals by crosscivilization. He farther quotes the round cords and thus the path-way is former, Louers of Ireland, of which there are up- which, though broad enough to bear a man's wards of fifty still remaining, which are ori. foot with tolerable convenience, dke; by no ginal in their kinds, and not inelegant in means hide from view the pointed rocks their fructure, as proofs that there were and raging lea bencath, which in this filuapublic monuments in that kingdom before tion exhibit the fatal effects of a fall in very the arrival of the Englith. To these he adds strong colouring; while the swingings and the numerous jnftruments of peace and war, undulations of the bridge itself, and of the the many curious and costly ornaments of hard rope, which no degree of tension can dreis daily dug out of the fields, as irrefraga- prevent in so great a length, suggest no very ble teftimonies that the arts once flourished, comfortable feeling to perfons of weak and that the precious metals were not un- nerves — Upon the whole, it is a beautiful known in Ireland. Not content with elta. bridge in the scenery of a landscape, but a blishing the claims of the Irish to fill in frightful one in real life. architecture and mechanical works, he with “ The mode of fishing on this coaft is dif. truly patriotic zeal adduces the authority offerent from any I have seen, the venerable Bede and other ancient authors “ The net is projected directly outward from to prove that it was many centuries ago a the thore, with a flight bend, forming a bo. rich and happy kingdom, undisturbed by fom in that direction in which the salmon those bloody wars which harralled ihe rest of From the remote extremity a rope the world ; the seat of learning and of is brought obliquely to another part of the piety.
Thore, by which the ne! may be swept round In his next letter, the author gives the fol- at pleasure, and drawn to the land ; a heap lowing account of a singular flying bridge of imati ftones is then prepared for each per. at Carrick-a-Rede, and the salmon-fishery fon. All things being ready, soon as the on that coaft.
watchmon perceives the fith advancing to the " At a particular season of the year, the nel, he gives the watch word; immediately salmon fish come along the coast in quest of some of the fishermen seize the ublique rope, the different rivers, in which they annually by which the net is bent round to enable caft their spawn. In this expedition the the salmon, while the ref keep up an inces. fith generally suim pretty close to the shore, fant Candonade with their ama unition of that they may not mifs their port. The Itunes, to prevent the retreat of the fish will kinermen, who are well aware of this wasting the net bias been completely pulled round voyage, take care to project their nets at such them; after which they all juin forces, and places as may be most convenient for inter- drag the net and fith quietly to the rocks." cepting them in their course.
Mr. Hamilton heie relates an amusing in" It fo happens that Carrick-a Rede is stance of fagacity which he obierved in a the only place on this abrupt coast which is water dog of this countiy, who had become fuited for the purpose. — Here then, or no a moft excelient fither. where, must be the fishery--but how to get “This dog, as soon as he perce'red the men at the rock is the question.- A chalm full began to haul their net, inttantly ran down bo feet in breadib, and of a depth frightful the river of his owu accord, and cook poft
in the middle of it, on some shallows where ance of art and regularity, resembling the he could occasionally run or swim, and in this work of mep, but exceeding any thing of position he placed himself with all the eager- the kind that had been seen. They, how ness and attention so Itrongly observable in a ever, concluded. that human ingenuity and pointer dog who sets bis game.-We were for perseverance, if supported by sufficient power, some time at a loss to apprehend his scheme, might have produced it. The chief difficulty but the event foon fatisfied us, and amply seems to have been the want of strengti juftified the prudence of the animal : for the equal to the effect. This the traditions of a nith, when they feel the net, always endea. fanciful people foon supplied, and Fin m3 vour to make directly out to sea. Accordo Cool (ile modern Fingal) the celebrated ingly, one of the salmon escaping from the hero of ancient Ireland, became the giant net, rushed down the stream with great ve. who erected this curious structure. locity towards the ford where the dog food A pile of limilar pillars were afterwards to receive him at an advantage --A very dia' discovered somewhere on the opposite coast of verting chace now commenced, in which, Scotland, and latitudes and longitudes not befrom the Mallowness of the water, we could ing at that time accurately understood, a condiscern the whole track of the fith, with all fused notion prevailed, that this nole wis its rapid turnings and windings. After a once continued across the sea, and joined the smart pursuit the dog found himself confider- Irih and Scottish coasts together. ably behind, in confequence of the water Towards the end of the last century, the deepening, by which he had been reduced to Royal Society begau to busy itself about this the neceifty of swimming. But instead of fingular and original wonder.
