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immortal strength, and girded with celestial radiance. That agent must have been something different from the body in which its phenomena were for a time exhibited.
3. Because the capacities of men are entirely different from the properties of matter, and such as cannot result from any modification of them. The properties of matter are of two kinds, chemical and mechanical. It has no intellectual or moral properties; no combination and arrangement of material particles, so far as we know, can invest them with new and different properties. It can only modify the properties already possessed. If the elementary particles of matter therefore, do not possess life, no possible combination and arrangement of them can confer this principle. If the elements are without life, so will every possible combination of them be. This is manifest from the design of organization which is simply to combine, modify and direct ihe properties and powers of the bodies organized, but not in any case to conser new powers. There is no instance to be found, in which power is originated by organization, though it is always modified by that means. The body is indeed material. Every particle of matter in it, retains not only its material but its peculiar character. The arrangement and organization of those particles are wonderful. They accomplish in behalf of man, all that the most perfect organization can accomplish, but they do not and cannot accomplish the phenomena of thought and feeling. These are of a higher nature than mere chemical or mechanical effects, and bear the unequivocal marks of a higher agency. Thought and feeling, memory and volition, are phenomena which cannot be referred to attraction and repulsion, or any other properties of matter combined or uncombined, as their causes, without manifest and gross absurdity. Still less can they be resolved into the properties of any class of material objects. No modifications of extension, solidity, mobility, inertia, attraction, or repulsion, the properties of all matter, can possibly constitute an intellectual sentiment or moral exercise. The existence therefore of phenomena which admit of no rational explanation on any of the principles of matter, demonstrates the existence of that noble agent denominated the soul or mind.
4. Because the hypothesis, that the body or any part of it, is the ultiinate agent of thought and feeling contradicts our conscious
We are conscious of different intellectual and moral exercises, of thought, feeling, pleasure, pain, etc. The subject of all those exercises of which we are conscious, and of our consciousness itself, is of course the ultimate and real agent of thought and feeling. This subject is not the brain or any part of the body, but something entirely different and distinct from the bodily organs. It is something present alike in every part of the body, but capable of being identified with nothing that is material. The objects of consciousness are the states and exercises of that which is the subject of thought and feeling whatever it is. Were the brain that subject, their consciousness would have respect to the states and exercises of the brain. But this is not the case. The agent of thought takes no more cognizance of the state of the brain, than it does of that of other bodily organs. It is susceptible of pain in any part of the body, and in the several senses it takes accurate cognizance of the impressions appropriate to those senses. In respect to the brain it does nothing more. Consciousness has no subjective reference to the body, considered as a whole or any part of it. Therefore the subject of consciousness must be something different from the body, though connected with it. It must be the soul.
5. Because the bible teaches, that man has a soul to which all the phenomena of human thought and feeling ought to be reserred. Gen. ii. “ The Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul.” Here is first the formation of the body out of the dust of the ground; and secondly the bestowment of the breath of life, or of a living soul, added to the body, and intimately connected with it. The body is represented as one thing, and the breath of life or the soul another. To this soul, and not to the body, the phenomena of human thought and feeling are in the bible universally and distinctly referred. The soul is spoken of in the bible as that which loves and hates, which rejoices and is troubled or filled with sorrow, which exercises fear and confidence, and is concerned in all the functions of life and in all the modifications of perception and feeling. See Cant. i. 7; iii. 1-4; Ps. i. 14; vi. 4 ; xvii. 9; lvii. 2; lxxxvi. 4; Job xix. 2; xxvii. 2; xxx. 25; Matth. xxvi. 38; Mark xiv. 34. 34. In Matth. x. 28 it is said ;“ Fear not them that kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul; but rather fear him who is able to destroy both soul and body in hell.” Here soul and body are manifestly distinguished as constituting the higher and lower departments of human nature. The former is not only represented as different from the body, but as surviving its destruction, and as incapable of destruction by man; but as liable to be destroyed by the wrath of God. In numerous passages both of the old and new testament, and in various modes of expression, the soul of man is spoken of as being distinct and different from the body. The doctrine of its separate existence, one of the most obvious of the doctrines of the bible, implies this, and is inconsistent with any other hypothesis. The bible is a system of truth established by the strongest and most decisive evidence. We cannot suppose it to be false in any of its clear and obvious instrucVOL. vu.
tions. Decisive evidence does not lie, and if faithfully interpreted cannot mislead. That therefore, which the bible clearly teaches must be true, because supported by an amount of evidence which cannot exist in favor of falsehood and delusion. The doctrine, that the soul, the agent of thought and feeling, is different and distinct from the body, thus having the undoubted support of the bible; and the bible having the support of evidences which are the infallible indications of truth; this doctrine therefore, is entitled to our utmost confidence from its relation to the bible, and inspection of other sources of evidence in its favor. Having determined with certainty, that thought and feeling are not affections and states of the body, the conclusion is inevitable, that they must be the workings of a higher agent and more etherial element included within the body. This agent is denominated the soul, mind, spirit, and is that which invests man with his bigh pre-eminence in the scale of being. The soul is not a part of the body though inclu. ded within it. It is not capable of amalgamation with the body, though acting upon it and by its means, and being in turn acted upon thereby. The souls of men are a single class of objects not material, a class which we have great facilities for studying and understanding, and a competent knowledge of which, is of the greatest possible consequence to us as free, responsible, and immortal agents.
