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this crude period (and it is very crude), which whether skill or clumsiness appears in its concommand our admiration more. The finest and struction, are not the first questions to be most beautiful human products of the time, asked. The prior question, as I conceive, is whom even the Philistines would join us in this: does the book leave any kind of fine and choosing for honor, as exemplars to their genera-wholesome feeling in the mind of one who reads tion, might not pass an examination in biology it? That is not a question concerning the mere or physics. They are the men and women, sweet | morality of the book, in the conventional meanwith the sweetness and luminous with the lighting of the term. It touches the whole quality which Matthew Arnold never tired of extolling, of the work as one of true literature. "Does who represent that side of civilization which is it leave any kind of fine and wholesome feeling refinement more than knowledge, or which is in the mind of one who reads it?" There is no knowledge refined. I speak wrongly, however, mistaking a feeling of that nature, though it when I say that refinement is one side of civili- may never seem twice the same in our experience zation, for it is civilization, and all science that of it. Sometimes it may be to us as though we lacks it is barbaric, even though steam-engines had eaten of good food; at other times like the and the dynamos of Niagara are shaking the tasting of wine; at others, again, like a draught earth at its command. of water from a cool spring. Some books that we read will make us feel that we are lifted as on wings; some will make music within us; some will give us visions; some will just fill us with a happy content. In such feelings there is a refining potency that seems to be equalled in nothing else. The simplest art is as sure to produce them as the highest. We take them from Burns' lines to a field-mouse, from Wordsworth's "Poor Susan," from the story of Ruth, from the story of "The vicar of Wakefield," from the story of "Picciola," from the story of "Daddy Darwin's dovecote," as certainly as from "Hamlet" or from "Henry Esmond." The true pleasure, the fine, pleasure, the civilizing pleasure to be drawn from any form of art is one which leaves a distinctly wholesome feeling of some such nature as these which I have tried to describe; and the poem, the romance, the play, the music, or the picture which has nothing of the sort to give us, but only a moment of sensation and then blankness, does no kind of good, however innocent of positive evil it may be,
If the wholesome feeling which all true art produces, in literature or elsewhere, is unmistakable, so, too, are those feelings of the other nature which works of an opposite character give rise to. Our minds are as sensitive to a moral force of gravitation as our bodies are sensitive to the physical force, and we are as conscious of the downward pull upon us of a vulgar tale or a vicious play as we are conscious of the buoyant lift of one that is nobly written. We have, likewise, a mental touch, to which the texture of coarse literature is as distinct a fact as the grit in a muddy road that we grind with our heels. And so I will say again that the conclusive test for a book which offers pleasure rather than
Now, the refinements of life come chiefly from its pleasures. That is true to an extent which is sure to surprise us when we think of it first. Unfortunately, it is no less true that the meaner influences which vitiate and vulgarize life, making it gross and coarse, come from the pleasure side of existence, too. There the main sources of the two are together: on one hand, the springs of all art-music, poetry, romance, drama, sculpture, painting brimmed with delights of the imagination and the joy of the beauty of the world; on the other hand, the muddy wells into which so many people choose perversely to dip.
These contrary influences are working in every region of pleasurable art, but nowhere else so actively as in the field of letters, and they give rise to the greatest difficulties that are met in the selection of books for a public library. In disseminating the literature which aims at pleasure- | giving more than instruction, and at the moving of emotion more than thought, where can a proper line of restriction be drawn? Shall we, in the first place, incline to parsimony in the restriction, and yield no more of this literature | than we must to the readers who demand it? I say, no; because, as I have asked you to note, there is a great stream in this channel from the very sources of refinement in civilization, and that stream should be unstintingly diffused. Against the other tide, which flows by the side of this one, but distinguished from it by a thousand mud-marks, we cannot build dikes too busily. On which of the two currents an offered book of entertainment has been floated to us is what we must know, if we can. Whether the book is alive with genius or dead with the lack of it, whether it be brilliant or commonplace,
knowledge is in the question, "Does it leave any kind of wholesome and fine feeling in the mind of one who reads it?"