But the infollowing this desperate game any louiger, he formations they received were imperfect. readily gave it over, and ran with all his Dr. Moliineux took considerable poius to speed dire&rly down the river, will he was procure information concerning this planos Gure of being again to seaward of the salmon,
At his instigation, the Dublin Sowhere he took post as before. Here the fish ciety employed a painter of some eminence, a second time mct him, and a freth pursuit to make a general sketch of the coast near ensued, in which, after various attempts, the Causeway ; but neither the talents nor the salmon at lait made its way ou: 10 sea, fidelity of the artist seem to have been fuited notwithstanding all the ingenious and vigorous to the purpose of a philotophical loodcase. exertions of its purfuer.
From that period the Basalt Puilas pared “ Though the dog did not succeed at this almost unuliced for half a century, meil of time, yet I was informed it was no unulual science appearing unwilling to eng ge sih thing for him to run down his game; and the an object which had hitherto batiled the ato fithermen afsured me that he was of very tempts of the jbleft theoritts. great advantage to them, by turning the tal- In the year 1740, Mrs. Surinnah DT117 mon towards the net; in utrich point of made two very beritiful and correct pairlo view his efforts in tume measure corresponded ings of the Giants Cauleway, which chlaille with the cannonade of stones n.entioned at ed the premium for the encouragement of its Carrick-a-Rede."
in leland ; and buing engraved by an entiThe two next letters contain an account of nent artist, and published, again directed the che incursions of the Scots - Duniuce cattle- attention of the curious to this nigerited and the hiftory of as old ford M.Qullah; jubject. Soon after Dr. Pococke made 3 together with a pathetic and interesting ac- tour through the county of Antrim, ali count of an unfortunate family fetiiud in the took a general view of the cit; but no promotory of Bengore. Of the antiene state content with matters of laci, !e ventured to and history of this part Antrimi lietle re. 1tt a theory, unitle to land the test of a inairs now discoverable.
crit al exammation, aiimbuting the reguar Among the natural curiofities on the coast, figure of the colonos to repeated precauca. the mot remarkable is that iurious combi
tions of the batalies, supposed to have bceta nation of balaltic pillars commonly called the once suspended in a watery medium. Giants Causeway, which next engage cur au- Mr. Hamilion gives us the following 3Cthor's attention. The native inhabitants of the count of these stupendous columns : coast who first observed this wonder, altempe- “ The causeway is generally describeul J ed to account for its production by a theory a mole or quay projecting from the base of : rude and fimple indeed, but not grossly bar- feep promontory fome hundred fret mia the brous or abfurd. The fuhermen, wlwie le.', and is lon meil of perpendicular pill.is of daily necessities led them thither fur fundit. bafalte, wind God in contact with eacts ence, chlerved that it was a regular mole other, exlubong ad appearance nu? much projecting into the sea ; on closur mfpection undse a iulid honeycomb. The pillars are it was discovered to be built with an appear. irreguts pums, of various det ominat using from four to eight fides ; but the hexagonal culiar figure, tending in many places to run columns are as numerous as all the others into regular forms, resembling the shooting together.
of salts, and many other substances during a « On a minute inspection, each pillar is hatty crystallization. found to be separable in several joints, whose “ Under this great bed of stone stands a articulation is neat and compact beyond ex. second range of pillars, between forly and prettion; the convex termination of one fifty feet in height, lefs gross, and more joint always meeting a concave focket in the tharply defined than those of the upper story, next; besides which, the angles' of one fre- many of them, on a close view, emulating quently thout over those of the other, so that even the neatnefs of the columns in the they are completely locked together, and can Giants Causeway.
