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Foad to Gex; and the back-front is only visi- in two, without any spiritual licence for lo ble to those walking there.
doing, or without a with your leave, or by Norwichstanding his long stay in England, your leave, of the bishop or dean; but, as a and his pretended attention to and affectation Talvo to the injury, he put in very large caof our tafte in planting, building, and gar. pitals, distinguishable from the great road to dening, every part of his demesne was equally the town of Gex (and so purposely intended) frenchitieu as any citizen's plat of ground in these words--the environs of Paris. All his woods were
Deo Erexit Voltaire. cut into walks ftar fashion; and all the va- The house was built by an architect of riety consisted in its being a star of greater Geneva, called Billion ; but in this, he was or less magnitude, with more or fewer rays. only the bricklayer or stone-maíon, for the
Mr. Voltaire's theatre was in one of his model is very coinınon all over France ; and out-offices, was neatly fitted up, and might was it not for having committed the folly of have contained two hundred persons.
preferving the gateways, and some towers The parish-church forming part of the capped with pinnacles, according to the quadrangle or grand court to the old chateau, French manner of building, it would be a and Voltaire being thereby intercepted a very magnificent fabric. view of the lake, he fairly lawed the church
S O M E R S E T.PL A Ċ E.
ROYAL ACADEMY EXHIBITION, 1786. On Monday, May 1, was opened the mation of the high opinion which the Public
Annual Exhibition of the Royal Aca- conceived of him latt year; from his model of demy.
Ixion. The figirre in marble of one of the The present Exhibition is a very re. Titans (a donation to the Academy by Mr. spectable one ; and, what must give particu- Panks) is admirably conceived, and the analar pleasure to the lovers of the arts, is, that tomy well understood. In short, for corit abounds less in portrait than those of for- reçiness of design, and masterly Itile of exemer years, and more in works of imagina. cution, it seems to be fuperior to any thing
in shat line that has yec been presented to the Another comfortable reflection is, that if Academy. fome of the old artists think proper to with- We now proceed to give an account of hold ther works from the Exhibition, there some of the most capital works in the Exhi. are young ones rising and advancing with haftybition : and first, of the higher branch of steps to supply their places, and amply to the ait, viz. the H15 TORICAL. make up for the deficiency. The present of all the pictures in the present Exhibiperformances of Mr. Opie, Mr. Northcote, tion, or that perhaps we have yet seen exhiMr. Hoppner, Mr. Browne, Mr Turnbull, bited in this country, the most ttriking, moit Mr. Hodges, and Mr. Webber, will evince novel, and most extraordinary production is the truth of this assertion. The President has undoubtedly that excellent picture by Mr. abode a dozen portraits in this Exhibition; Welt, No. 148, “ Alexander the Third the most striking of which, for character and rescued from the fury of a stag by the intreexprellion, are, the Duke of Orleans and piuty of Colin Fitzgerald, ancestor of the John Hunter ; and for the milder graces, present family of Mickenzie.” the Duchess of Devonshire and her child. It The composition is conceived with great is to be regretted that Sir Joshua has not in- judgement; and the tour ensemble arranged dulged himself, oor gratified the Public with with such perfpicuity, as explains, at first any work of fancy this year; if he has got view, the business of the picture to the unany new Venus, or Pastoral Nymph, he keeps derstanding of every beholder, them at home.
The drawing the next great requisite ; Mr. Loutherbourgh shines as usual ; every and in this (as far as a mere amateur can year adds new wreaths to his high reputa- juige) the artist appears to be equally happy, tion ; in bis line he is undoubtedly the first both in correćiness, firmness, and spirit ; artist now living.
not only in the human figures, but also in the The lovers of the arts have also the facis. dogs and horses. faction to observe, in the present Exhibition, The clear obscure forcible, natural, and that sculpture keeps pace with painting. of great relief, without blackness, or the The death of Diomedes, by Mr. Proctor, is too common artificial management, of de. evidently the work of a great genius, buld, stroying one half of the picture, to give bilergetic, and fublime; and is a full confir. value to the other half.