But the truth is that there is a cunning deceit All this which I am saying is straightly op- in this pretension to "Art for Art's sake." posed to a doctrine much preached in our day, Those who lead the cry do not mean what their by a school of pretenders in art, who have gained words seem to imply. They do not mean the such a hearing by their talkativeness that they emptiness that one might suppose. What they are seriously dangerous. It first appeared, I be- do mean, as their practice proves, is to put lieve, in France, among the painters. French something ignoble in the place of what should literature took infection from it; then England be noble, something vulgar or something vile in became diseased, and America is in peril. It is the place of what should be wholly pure and the false and ignorant doctrine which phrases wholly fine. What they are really striving to itself in the meaningless motto "Art for do is to degrade the content of Art, and to perArt's sake!" "Pursue Art for Art's sake suade the world that it can be made the vehicle of - enjoy Art for Art's sake!" say these as-low suggestions and mean ideals without ceasing thetic prophets of our generation, who have to be Art in the noble sense. no comprehension of what Art is. As well In literature, the workers to that end are nowtalk of sailing a ship for the ship's sake—of adays very busy, and the countenance they rewheeling a cart for the cart's sake of ar-ceive is disheartening to see. It is for us who ticulating words for the words' sake. Art is are among the custodians of good literature to a vessel, a vehicle, for the carriage and com- set our faces against them, I offer you as the munication of something from one mind to an- one most important maxim that can be laid down other mind from one soul to another soul. for your guidance in the selection of books— Without a content, it has no more reason for its Beware of the literature of the school which being than a meaningless word could have in hu- preaches "Art for Art's sake." man speech. Considered in itself and for its own So much for the theory of the matter. It is sake, it has no existence- it is an imposture-a a theory that we may not be able, perhaps, to mere simulation of Art; for that which, duly | wholly carry out, but it is our duty to go as far in filled with meanings and laden with a message, that way as we can.
would be Art, is then but the handicraft of a
THE TRAINING OF LIBRARY EMPLOYES.-III.
BY ADELAIDE R. HASSE.
IN almost all libraries the general routine is based in the main upon identical lines, differing only in so far as these are influenced by local conditions. So all libraries support a purchasing department, whose chief adjunct is the accession department. Since the card system has been extended to other than cataloging purposes, the librarian has delegated to the staff the care of a large part of the work of the purchasing department, such as keeping records of books to be purchased, books ordered, periodical subscriptions, etc. Here belongs also the filing and in- | dexing of correspondence, and, as much of this work must come from the librarian's office, some attention should be given here to the relations of the librarian with the board, the filing of committee reports, the indexing of the minute book, the form of the librarian's monthly reports to the board, the preliminary arrangements attendant upon meetings of the board, etc. Encourage
the inventive faculty of pupils in matters of
Purchasing Books: Pupils having been required to submit monthly lists of new books, with references where obtained, etc., they are now more or less familiar with all the book reviews to be found in the library. Let them extend their acquaintance to at least all the American and the leading English book reviews, by reporting upon the scope, special features, departments, editorship, manner of publication, whether m., w. or qr., etc., price, size, address, how long established, etc. To do this the person in charge of the class should have provided sample copies of the reviews; lists published by periodical agencies; the Review of Reviews indexed, in place of which the monthly index may be used,
These, with publishers' catalogs, comprise the tools by the aid of which the average public library compiles its order lists.
To acquaint the pupils at once with publishers, their specialties, catalogs, etc., set them to work in some such manner as this:
cises covering this ground may be given to pupils as follows: Prepare lists of leading American periodicals specially devoted to economics, music, art, industry, educatiɔn, women, drama, engineering, history, electricity, science, agriculture, outdoor sports, juvenile interests, etc., stating any decided points of variance among magazines of one subject, place where published, size, cost, how long published, important contributions, etc. Prepare a subscription list of your own selection.