This lower range is rarely be separated without a fracture of some borne on a layer of red ochre ftone, which of their parts.
serves as a relief to thew it to great advan“ The hides of each column are unequal tage. among themselves; but the contiguous ades vs These two admirable natural galleries, of adjoining columns are always of equal di. together with the interjacent mass of irregumensions, so as to touch in all their parts. lar rock, form a perpendicular height of 170
" Though the angies be of various magni- feet, from the base of which the pron:ontory, tudes, yet the sum of the contiguous angles covered over with rock and grats, nopes, of adjoining pillars always make up four down to the sea for the space of 200 fedt right ones. Hence there are no void spaces more, making in all a mass of near 400 feet among the basaltes, the surface of the cause. in height, which in beauty and variety of its way exhibiting to view a regular and com- colouring, in elegance and novelty of arpaét pavement of polygon stones.
rangement, and in the extraordinary magni" The ouilide covering is soft, and of a ficence of its objects, cannot readily be rival. brown colour, being the earthy parts of the led by any thing of the kind at prelent Itone nearly deprived of its metallic prin- known. riple by the action of the air, and of the ma- " At the distance of eight miles from nne acid which it receives from the sea. hence the promontory of Fairhead raises its
" The leading features of this whole coast lofty summit more than 400 feet above the are the two great promontories of Bengore fea, forming the eastern ternination of Billyand Fairhead, which itand at the distance of cattle bay. It presents to view a va!t coineight miles from each other ; both formed pact mais of rude columnar ftones, the forms on a great and extensive scale, both abrupt of which are extremely grass, many of them towards the sea, and abundantly exposed to being near 150 feet in length, and the texture observation, and each in its kind exhibiting fo coarse, as to resemble black scherle ftone, noble arrangements of the different species rather than the clofe fine grain of the Giants of columnar basaltes.
Causeway basaltes. At the base of these gi, * The former of these lies about seven gantic columns lies a wild waste of natural miles west of Ballycastle, and is made up of ruins, of an enormous size, whicli, in the a number of capes and bays, the sout ensemble course of successive ages, bave been tumbled of which forms what the seamen denominate down from their foundations by ftoims, or the Head of Bengore.
fome more powerful operations of nature, “ The most perfect of these capes is called These mallive bodies have sometimes with Pleurkin. Its summit is covered with a thin food the shock of their fall, and often lie in grafiy fod, under which lies the natural rock, groupes and clumps of pillars resembling' having generally an uniform hard surface, many of the varieties of artificial ruins, and somewhat cracked and shivered. At the forming a very novel and Ariking ländicape. depth of ten or twelve feet from the summit, “ • A savage willness characterizes his this rock begins to assume a columnar ten- great promontory, at the foot of which the dency, and forms a range of mafiy pillars of ocean rages with uncommon fury. Scarce a baíaltes, which stand perpendicular to the single mark of vegetation has yet crept over borizon, presenting, in the sharp face of the the hard rock to diversify its colouring, but promontory, the appearance of a magnificent one uniform greyness clothes the itene all gallery or colonade, upwards of fixty feet in around. Upon the whole, it makes a fine height,
contrast with the beautiful capes of Bengore, “ This colonade is supporteil on a solid where the varied brown shades of the pillars, base of coarse, black, irregular rock, near enlivened by the red and green tints of uclire fixty feet thick, ahounding in blebs and airs and grass, cast a degree of life and chearfulboles; but though comparatively uregular, ness over the ditterent objects." it may be evidently observed to affect a pe
[To be continud ]
The Structure and Physiology of Fishes explained and compared with those of Man, and
other Animals. By Alexander Monro, M. D. Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, and of the Royal Sociciy, and Profeffor of Playfic, Anatomy, and Surgery in the Univer. firy of Edinburgh. liustrated with Figures. Folio. 21. 25. Elliot, Edinburgh, and Robinsons, London. 1785.
