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DWARD EYRE HUNT is secretary of the Conference on Unemployment which has recently been in session in Washington. He was graduated from Harvard in 1910 and was for two years on the editorial staff of the "American" magazine. During the war he served variously as war correspondent, delegate of the Commission for Relief in Belgium, and head of economic rehabilitation work of the Red Cross in France.

HE three prize-winning letters in The outloors contest, the Turning Point," are published in this week's issue. The first prize was won by Louis Victor Eytinge, of Arizona, and the second by Rae Barnett, from Aberdeen, Washington. The winner of the third prize prefers not to disclose his identity.

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AMALIEL BRADFORD is a writer of note. He was born in Boston, and entered Harvard College in 1882, but was obliged to leave almost immediately on account of ill health. He is the author of numerous volumes, among them "Lee, the American," "Portraits of Women," "Civil War Portraits."

ELIA HARRIS Wrote us the following.

C paragraph when we a stred wine

biographical data: "I notice in your contributors' columns that there is a certain type of contributor whose biography reads as follows: 'Mary Elizabeth Brown, a writer new to The Outlook, sends us this thoughtful article from Ottumwa, Iowa.' I belong in Mary Elizabeth's class. I am a graduate of of the University of Nebraska and Outlook parentage; my mother, Mary Day Harris, has contributed several articles in the last few years under the name of Mary Doane Shelby."

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Promise and Performance

It is easier to promise than to perform, yet in home and business, it can safely be claimed to our credit as good citizens that performance is the rule rather than the exception which can certainly be said with respect to the distinct value and permanent helpfulness of that matchless ref

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Occupation.. Bus. Address..





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printed in The Outlook during 1921 do you consider the best? Explain why you find it the most impressive. What was its effect upon you? For the best answers we will award :

a first prize of Fifty Dollars a second prize of Thirty Dollars a third prize of Twenty Dollars

Advertising is a powerful force. Its educational values are subtle and extensive. Its effects on personal development, family life, and social customs are often lasting and profound. Perhaps you have been most influenced by reading an advertisement of a book, a course of study, a service, or a commodity. Describe the significance to you of the best recent advertisement in The Outlook.

CONDITIONS OF CONTEST 1. Write your name (add a pen name, if you like, for publication) and address in the upper left-hand corner of your letter.

2. All letters must be typewritten on one side of the paper only.

3. Limit your letter to 500 words of average length.

4. Your letter, to be eligible, must reach us on or before January 23, 1922.

5. We reserve the right to purchase for publication desirable letters not winning prizes.

6. Unavailable letters will not be returned.

7. The staff of The Outlook will be judges.

Address all letters to


THE OUTLOOK COMPANY 381 Fourth Avenue, New York



Y treaties entered into during the war and at its close portions of what was before Turkish territory were apportioned to certain of the Allied Powers. In this apportionment Cilicia, which was largely Armenian territory, fell to France as within its zone of military occupation for the maintenance of Order and for the observance of the terms of the armistice. It is now authoritatively announced that France is about to withdraw her troops from Cilicia and pass over the administration of that state to the Nationalist Turks. The three Armenian communities in Cilicia (Gregorian, Roman Catholic, and Protestant) and many Moslems unite in appealing to the French authorities to remain at least for the present, but so far the appeal has been in vain. It is reported that France, in withdrawing, has made an agreement with Kemal Pasha, the Nationalist Turkish leader, for the protection of the Armenians. The statement that the protection of a flock of sheep is thus intrusted to a pack of wolves may be unjust to the Armenians, but in view of recent history cannot be said to be unjust to the Turks. The race and religious prejudice animating the Turks is increased because in the recent war the Armenians were allies of the French and fought desperately against the Turks under French lead. It is said that about two hundred thousand Armenians, Syrians, Greeks, and pro-French Moslems are involved in the danger of massacre in Cilicia.

It must be confessed that France is in a difficult situation. France has spent far more money in trying to maintain order in Cilicia than she can afford. She is sharply criticised for her maintenance of a large standing army, and is accused of imperialistic ambitions, disturbing to the peace of Europe. But when, yielding to pressure, she proposes to reduce her army by withdrawing her troops from a distant province she is charged with breach of faith in deserting a helpless people intrusted to her keeping.