The difribution of colours, and the philo- most eminent for colouring. Notwithstanda fophical arrangements of them in prismatic ing the defects abovementioned, this picture order, produce a striking and a pleasing ef. is a work of great merit, and which does hofect, and thew that Mr. Weft has closely nour to the present times. It is said to have Audied optics, and perfectly understands been purchased by Mr. Alderman Boydell: the theory of light and colours. lo short, to No. 203. The Death of Prince Maximifum up all the other requisites necessary to lian of Brunswick. The distress which this form a good historical picture, viz. pro- picture exhibits, is finely supported through. priety of character, observance of costume, The drawing is equally correct as that &c. &c. we may fairly pronounce this pic- of the former picture. The characters of the fure to be one of the best this country has heads of those who accompany the Prince, produced. .
are very expressive ; evidently sensible of the The Resurrection of Our Savi. danger of their own situation, as well as that our— By B. Weft, R. A. “ The angel ha. of their Prince. “ ving removed the stone from the door of Mr. Fufili. This artist undoubtedly pose « the fepulchre" is finely expressed, as view. fesses a considerable thare of genius, and of ing the Divinity that iffues forth with a re- learning. He has also a great deal of imagi. fpect and veneration due to a superior being. nation : 'tis pity it were not more under The figure of Our Savieur is justly drawn, the guidace of judgment, and that he would except the right leg, which seems to be some paint more from nature. what too burge, and at first view gives to the It is a difficult talk to estimate the merits figure a form to athletic. This defect, or of this artist's works, by any rule or criterion rather this effect, might be eafily remedied. by wbich we judge of others. Pictures are, -The colouring of this picture poliefies an. or ought to be, a representation of natural extraordinary degree of clearness and brillian- objects, delineated with taste and precision. cy, and thews Mr. West to be greatly impro. Mr. Fufeli gives us the human figure from ved in this enchanting branch of the art. the recollection of its form, and not from the
The next in merit, in the historical line, form itself; he seems to paint every thing appear to be those of Mr. Opie and Mr. from fancy, which renders bis works almost Nortboote.
incomprehensible, and leaves no criterion to No. 96. The Alimination of King James judge of them, but the imaginatioa. This the First of Scotland, &c.
we conceive to be an attempt of the painter This picture is conceived with much spin to express what lies more within the reach of rit and propriety of action, particularly the the poet ; and cannot be admitted in painting, female figures.--However, it has been ob. unless accompanied by such correizess and served, that the King rather expoíes his body truth, as we observe in Raphael and Truiers, too much to the blow of the principal allasiin, who have painted subjects of a similar kind whose coun!enance does not seem to exhibit withibe Shepherd's Dream. If Mr. Fufeli would any traits of the character of a murderer.
pay a proper attention to the circumstances The drawing of the heads is good, and in a aborementioned, his pictures in the line of large broad manner : the rett of the figure pretical painting, would rank very high indeed. not so correct, but seems to want that practice Signora singelica Kauffman has three in design, which we discover in the heads. pieces in the present Exhubition, No. 86, On the whole, this picture must be allowed 196, and 214. These pictures pollels thas a work of great merit, and does Mr. Opieie- character which usually constitutes her
works; but they do not appear to be either The pictnre of Mr. Northcote which so beautifully conceived or fo tarty in their claims our first attention, is No. 188. The execution, as to drawing, characters, or cotwo young Princes murdered in the Tower. Tour, as those which the painted in England. The story is admirably told ; anil at once They seem to be done from memory of her (peaks the horrid seed. The drawing well former works ; and no new beauties have put together, with firmness and precision, been added to her style, by her late tour to particularly the men.--- - The clear obfiure Italy. fomewhat defective, from the great mass of Mr. J. Turnbull. No. 132. The Relight (in the lower part, where the Princes turn of Priam with the Body of Hector. lie alleep) not being surlic ently connected This picture clearly shews, that Mr. Turnwith the upper pitt. However, on ihe bull potlefles many of the great requisites whole, the effect is ftriking. The colouring for a painter. When we examine the come appears to have tco much black in the sha. position, drawing, clear obscure, colourings dows, which gives the picture, at firit fight, &c, we may fairly pronounce it the first a leaden hue : and this effect is encreased by work of an artist that muft, when practice the red draperies being thrown too much shall bring b.s talents to maturity, make a toward the sides of the picture, which de distinguithed figure in the line of historical prives it of that brilliancy which we have painting.
ry great credit.
er observed in the works of thor at
OBSERVATIOX's on the MANNERS, CUSTOMS, DRESS, AGRICULTURE, &c.