[Concluded from page *101 ] DOCTOR Monro speaking of the ear of pecially as the reader is corsiderably affisted
the cetaceous fishes, gives the following by references to the annexed plates, and go on account of what he observed in the direction to the Doctor's account of some experiments of the phocæna, one of that order.
made by him in 1780, on hearing in water, « On each side of the head there is a the better to be able to judge of the effect of round bole, scarcely large enough to admit sound upon the ears. the head of a small pin, which is the begin- For this purpose he employed two bells, ning of a long meatus auditorius exuermes , at the found of which he was used to; one of the bottom of which we find a conude memo them a linall tei-table bell, the other much brana tympani. The membrane typing is
larger and thicker, so that the found of it conducted to the bottom of the cavity of the could be very weil beard at the distance of a tympanum, by a chain of imall burnes, tied
quilter of a mile. together by a reddith-coloured membrane. When there were plunged under water and The innermost pike, analogous to our japes, ring, ho obierved that the sound of them has evidently a muscle connected to it; a 11.15 very stufibly graver ; but ftill the nng. large nerve or portio mollis divides the two iny tremor of bath was very distinguishable. branches, and then enters the bune at the On performing an accurte experiment, the bottom of the cavity of the tympanum, and tea-uble ball was found in air the highest G following one of the branches of ihe nerveate of a barpsichord; but in water it sounded a la to the cochlea, which is divided into two frien taife lover, or it founded the C tharp foole, each containing a reddith coloured tube under the G. cally separable from the ofreou, cand which lle next plunged his head under the wa. wains it.
tei while he rung the bell in the air, and “ Following the other branch of the nerve, heard ihe found of it distinctly. As the tone I obierved rait of the lesnicircular canals; the of me beil is louder and more acute in the membolle of which is very thin, and ad- air than in the water, its sound is neceilırily heres to the bone which contains it.
better heard when the head of the perton “ The cavity of the tympanum is renark. making the experiment is under the water ably large, and communicates freely with and the bell above it, thin wlien the bell as other cavities which are analogous to our rung under the water wbile the head is front. I, sphenoidul, and maxillary finutes. aboie it.
* A tube amilar to ou Euchun tube, The Dolor next plunged his whole body or ilcr a palato ad awren, begins towards the with the bells, holding their handles in his Inwer end of the futuias thro' which the ani. hands, under the water, and then rung them, mil respires, ani, contrary to what we 05. and was surprised with the loudness and differve in men and quadrupeds, enlouges as it Lindtmeis of their sounds, and could readily runs back towards the cavity of the tympa- distinguish their different tones. num, in ubich it terminates.
In like manner, when plunged under the " While, therefore, the'e animals float on water, le itruck two stones held in his hands ile surfice of the ocean, imprelion is made against each other, and was furprised with on the leveral parts of their ear in the fanie the tho k communicated to the cars. manner as in man."
This experiment confi: ms Dr. Franklin's From the remarkable difference of the opinion, “ That water will convey found fize of the caverns winch communicate with farther and more readily than air. He The cavity of the tympanum, the Doctor is thinks he bas heard a smart stroke of two ted to consider, whether the effect of the Itunes together under water, his ear being found upon the er be encreased hy ibai cir- also under water in the fame river, near a cumftance ? or whether the chief use of theia mile: how much farther it may be heard he caverns be to render the head specifically kow's not, hut suppoíes a great deal farther, Lighter, and like swimming biaduers to make because the found did not seem faint, as if at it nile more readily to the surface of the sea ? a dilunce, like distant fuunds thro' the air,
Our author next proceeds to describe che but imart and strong, as if preient just a: ear in amphibious animali, particularly the fia tortoise or curtie, previous to his giving Our author, af:erwards, by means of a of the itructure of that organ in the Nantes ftring tied to the handle of the largest bell, Pinnati and Pilces of Linneus. But for theie and to an inflated bladder, inks. vel tini We mult refer to the work itself. niore ei. bell in a very deep pool, six feet under the surface of the water, and took hold of a tioned at the ditance of a mile or more, with cord twelve yards long, which he had previ- one or both ears under water." oully tied to the handle. He then plunged By this means, as two very different sounds under the water and pulled the cord, and would be produced at the same inítant, the found the found was instantly conveyed to
one in air and the other in water, it might be his ears.