It is difficult to see what official action the American Government can take to prevent this tragedy. One principal objection urged against the League of Nations was that America ought not to share with European nations in dealing with European problems. The Presidential election sustained that objection.

JANUARY 4. 1922

Moreover, it is hardly possible for the Administration to interject this problem into the Washington negotiations, which are limited to questions of a very The attempt to lay different scope. broad foundations for an enduring peace in the Near East ought not to be lightly hazarded. It is possible that private influences could be brought to bear upon the French Government by the diplomats of England and America to delay the withdrawal of the French forces. It is even possible that an official notification to the Turkish authorities by England, France, and the United States that any failure to protect the Armenians would be regarded as an unfriendly act might have a protective force. And we think it highly probable that an aroused popular sentiment in the United States against leaving the Armenians unprotected, even if it led to no governmental action, would have considerable influence on the French Government, if not on the Kemalite Turkish Government. Such popular sentiment ought not to be unaffected, however, by the fact that while the United States is limiting the number of immigrants to its shores, France leaves open the door to Syria to Armenian refugees.

Certainly the facts ought to have some effect on those happily tempered pacifists who imagine that complete disarmament by all the civilized nations, leaving the helpless undefended against the criminals, would secure a world peace and a world justice.


RESIDENT HARDING'S request for an 310


000,000 to supply corn and seed grain for the starving Russians was followed by the appearance of Secretary Hoover before the Committee on Foreign Relations of the House of Representatives. said, in rejoinder to the claim that private, not public, charity should fill the need: "There are a great many committees working throughout the country under a great deal of difficulty but not without energy. I do not believe, however, that the total collections since August of the entire group amounts to $750,000." He also showed that Governmental aid on a larger scale than the President suggested would be needed. He requested some 22,000,000 bushels of grain and 500,000 cases of preserved

milk and asked for a doubling of the appropriation.

Congress has now consented to this, after a very lively debate in which the bill was opposed by those who thought it violated the spirit of our Constitution and by those who asserted that the appropriation would be additional material for the cause of Bolshevism. The President at once signed the bill.

The food is to be assembled through elevators without profits to them, and will be transported to the port of departure from this country at reduced rates, if possible, upon the railways, thus enabling as large an amount of grain as is possible to be secured for the appropriation. Nineteen million dollars of the $20,000,000 to be appropriated is now in the hands of the United States Grain Corporation, formed during the war, of which the President of the United States is the sole stockholder. This corroration is now being liquidated, and the money would soon be turned into the United States Treasury. Its diversion to the purchase of food, provided for in the bill, will be welcomed by the farmers of the West, who, humanitarian as they may be, will be glad to profit by the legislation.

The bill applies to that most sorely stricken region in Russia, the part of the valley of the Volga River between the cities of Kazan and Saratov, a region about four hundred miles long. It lies several hundred miles to the east of Moscow. Ordinarily this region raises more than enough to feed its people. But for three years in succession they have endured a great drought, which, in addition to the economic cruelty of the Bolshevik Government, has reduced very many millions of people to starvation. And this at a time when we have more foodstuffs in storage than ever before in our history!

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tions are retained and that relations are steadily improved."

What Mr. Stone added as to the right and wrong kind of leadership for the Negro race is worth quoting at some length:

There are to-day two groups of Negro leaders-groups which are as wide apart as the Poles and which are as distinct as the whites and Negroes themselves. I am not going to call any names. One set of Negro leaders is distinctly radical. The leadership of the other group is conservative and is working for peace and harmony between the races. It is left with the white people to choose which Negro leadership they will encourage,

There is no more trying position in American life to-day than that of a conservative Negro leader in the South. He must steer an even course and at the same time maintain his position of leadership without sacrificing any right principle. When Booker T. Washington died and I was appealed to for a suggestion as to the man who was best fitted to succeed him, I replied, without hesitation, that Robert R. Moton stood head and shoulders above all other men.

Mr. W. Anthony Aery, the secretary of Hampton, himself a white man, tells us that in traveling with Dr. Moton on the trip during which the Greenville meeting was held he found himself comparing conditions between the races as they are now and as they were when years ago he made a similar trip with Booker Washington. He noted in Mississippi "a growing spirit of racial good will and racial co-operation." He found "white and black folks everywhere discovering almost intuitively-that they cannot make much real progress by hoeing their rows as separate groups. They are. discovering that they can go ahead very much faster by pulling together and by forgetting some of their differences."