[By C. P, THUNBERG, formerly PHYSICIAN to the Dutch Factory in Japan *.]
( Continued from Page 238,) TH 'HE observant traveller proceeds to men- other hearth than a hole in the middle, fur.
tion some other particulars concerning rounded with fome ftones, which rise no highthe houses of the Japanele. Each room has er tan the surface of the mais surrounding two or more windows, which begin near the them. cieling and reach down within a couple of The house is hlackened with smoke, for feet of the floor. They consist of liglic fashes, there is no chimney except a hole in the roof, whi h can be put in and taken out at pleasure, and accidents from fire often happen from the and Ride behind each other in two grooves vacuity of the mals. made for this purpose in the beams above ard Every house has a small court, which is of. below. They are divided into rectangular (en adorned with portions of earth thrown up, panes, which are complimes forty in number; and various crees, shrubs, and flower-pots. on the outhide they are covered with fine white Every house has also a room for bathing, compaper, which is feldom or never oiled, and manly on one side of the court. In Jeddo, which admits a good deal of light, though it and some other cities, every house has a storeprevents all prospect without. The roof pro house built of stone and secure from fire, in jects far beyond the house, and is fometimes which they can save their property. lengthened out with a small separate roof, Fire.places and stoves are unknown in the which covers a gallery built without the house whole.country, though the cold is fo severe and hefore the windows. From this smaller, that fires must be made in the apartments país inwards and downwards square bits of from October till March. The fire is made Woul, on which mats intended for blinds made in pots of copper with broad projecting of reeds are hung; these mats can be rolld up euges, the cavity is fill’d with clay or athes, and or extended at will; they serve partly to pre- in this is laid well-burn’d charcoal. This grate vent pafsengers from looking into the house, is set in the middle or at one side of the room, buir chiefly to skreen the paper windows from They either kindle the fire several times rain. The windows are never glazed ; nos a day, or keep it up conftantly, according did I ever observe mother of pearl, or glacies to the use which is made of the room. Such marie used for this purpose.
fires are however subject to many inconve. The floor is always covered with mats, made niences; the charcoal sometimes smokes and of a fine sort of grais (a juncus) and stutfed the room is discoloured, and the eyes suffer sc. with rice-straw to the thickness of three or verely. four inches. They are always of the same size, The Japanese houses have not, either in the viz, a fathom in length, and halfone in breadth. cities or the country, the convenience or beauThey are adorned along the fides with a thin ty of the European. The rooms are not so blue or black band. It was orly in the em- cheerful, nor in the winter so warm, nor fo peror's palace at Japan that I saw mats larger secure from fire, nor so durable. The semithan the common fize. In the meaner houses transparent paper window's in particular give there is a part of the room at the further end them both within and without a mean apa ont cover'd with mats; it serves instead of pearance. an antichamber for a place to take the thres Thc public buildings are more spacious, off. Within, the Avor is raised and covered but in the same stile. The roof, which is with mats. This is the inhabited part of the adorned with a number of towers of a pecuhouse: it may be divided into several apart. liar appearance, constitutes their chief ornaments by boards. The walls within, and the Cieling, are covered with beautiful thick pa- The cities are some of them very large. per, on which various flowers are imprinted, They are sometimes surrounded with a wall either of green, yellow, white, or variegated and folie, especially those wliere any chief holds colours, and sometimes with silver and gold his court. The capital Jeddo is faid to be in intermixed. The paste they use to faften it circumference twenty-one hours walk, or on is made of rice, and, as the smoke during about twenty one French leagues. I had an the winter foils this tapestry very much, it is opportunity to survey from an eminence this renewed every third or fourth year.
Spacious city, which equals if it does not exThe part of the house fronting the street ceed Pekin in size. The streets are both serves tradesmen and mechanics for their shop, straight and wide ; they are divided by gates and the back part only is inhabited. In the at certain distances, as in all the other cities ; room which ferves for a kitchen there is no at each gate there is a very high staircase, from
* From IIISH REVIEW for April, 1786.
the top of which fires, which happen very in the meat falls upon his knees when he sets often, may be easily discovered.
