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ting by spied a humble-Bee creeping out of his Fathers mouth, which taking wing flew quite out of sight, the hour as the lad ghest (guessed] being come to awaken his Father he jogg'd him and called aloud Father, Father, it is two a clock, but all would not rouse him, at last he sees the humble-Bee returning, who lighted upon the sleepers lip and walked down ... and presently he awaked. .

The Diseases that the English are afflicted with, are the same that they have in England, with some proper to NewEngland .

they are troubled with a disease in the mouth or Possibly throat which hath proved mortal to some in a very short diphtheria. time, Quinsies, and Impostumations of the Almonds [ton- Tonsilitis. sils), with great distempers of cold. Some of our NewEngland writers affirm that the English are never or very rarely heard to sneeze or cough, as ordinarily they do in England, which is not true. For a cough or stitch upon cold, Wormwood, Sage, Marygolds, and Crabs-claws boiled in posset-drink and drunk off very warm, is a soveraign Posset medicine. ..

posed of hot Catts and Dogs are as common as in England, but our milk and

liquor. Dogs in time degenerate ; yet they have gallant Dogs both for fowl & wild Beasts all over the Countrey: the Indians store themselves with them, being much better for their turns, than their breed of wild dogs

Of English Poultry too there is good store, they have commonly three broods in a year; the hens by that time they are three years old have spurs like the Cock, but not altogether so big, but as long, they use to crow often, which is so rare a thing in other Countries, that they have a proverb Gallina recinit a Hen crowes.

= a drink com

John Josselyn, An Account of Two Voyages to New-England

(London, 1675), 41-193 passim.

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One of the

By 'THOMAS 12. Praise of Indian Corn (1682)
ASH, a clerk
on board his

UT now their Gardens begin to be supplied ship Richmond, sent

with such European Plants and Herbs as are out to Carolina in 1680

necessary for the Kitchen, viz. Potatoes, Lettice, Coleworts with special (cabbage), Parsnip, Turnip, Carrot and Reddish: Their royal instructions to Gardens also begin to be beautified and adorned with such inquire into

Herbs and Flowers which to the Smell or Eye are pleasing the state of that province. and agreable, viz. The Rose, Tulip, Carnation and Lilly. &c. Ash gives the earliest

Their Provision which grows in the field is chiefly Indian account of

Corn, which produces a vast Increase, yearly, yielding Two the English settlers in plentiful Harvests, of which they make wholesome Bread, Carolina before their

and good Bisket, which gives a strong, sound, and nourishsettlement of ing Diet; with Milk I have eaten it dress’d various ways: Charleston.

Of the Juice of the Corn, when green, the Spaniards with chief reasons Chocolet, aromatiz'd with Spices, make a rare Drink, of an of the suc

excellent Delicacy. I have seen the English amongst the English colonies lay in

Caribbes roast the green Ear on the Coals, and eat it with a the fact that great deal of Pleasure : The Indians in Carolina parch they settled inside the the ripe Corn, then pound it to a Powder, putting it in a corn belt, Leathern Bag: When they use it, they take a little quannished un

tity of the Powder in the Palms of their Hands, mixing it failing food.

with Water, and sup it off: with this they will travel For the Carolinas, several days. In short, it's a Grain of General Use to Man see Contemporaries, I,

and Beast, many thousands of both kinds in the West Indies ch. xii; for

having from it the greater part of their Subsistence. The corn, Contemporaries, American Physicians observe that it breeds good Blood, I, No. 66.

removes and opens Oppellations and Obstructions. At Carolina they have lately invented a way of makeing with

it good sound Beer; but it's strong and heady: By MacerCorn whis- ation, when duly fermented, a strong Spirit like Brandy key, made by a still,

may be drawn off from it, by the help of an Alembick.

cess of the

which fur

T[homas] A[sh], Carolina ; or a Description of the Present

State of that Country (London, 1682), 13-14.



13. Settlement of Virginia (1607)

Written in 1626 by

CAPTAIN ONOURABLE Gentlemen, for so many faire and

JOHN SMITH Nauigable Riuers so neere adioyning [adjoining], (1580-1631), and piercing thorow [through] so faire a naturall Land, free plorer, colofrom any inundations, or large Fenny vnwholsome Marshes, nist

, and later

president of I haue not seene, read, nor heard of: And for the building Virginia, of Cities, Townes, and Wharfage, if they will vse the meanes, was some

Though he where there is no more ebbe nor floud [flood), Nature in what boastful few places affoords any so conuenient, for salt Marshes or his personal Quagmires. In this tract of lames Towne Riuer I know exploits, it is

largely due to very few; some small Marshes and Swamps there are, but his efforts more profitable then [than] hurtfull: and I thinke there is Jamestown more low Marsh ground betwixt Eriffe and Chelsey, then colony suco [than] Kecoughton and the Falls, which is about one hun- spite of

obvious exdred and eighty miles by the course of the Riuer.

aggerations, Being enioyned [enjoined] by our Commission not to Smith's

books are vnplant nor wrong the Saluages [savages], because the valuable conchannell was so neere the shore, where now is lames Towne, temporary then a thicke groue of trees; wee cut them downe, where one who had the Saluages pretending as much kindnesse as could bee, opportunities they hurt and slew one and twenty of vs in two houres: At for observa

tion. For this time our diet was for most part water and bran, and other pieces three ounces of little better stuffe in bread for fiue men a

by Smith, see

Humphrey, meale, and thus we lived neere three moneths : our lodgings Colonial

Tracts, Nos. vnder boughes of trees, the Saluages being our enemies, 13, 14; Amerwhom we neither knew nor vnderstood ; occasions I thinke ican History

Leaflets, No. sufficient to make men sicke and die.