Let pupils make their own selections of the above without suggestions; have the lists compared in class; let pupils defend all questioned selections. Give some attention with pupils to subject of filing of current periodicals; of temtransla-porary binders, varieties, advantages and cost; of binding of periodicals for circulation and reference; of the various uses to which periodicals may be put (see ann. rpt. Los Angeles P. L., 1893-4).
Who publishes the following: Variorum Shakespeare; Story of the nations; red line edition of the poets; Contemporary science ser.; International education ser.; Sacred books of Pupils should be taught methods of keeping the East, etc.? subscriptions, expirations, etc., in both card References: Publishers' Weekly; "American and ledger systems. See L. J., and Denver P. Catalogue," with supplements; "Trade List | L. "Handbook"; "Hints for small libraries," Annual;" Annual Catalogues;" "A. L. A. | Plummer. Catalog;" Publishers' Circular; Whitaker's "Reference Catalogue;" Low's Catalogues; Sonnenschein, 1st and 2d eds.; Poole.
Let the pupils early form the habit of using reference books, and require of them, when submitting the result of such exercises as the above, to include a list of the reference books which they have used, other than those which have been suggested, thereby giving an indication of their own ability of research.
Let pupils prepare model forms for ordering books; fill out all blanks used by the library in ordering books; examine blanks of other libraries, etc. For practice many of these exercises may be typewritten, or when done in manuscript, a good library hand should be insisted
Prepare a list of five largest American publishing firms, firm-name, place of business, with at least three important publications of each. Same, English.
Name five English and five American secondhand dealers, giving firm-name, place of business, etc.
Name American publishing houses making a specialty of the following: maps, atlases, etc.; medical books; complete editions of American authors; engineering; photography; tions, music, etc.
Pupils should have explained to them in this connection the system of average library discounts; cost of transportation by freight, book post, mail; an outline of copyright laws; of the laws governing the importation of foreign books. References: Indexes in yolumes of Publishers' Weekly; U. S. Official Postal Guide; Putnam, "Law of copyright."
Periodicals: Many libraries now number among their most desirable features the circulation of periodicals, and almost every library carries a large stock for reference. Exer
Newspapers: Newspapers were a feature of public libraries before periodicals had begun to be considered as within their province. Let pupils prepare lists of leading newspapers of various political parties, leading German-American papers, also French and Italian, showing where and by whom published, cost, how often issued, etc. Study newspaper files; systems of checking receipt of newspapers; methods of caring for old files; care of clippings; binding, etc.
In a public library it will be quite impossible for even one person to take the time to oversee a continuous course of work such as the above; and it should therefore be scheduled in relays, as suggested in the July L. J., or it may be given for "busy work” in instalments during those hours when the pupil is not actually employed in one of the departments.
For a guide in the practical work of the accession department use the Library School accession rules; have pupils make a note of the specifications for an order for an accession book. Fac-simile sheets of the accession book should be furnished them, or they should rule them themselves, and fill them out with sample entries of various kinds of books, such as newspapers, books of more than one volume, periodicals, maps, music, etc.
A BRIEF SKETCH OF SOME OF THE LIBRARIES IN CHICAGO.*
By W: B. WICKERSHAM.
BEFORE the great fire of 1871, Chicago had no public library, nor was there any statute in the state authorizing the establishment of one. After the fire, for many years the Public Library was almost the only institution of its kind through which the public had access to books. Law Institute, the Chicago Historical Society, and the Academy of Sciences were early re-established, but they were so crippled, especially the last two, that they were some years getting into operation. The city was busy repairing the breaches and little interest was taken in educational or literary institutions beyond the rebuilding of schools for the small army of children everywhere demanding attention. Later, public sentiment took a stride forward and encouraged a higher and broader culture by establishing the Athenæum, Manual Training Schools, the Art Institute, the Newberry Library, the great Chicago University, the Armour Institute, the Field Museum, and the prospective John Crerar Library and the Lewis Polytechnic Institute. All these, to say nothing of university extension centres and of clubs and classes galore, go to show that Chicago is at present wide awake on the question of education and culture.