observed which of them ftruck the ear foon. He in the last place thought of trying an ett. Besides this, the fath sewing the exexperiment, to determine whether air or act time at which the bell was ftruck, the water conveyed sound quickelt: but there velocity of the found in the water might be being no lake near Edinburgh above 800 accurately determined. feet broad, he found it impollible, independe To this experiment, however, one forciently of the difficulty of conttructing a pro- ble objection occurs in our opinion, which per apparatus, to perform the experiment in seems to liave escaped the Doctor's attention, a satisfactory and decisive way. He, how. viz. that the sound of the gun has to ever, made the following trial. He charged pass not only through the medium of air, but three English pint bottles each with about allo through that of water, before it can ten ounces of gunpowder. He then inserted reach the ear supposed to be placed under a tin tube four feet in length into each bottle, water, whereas the sound of the bell will and prevented the water from getting into pass immediately thro' the same homogeneous the bottle by wrapping a piece of wet blad- medium directly to the ear; which difference, der round the neck of it and the neck of the we apprehend, will prevent the velocity of tube which entered into it, and tying the the different sounds from being so accurately tube and neck of the bottle to each other. ascertained as might be wished.
After filling the tube with gunpowder, The Cench chapter treats of the several he fixed to the top of it a piece of match pa- ways in which the tremor of sonorous bodies per, and into the match paper, just over is communicated in the different clafles of the top of the tube, he put two ounces of animals to the nerves spread on the bottom gunpowder.
of the ear. He then sunk the bottle near the fue of a Speaking of the eyes of fishes, in the next lake to the depth of about two feet, and went chapter, the Doctor says, into the water at the greatest distance possi. " In all fishes, to far as I have observed, ble, which was about 800 feet, and laid the pigment on the inner side of the choroid bimself on his back in the water, with his coat is, as in land-animals which seek their food ears under its surface, and nose and eyes in the night-time, of a bright colour at the above it. The match was then set fire to by bottom of the eye ; perhaps because the light another person; and as it was midnight, he strikes thic bottom of the eye with less furce saw the Aath of the gunpowder contained than in the land animals, many of its rays being within the match, and soon after heard the intercepted by the water. To account hownoise of the explosion of the gunpowder ever for the different colour of this pigment, within the bottle. But he found it impossi- in the different genera of animals, feems to ble in this way to determine the velocity of be a matrer of much difficulty : nay, it may the sound with accuracy, as the gunpowder be a question, whether the chief uses of the in the bottle was not set fire to through the choroid coat in any animal have been clearly tube so instantaneously as was expected. ascertained; or whether we certainly know
For want of being provided with a proper in what manner the choroid coat is subserviapparatus, the piece of water not being ent to the retina. Perhaps attention to the of sufficient extent, and the experiment powers of the eyes in two animals which too feldom repeated, the only conclusion the are mere varieties of the fame species, may profeffor could draw, was, that after the bot- serve to throw farther light on this curious tie burst he heard one, but did not hear two subject ; I mean the brown and the white explosions ; so that the water seemed to rabbit : for in the former the choroid is even convey the sound nearly in the same time as covered with a dark pigment; whereas, in the atmosphere.
the latter, though the choroid coat is as much The Doctor proposes the following expe- composed of vessels as in other animals, I have riment as most likely to be satisfactory found that the black paint, tapetum, or inner " To suspend under water, in a broad layer of the choroid, is altogether wanting: and lake, a large and loud founding hell, such as hence the colour of the red blood circulating is used in church steeples, and for one per- in the vessels of the choroid, is seen when fon to strike this with an iron hammer, be- when we look into the eye, or makes their tween the handle of which and the trigger of eyes appear red." a musket, or cannon fired with a lock, a rope The Doctor proceeds to remark, that the was itretched; while another person was Nan humours of the eyes of fithes are proportion