We agree heartily with Mr. Aery's conclusion that "the influence of men like Booker T. Washington, Robert R. Moton, and others scoffed at as conservatives has been invaluable in bringing about this era of good feeling."



a recent address President Richmond, of Union College, said something so true and simple and yet so startling that we are glad to reprint it in full:

However men may differ as to specific remedies for the present disorders, all men of sense agree at one point, and that is the necessity of getting back to work. In the four years of the war the fruit of the work of millions of men for many years has been destroyed. It is gone, and no amount of economic juggling will bring it back. If the prosperity of the world is to be restored, it will be because we are all willing to work

(C) Harris & Ewing

HENRY WATTERSON harder and to put more of ourselves into our work.

There may have been a time when the word work, as applied to a college, would have seemed to some a kind of academic pleasantry. If there ever was such a time, that time has passed. The picture of a college where the long hours were passed agreeably under the shade of the classic elms, smoking pipes and singing college songs, has a certain attraction to the retrospective imagination of the graduate and to the prospective vision of the freshman. But to a man who knows anything about the life at Union College there will be a mournful realization that the largest part of the picture has been left out.

I might as well tell you at once that this is a college where honest work is not only expected but required. There is no reason why a boy who comes to college should expect an easier time than a boy who goes to work in a factory or in an office. The idea that in coming to college a boy is postponing his life-work for four years while he floats down the stream of time untroubled by the hard realities that other young men of his own age have to face is not at all our idea of what a college means. Neither is a college a kind of intellectual incubator where young fledglings are hatched out with no effort of their own. A college is a workshop, and if it is going to maintain its place in the esteem of a Nation that has supported us with such unstinted generosity we must see that the gospel of honest work is not only taught in the college but practiced by all of us who have anything to do with it. This ma sound a little disagreeable to some easy-going young aspirants who have been looking forward to a comfortable time, but let me assure you that the only way to be happy here, or anywhere else, is to make a real business of the thing you are doing. The most delightful thing a man does is to exercise and develop the powers that are his. What we shall try to do for you here is to help you to understand and value your own

powers and to teach you how to use them to the best advantage while you are here, and afterward when you take your place in the field of active life which you shall choose.

Unfortunately, too many undergraduates in American colleges are inclined to regard a college course as a sort of glorified vacation. It will not do them any harm occasionally to recall the fact that their friends who entered business on leaving high school or preparatory school have to keep regular hours and do regular work. One of the great advantages of the education which the graduates of Annapolis or West Point receive is that the undergraduates in those institutions work as regularly and as hard as if they were apprentices in some great industrial plant. Regular hours and a regular system of work will do wonders for a student even when he is not a genius. Indeed, in most fields of human activity, the erraticism of genius is likely to be beaten in the long run by the regularity of an ordinary mind.




ENRY WATTERSON, who died in Jacksonville, Florida, on December 22, made the Louisville "Courier-Journal" a National newspaper and a political power. Colonel Watterson served in the Confederate Army, but whether he had the exact rank of colonel or was a Kentucky colonel by the brevet of State and National affection is not important. To newspaper men he was "Marse Henry," and perhaps no man in our time has been better liked by the men of his own profession. He has been described as the last of his line in that he was the last of the great personal figures once so common in American journalismGreeley, Raymond, the elder Bennett, and Dana are the names one associates with him. He was born eighty-one years ago, was held on the knee of Andrew Jackson as a child, and knew every President from that time to this. It has been pointed out that the period covered by Watterson's life and the life of John Quincy Adams, whom as a boy he knew, covers the entire period of the country's history from Revolutionary days.

Colonel Watterson exercised a great influence in public affairs, not only by his editorial work, but by his vivacious and often uncomfortably frank utterances. Not infrequently he hit two ways at once, as in his famous "Now and ever, to hell with autocracy. Now and ever, to hell with the Hohenzollerns and the Hapsburgs," to which he added later in a letter, "And to hell with prohibition along with the Hapsburgs and the

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