In the old Metropolitan block before the great fire of 1871 there existed the only library of any considerable size in the city of Chicago. This collection of some 18,000 or 20,000 volumes was owned by an association called the Chicago Library Association, and was accessible only to members who paid $5 a year for membership. The association was understood to be deeply in debt, and its destruction by the flames October 9, 1871, may have been an unlooked-for piece of good luck to the stockholders, who would thus
be spared the more tedious operation of being sold out by a receiver under an order of court.
When the news of the burning of Chicago reached England, the people there, in common with the inhabitants of all civilized countries, began making contributions of clothing, blankets, money, etc., for our stricken city. Among them were some, however, who thought that a more substantial gift than food and raiment would be acceptable. At the suggestion of Mr. Burgess, then secretary of the AngloAmerican Society in London, the Hon. Thomas
*Part of a paper read before the Chicago Library Club, March 8, 1895.
Hughes, its president, called a meeting of that association and proposed that while others were sending to Chicago something for our bodies, they should contribute something for our minds. Supposing that Chicago had lost a great free public library, Mr. Hughes contributed copies of his "Tom Brown's school days" and "Tom Brown at Oxford," and set about among his friends, authors and publishers, to make a collection of books for a nucleus for a new free library, and as a result of his efforts about 5000 volumes were contributed, the Government sending hundreds of valuable public documents and state papers. Among this interesting collection are others by Thomas Carlyle, John Bright, Lord books given by the Queen with her autograph, and Lady Trevelyan, etc.
As soon as official word reached Chicago that such a gift was being collected, a number of enterprising citizens met at the call of the Hon. Joseph Medill, the mayor at that time, and prepared a bill authorizing cities and villages of Illinois under certain restrictions to organize and maintain free public libraries and readingthe committee found a similar bill, which had rooms. This bill was taken to Springfield, where been introduced into the House on March 23, 1871, and had passed to a second reading. This bill was amended, hurried through with an emergency clause attached, and signed by the governor March 7, 1872. The establishment of the Chicago Public Library by the city council and the appointment by the mayor of a board of nine directors to manage it, followed
in close succession.
On the 20th of July, 1872, the writer was elected secretary and acting librarian by the board. When he reported for duty there was nothing put into his hands or charge except the record book and a few letters. For some time he had no office save an old chair kindly loaned him by Mr. C. J. Richardson, then, as now, assistant librarian of the Law Institute, in whose office in the temporary City Hall, at the corner of La Salle and Adams streets, known as the "Rookery," the use of the chair was allowed. In a few weeks new rooms in the same building were completed for the library, and about the same time books began to arrive from England.
It was a notable day for the Chicago Public Library, that 31st of August, 1872, when on temporary shelves in one of the office rooms the first book was placed in position, that book being John Bright's "Speeches on questions of public policy."
The growth of the library was rapid. Many citizens of Chicago, whose homes had escaped the flames of the great conflagration, gave liberally from their libraries, and as soon as appropriations became available the board commenced to purchase books generously.
England was not alone in the contribution of literature towards the formation of a new library in Chicago. Germany, France, Bohemia, and some other countries also forwarded valuable collections.
On the first day of January, 1873, the reading room was formally opened to the public. Invitations had been sent out to many citizens, and the new room was comfortably filled. Speeches were made by the president of the board, the late Hon. Thomas Hoyne, by Director Daniel L. Shorey, Mayor Medill, and others. And so the new library was dedicated and started on its mission.
On the 25th of October, 1873, the board elected the late lamented Dr. W: F: Poole librarian, who entered upon his duties January 1, 1874. Dr. Poole had had large experience, having been librarian of the Boston Athenæum for many years, and later of the Cincinnati Public Library for six years or more, and to his wise selection of books the Chicago Public Library owes much of its present completeness and prosperity.