27; Contem

records from


ton, Va.

boat pro

was ill

poraries, I, Necessity thus did inforce me with eight or nine, to try Nos. 62, 90. For Vir

conclusions amongst the Saluages, that we got prouision ginia, see which recouered the rest being most sicke. Six weeks I Contemporaries, I, chs. was led captiue by those Barbarians, though some of my ix, x; Am. Hist. Studies,

men were slaine, and the rest fled, yet it pleased God to No. 2.

make their great Kings daughter the means to returne me Erith and safe to lames towne, and releeue [relieve] our wants, and Chelsea, English

then our Commonwealth was in all eight and thirty, the

remainder of one hundred and fiue. Kecoughton, Being supplied with one hundred and twenty, with twelue now Hamp

men in a boat of three tuns, I spent foureteene weeks in The Falls, those large waters; the contents of the way


my now Rich

tracted by the skale (scale] of proportion, was about three mond, Va.

thousand miles, besides the Riuer we dwell vpon, where no Unplant dispossess.

Christian knowne euer was, and our diet for the most part The site of what we could finde, yet but one died. Jamestown

The Saluages being acquainted, that by command from chosen, being England we durst not hurt them, were much imboldned; low, swampy. that famine and their insolencies did force me to breake healthy; it

our Commission and instructions, cause Powhatan fly his longer

Countrey, and take the King of Pamavuke Prisoner; and inhabited.

also to keepe the King of Paspahegh in shackels, and put In later edi

his men to double taskes in chaines, till nine and thirty of account, their Kings paied vs contribution, and the offending Saluages Smith introduced the

[were] sent to Iames towne to punish at our owne discredoubtful tions : in the two last yeares I staied there, I had not a man Pocahontas's slaine. throwing her

All those conclusions being not able to preuent the bad self between him and the euents of pride and idlenesse, hauing receiued another hatchet. See also Con- supply of seuentie, we were about two hundred in all, but temporaries,

not twentie work-men: In following the strict directions 1, 64.

from England to doe that was impossible at that time ; So it hapned, that neither wee nor they had any thing to eat, but what the Countrey afforded naturally; yet of eightie who liued vpon Oysters in Iune and Iuly, with a pint of

and un

is now no

tions of his

story of


corne a week for a man lying vnder trees, and 120 for the most part liuing vpon Sturgion, which was dried til we pounded it to powder for meale, yet in ten weeks but seuen died.

It is true, we had of Tooles, Armes, & Munition sufficient, Aquavitæ = some Aquavita, Vineger, Meale, Pease, and Otemeale, but liquor. in two yeares and a halfe not sufficient for six moneths, though by the bils of loading the proportions sent vs, would well haue contented vs, notwithstanding we sent home ample Wainscot proofes of Pitch, Tar, Sope Ashes, Wainskot, Clapboord, ceiling. Silke grasse, Iron Ore, some Sturgion and Glasse, Saxefras, Sassafras. Cedar, Cypris, and blacke Walnut, crowned Powhaton, sought the Monacans Countrey, according to the instruc- At the head tions sent vs, but they caused vs [to] neglect more neces

of the James sary workes : they had better haue giuen for Pitch and Sope ashes one hundred pound a tun in Denmarke : Wee also maintained five or six seuerall Plantations.

Iames towne being burnt, wee rebuilt it and three Forts The timely more, besides the Church and Store-house, we had about arrival of

Newport fortie or fiftie seuerall houses to keepe vs warme and dry, greatly aided

in this work. inuironed (environed] with a palizado of foureteene or fifteene foot, and each [stake] as much as three or foure men could carrie. We digged a faire Well of fresh water in the Fort, where wee had three Bulwarks, foure and twentie peece of Ordnance, of Culuering [culverin), Demiculuering, These are all

species of Sacar and Falcon, and most well mounted vpon conuenient plat-formes, [and we] planted one hundred acres of Corne. Smith was We had but six ships to transport and supply vs, and but justified in two hundred seuenty seuen men, boies [boys], and women, says. The by whose labours Virginia being brought to this kinde of was looking perfection, the most difficulties past, and the foundation out for the thus laid by this small meanes; yet because we had done no its share

holders more, they called in our Commission, tooke a new (one) in


interests of

rather than their owne names, and appointed vs neere as many offices for the good and Officers as I had Souldiers, that neither knew vs nor munity.

of the com

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