it down, and also when he removes it. When Villages are distinguished from cities by have a number eat in company, they make each oing only one street, which is of an incredible ther profound bows before they begin. Wo. length, generally exceeding a mile and half, men do not eat with the men, but by them. and often so long, that it requires several hours selves. Between every remove they drink to traverse them. They lie sometimes so close jacki, or oil of rice, which is pour'd out of a to one another, that nothing but a bridge or a tea-kettle into a saucer of varnih'd wood, brook, and a different name, separates At this time they eat sometimes a quarter of a them,
hard boiled egg, and with this they empty le. Corresponding to the simplicity of the archi. veral saucers. They commonly eat three times tecture is the scantiness of the houshold furni. a day, about eight in the morning, iwo in the ture, which however is such as not a little to afternoon,
and again at eight. Some eat with. contribute to convenience, and even to the or- out any regular order, just as they are hungry, nament of the house. They have no clolets, so that the meat must stand ready all day, bureaus, chests, fofas, beds, tables, chairs, Rice, which is of a very white colour and ex. clock, looking-glass, &c. Most of these arti. cellent taste, supplies the Japanese with bread; cles are neither used por known. The loft it is dressed with the other meat. Mije soup, mats, which cover the floor, serve for chairs, boiled with fish and onions, is univerfally ex. and beds. At meal-time a little table, a foot ell, and commonly a: each meal. Mife is l'ke Square, and ten inches high, is set before each lintseed; it is the small beans of the delicó person. Upon hi lidays a fost mattrass stuffed soia. with cotton is laid upon the mats. Cup- Tea and oil of lacki are the only lig tors of boards, chests, bureaus, and boxes are kept in the Japanese, a much smaller number than the a separate room. Most of the East Indian thirsty Europeans can produce They never nations fit cross legged, but the Chinese and use winc or spirits, and will scarcely taste them Japanese set their feet under their body, and so when they are offered by the Durch. The make their heels serve for a chair.
taste of coffee is uuknown but to a few interWith respect to the variety of eatables which preters, and brandy is not among them a ne. are found in the Japanese ises and the fur- ceilary of life. They have not yet allowed rounding sea, partly the produce of nature, themselves to be corrupted by the Europe.ins and partly reared or prepared by art, the who visit them. Rather than take from country of which I am speaking exceeds per. others what may be useful or convenient, they haps all others hitherto discovered. The Ja- have preserved in its purity an ancient mode panese use not only whatever is itself whole. of living, left they thould unawares introduce fome or nourishing, but almost every article practices that may in time become hurtful. of the animal and vegetable kingdoms, even Sacki is a kind of oil which they prepare poisonous things, which are so prepared as to from rice. It is tolerably clear and not unbe fit for use. All the dishes are cut into small like wine, but has a peculiar talte, which on pieces, well dress'd and stuffed, and mixed scarcely be counted very agreeable. When the with proper sauce. Hence, every thing being liquor is very fresh it is whitith; but when prepared, no one at the table has the trouble it is put into a small wooden vefsel it becomes of cutting large fiices and distributing them a- very brown. This drink iş kept in all the mong the other guests. At the time of ear- inns, as wine in the caverns of Europe. It ing each person fets laimselt down on the soft constitutes their entertainment at festivals and o at in the usual manner. Before each person times of rejoicing, and it is used as wine by is placed a little square table, on which are fet persons of distinction at their meals. The ja. the things that are before-hand destined in the panete never drink it cold, but, beating it in kitchen for each guest, on the cleaneft vefiel common lea-kettles, pour it out into Thalley of porcelain or japanned wood. These veliels cups of varnished wood, and take it very warmi. have tolerably large barons, and are always They very soon become intoxicated; but this provided with a cover. The first dith is fith passes off in a few minutes, leaving behind a and fish soup. The soup is drank out of cups, severe head-ach, Sacki is imported to Batzbut the bits of meat are taken up with two lac- via, where it is drank before meals to what kered ékewers, which they hold between the the appetite ; the while fort, on account of SS fingers of the right hand, and use so dextrously, less Jil greeable tatte, is preferred. Teal that they can take up the smallest grain of rice vied over all the country to allay thirt. with them, and they serve instead of knife and Hence a kettle with boiling water and pulvefork. As soon as one thing is finished, the dish rized tea is kept over the fire in every houle, is removed and another set in its place. The and more especially in every inn. The brown Jast thing is brought in a blue porcelain cup, decoction is diluted and couled with cold wa which is provided. The servant who carries čer,