The library was opened to the public as a circulating library, on the southeast corner of Madison street and Wabash avenue, on the first day of May, 1874, and as such took rank at once among the first in the country. One year later it was removed to the southwest corner of Lake and Dearborn streets, where it remained until the early summer of 1886, when it found a home in the City Hall. It is hoped that another and final move to its new building on Michigan avenue, between Randolph and Washington streets, will be made in the spring of 1896.
On July 23, 1887, Dr. Poole resigned the librarianship of the public library, and accepted a similar position at the head of the Newberry Library, which post he held until his death over one year ago. On October 15, 1887, Mr. Frederick H. Hild was elected Dr. Poole's successor as librarian of the public library. Mr. Hild had been for many years the Doctor's assistant, and, though a young man, was well qualified for the responsible position. If any fears were entertained at the time, the rapid growth and development of the library ever since give evidence of the wise selection of the board.
At the present writing there are in the library 207,000 volumes, the annual net accessions being about 10,000 volumes. The circulation of books for home use during the year ended May 31, 1894, was 1,027,219 volumes, of which 446,168 were issued through the delivery stations. The average daily circulation of books for home use at the present time is 4253. The largest circulation of books for home use in any one day was on February 23, 1895, when 7731 volumes were issued. 52,663 persons hold cards entitling them to draw books for home use.
The books on the shelves of the public library cover all fields of literature, science, and art. The general plan laid down by Dr. Poole, that of making it an all-around library, has been adhered to by his successor. No department can hardly be said to be more complete than the others, though in bound and complete sets of periodical literature the collection is surpassed by few libraries in the country.
While keeping in view the needs of the masses, the board has also been quite liberal in the purchase of books for the student and scholar, though it has never felt that it was the province
of the people's library to supply expensive volumes either in art or science. Yet, notwithstanding this general policy, the board has supplied a good many valuable and expensive works in the line of art which were demanded and which could not be found elsewhere. Among the donations of our English friends is a complete set of the specifications and drawings of the British Patents. There being only a few sets in this country, and the reports being wholly out of print, they are exceedingly valuable. The library also has a complete set of specifications and drawings of the United States Patents, as well as those of France, Germany, and Canada. All these are in a room by themselves where they can be freely examined.
The public library is supported by a tax levied upon all the taxable property within the city, the limit up to the present time being not to exceed one-half of one mill on the dollar of valuation. It has required the full half-mill for some years to provide for the current expenses, which amount in round numbers to $125,000, and in view of the additional expense of maintaining the library in its new building, the board has asked the present General Assembly to amend the law and make the limit one mill. This amount, with the present assessed valuation of property, will be just sufficient for its needs.
In 1884 the board tried the experiment of opening a few places remote from the centre of the city where book borrowers could exchange their books without the time and expense necessary for a trip to the main library. These places were called delivery stations. They soon grew into popularity, until at the present time 32 are in successful operation. Many of the stations are located so as to accommodate the laboring classes, and books left in the morning as the laborer goes to his work are charged during the day, and a fresh volume is ready for him as he goes home in the evening. All this at no expense whatever to the book borrower. More than one-third of all the books circulated are issued through this channel. In October, 1890, the experiment of branch reading rooms was begun. Six store rooms were rented, fitted up with tables, bookcases, etc., and supplied with a good collection of reference books and periodicals. These rooms have become very popular and are patronized by all classes of citizens. Pupils and teachers of schools in their vicinity are especially benefited by them. So great was the demand for books of a general and popular nature that the board added to the reference books several hundred volumes of standard works, including some fiction. At the present time the total number of volumes in these rooms is about 10,000.
As an adjunct to the schools, an arrangement was made many years ago with the board of education whereby books might be ordered by the principal of the school for collateral reading by the pupils on the subjects being pursued, in which case the books are kept one month without renewal, the board of education being responsible for their safety and return. In addition to this the librarian permits and encourages teachers in the high schools and seminaries,