The phenomena of mind equally with those of matter are objects of perception, testimony, and reason. They are also, to a considerable extent, in the case of our own minds, severally objects of consciousness. Consciousness, is the highest and primary source of information on this subject. We are conscious of the exercise of thoughts and feelings, which cannot be referred to our bodies exclusively, or even at all. This is the case with perception, affection, memory, imagination, reason, conscience and volition. They are all matters of consciousness and indicate to ourselves the existence and character of our own minds. They are also matters of observation and testimony, and are capable of being clearly established as such. Those facts in relation to the mind, which are matters of consciousness, together with those which we learn from observation and the testimony of others, are the materials for the appropriate and successful exercise of reason, in the discovery of still higher and less obvious truths pertaining to the same and related subjects. From conciousness, observation, testimony and reason, all our knowledge of mind, whether our own or belonging to others, must be derived. Beyond what can be learned from these sources, we cannot push our investigations or make the least discovery of truth. Our knowledge of miod therefore, analogous to that of matter, comprehends (1.) the fact of its existence; (2.) some of its qualities, powers, relations and operations. Nothing more. More than this we have no capacity to determine. Within the sphere to which our capacities and means of information in respect to the mind extend, our knowledge of it is capable of being as accurate and certain as on any other subject. We need not be doubtful whether we have souls or not. The indications of their existence are as unequivocal and decisive as those of the existence of material objects; or even of our bodies, that class of material objects with which we have most to do, and are best acquainted. A clear perception of the existence of our souls need not be a singular or rare attainment, though it probably is to a greater extent than most suppose. It is the starting point in reference to all satisfactory and certain faith in spiritual things. A man who perceives clearly the existence of bis own soul, will be assisted by that perception in ascertaining kindred truths. He will be able to perceive with more facility than he could otherwise do, spiritual objects generally, as they are revealed in the scriptures. Without a clear perception of the existence of our own souls, and those of our fellow-men, every thing spiritual will appear to us imaginary and uncertain. We shall perceive the existence of no spiritual object whatever with clearness, and shall attain no unwavering confidence in spiritual truth of any kind, however distinctly and demonstrably set forth. A general and vague impression, that we have souls is not enough; we need a clear and distinct perception of this truth; one in which we can rest with an assurance equal to that which we have of the existence of our bodies. Such a perception is doubtless attainable and is adapted to exert an efficient agency in promoting the bigb ends of our spiritual being, our immortal as well as corporeal and perishable nature. The precise relation of mind to matter we canpot tell. It is obvious however, that they are substances generically different Matter has none of the susceptibilities and powers of mind, neither has mind the properties of matter. All that we know of natural objects, is their properties and relations. Equally limited is our knowledge of mind.' It embraces the susceptibilities and powers of this mysterious agent. That to which power and properties belong is uiterly beyond the sphere of our knowledge. Our perceptions relate to properties. The idea of substance is not gained simply by perception. It is an inference or judgment to which perceptions sustain the relation of evidence.
The soul is uncompounded. This is not true of every material object with which we are acquainted. Material objects of any appreciable magnitude, are made up of a vast number of separate particles existing perfectly independent of each other; and connected only by mutual attractions. They are capable of being divided almost indefinitely, and bave no necessary connection with each other. A single indivisible element is far too small to be detected by the nicest inspection of which man is capable in the present state. With mind however the case is different. It bears no marks of composition. It is not capable of being resolved into simpler elements, or of being divided. It stands alone, a single existence, incapable of being added to, or subtracted from. We cannot detect a part of the soul, and yet we seem to have ample means of doing so, were there parts to be detected. We have a distinct consciousness of a variety of mental exercises. A mental exercise is nothing but the mind in exercise. If the mind therefore consisted of parts, our consciousness would doubtless afford in some way and on some occasions, evidence of that fact. But the evidence derived from consciousness in relation to this subject, is universally of an opposite character. Consciousness always has respect to the mind as one and the same in all respects; unextended and indivisible. In respect to its simplicity, the soul is opposite to the body. The body is a compound consisting of innumerable elementary particles. Those particles duly arranged constitute the several organs and members of the body, and these organs and members constitute the body. But the soul is simple in every respect; (1.) in respect to composition ;(2.) and consequently in respect to members and faculties. All its faculties belong to the same identical subsistence. It is one and the same thing which perceives, feels, reasons, judges, remembers, and performs all the mental processes.
The relation of the soul to the body. Man is a complex being, partly spiritual and partly corporeal. During its sojourn in this world, the soul is united to a body. All that we learn of it, by experience and observation, relates to it, in its embodied state. The body is entirely material. It consists of a great number of organs so constructed and arrangeu as to form one harmonious system altogether adapted to the spirit's use. These organs are the apparatus of the mind, useless of themselves, but highly useful under the mind's control. The connection between the soul and body, is a mystery that we are not able fully to comprehend. Some facts however in relation to it, are obvious and worthy of attention.
1. It is intimate. This fact is indicated by a variety of considerations. It is obvious from a consideration of the bodily senses. The body is the medium of sensation. The slightest impression on a bodily organ of sense, instantly reaches the mind. This could not be the case, unless the connection between the mind and body were iutimate. It is farther evinced by the effect of a healthy or unhealthy state of the body, on the mind. When the body suffers by sickness, the mind suffers and sympathises with it; thus showing, that the connection which exists between them, is such as to make the well-being of the former, dependent on that of the latter. The effect produced on the body by the