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scure accounts which are given of the two great had unquestionably learned these arts in Egypte Egyptian philosophers, Hermes the elder, fup. and there is great reason to suppose, not only poled to be the same with Mizraim, grande that learning of every kind first flourished in son of Noah; and Hermes, surnamed Trisme. Egypt, but that chemistry, in particular, was gistus the younger, from whom chemistry has muclı cultivated in that country when other by some been affectedly called the Hermetic sciences had passed into other parts of the
world. Play, in speaking of the four periThe chemical skill of Moses displayed in ods of learning which had preceded the times his burning, reducing to an impalpable pown in which he lived, reckons the Egyptian the der, and rendering potable the golden calf in first : and Suilas, who is thought to have the wilderuess, has been generally extolled by lived in the tenth century, informs us, thi writers on this subject ; and constantly ad. the Emperor Diocletian ordered all the books duced as a proof of the then flourishing state of chemistry to be burned, left the Egyptians, of chemistry amongst the Egyptians, in whose learning from them the art of preparing gold learning he is said to have been well versed. and silver, should thence derive resources to If Moses had really reduced the gold of which oppose the Romans. It is worthy of nothe calf confifted, into alhes, by calcining it tice, that Suidas uses the word chemistry in a in the fire, or made it in any other way folu- very restricted sense, when he interprets it by ble in water, this instance would have been -the preparation of gold and silver ;-buc greatly in point; but neither in Exodus nor in all the chemists in the time of Suidas, and for Deuteronomy, where the fact is mentivned, many ages before and after him, were alcheis there any thing faid of its being dissolved in mists. The edict of Diocletian in the third water. The enemies of revelation on the century, had little effect in reprelling the arother hand, conceiving it to be possible to dour for this study in any part of the world, calcine gold, or to render it potable, have pro- fince we are told that not less than five thouduced this account as containing a proof of the land books, to say nothing of manuscripts, wantof veracity in the sacred historian. Both have been publithed upon the subject of allides seem to be in an error : Stahl and other chemy since his time ll. chemists have shewn, that it is possible to At what particular period this branch of make gold potable ; but we have no reason chemistry, respecting the transmutation of to conclude that Mofes either used the process the baler metals into gold, began to be distinof Stahl, or any other chemical means for ef- guished by the name of alchemy, cannot be fecting the purpose intended—be took the calf, determined, An author of the fourth centusobicb ebey badirudi, and burnt it in the fire, and ry, in an astrolog.cal work, speaks of the ground it to powder, and streived it upon the science of alchemy as well understood at that water, and made the children of Israel so drine time; and this is said io be the firit place ia of it*. Here is not the least intimation gin which the word alchemy is vicd. But Voi. ven of the gold having been dissolved, chemi- fius asserts, that we oughe, in the place here recally speaking, in water; it was stamped and ferred to, instead of alchemia to read chemicza ground; or, as the Arabic and Syriac versions Be this as it may, we can have no doubt of have it, filed into a fine duft, and thrown in. alcbemiu being compounded of the Arabic al to the river of which the children of Israel (the) and chemin, to denote excellence and suDied to drink : part of the gold would re- periority, as in al-manack, al-koran, and main, notwithstanding its greater specific gra. other woris. Winether the Greeks invented, vity, suspended for a time, (as bappens in the or received from the Egyptians, the doctrine washing of copper and leaj ores) and might concerning the transmutation of metals, or be (wallowed in drinking the water; the rest whether the Arabians were the first who would fink to the bottom, or be carried away profelled it, is uncertain. To change iron, by the flux of the stream.
lead, tin, copper, quicksilver, into gold, Nevertheless, though noihing satisfactory seems to be a problem more likely to animate can be concluded concerning the Egyptian mankind to aitempe its folution, than either chemistry from what is said of Moses in this that of syuaring the cirile, or of finding out instance, yet the Itructure of the ack, and the a perpetual motion ; and as it has never yet fathion of Aaron's garments, clearly indicates been proved, perhaps never can be proved, to us that the arts of manufacturing metals, of to be an impofble problem, it ouglt not to be dying leather red and linen blue, purple, and etteemed a matter of wonder, that the first icarlet; of distinguishing precious stones, and chemical books we meet with, are almost eigraving upon them, were at that time prac-' intirely employed in alchemical ioquia tiled in a very eminent degree +. The Israelices ries.
* Exod. xxxii. 20,
^ Exod. xxvi. and xxvii.
& Chem: Waller, p. 40.
Lexicon, Vox Xtusia,
Chemistry, with the rest of the sciences, mineral fell into the hands of interested en. being banshed from the other parts of the pirics) to many pernicious noftr**s. To this, world, took refuge among the Arabians. rather than to the arrogant severity with which Geber in the seventh, or as some will have it Burle Valentine treats the playficians his coin the eighth, and others in the ninth century, temporaries, may we attribute the censure of wrote several chemical, or rather alchemical, Buerliaave, who, in speaking of him, says, books in the Arabic. In these works of Ge. " he erred chiefly in this, that he commend. ber are contained such uletul directions con- « ed every antimonial preparation, than which cerning the manner of conducting distillation, “ nothing can be more foolish, fallacious, and calcination, sublimation, and other chemical “ Jangerous; but this fatal error has infected operations, and such pertinent observations every medical school from that time to respecting various minerals, as juftly seem to
" this." entitle him to the character, which some have The attempting to make gold or silver by given him, of being the father of chemistry; alchemical processes had heen prohibited by a though), in one of the most celebrated of his conftitution of Pope John XXII, who was eleworks, he modestly acknowledges himself to vated to the pontificate in the year 1316; and, have done little else than abridge the doctrines within aboutone hundred and twenty years frora of the ancients concerning the transmutation the death of Friar Bacon, the uobility and gentry of metals. Wbether he was preceded by of England had beconie so infatuated with the Mesue and Rhiazes, or followed by them, is notions of alchemy, and wasted so much of not in the present inquiry a matter of much their fubftance in search of the philosopher's importance to determine, since the fore-mene stone, as to render tire interposition of guverationed physicians, as well as Avicenna, who, ment necessary to restrain their folly. Tix from all accounts, was posterior to Geber, following act of parliament, which Lord Custkie Spe:ik of many chemical preparations, and thus calls the shortest he ever met with, was paliau thoroughly establish the opinion, that medi. 5 Hen. IV. “ None from henceforth thall cal chemistry, as well as alchemy, was in « sue to multiply gold or silver, or use the crait those dark ages well understood by the Ara- “ of multiplication; and if any the same do, be bians.
« shall incur the pain of felony." It has Towards the beginning of the thirteenth been suggested, that the reason of parfing the century, Albert the Great in Germany, and act was adot an apprehension left men should Roger Bacon in England, began to cultivate ruin their fortunes by endeavouring to make chemistry with success, excited thereto, pro gold, but a jealousy left government hould be bably, by the perusal of fome Arabic hooks, above asking aid of the subject.“ After Rss. which about that time were translated into mond Lully and Sir George Ripley had to Latin. These two monks, especially the lat. largely multiplied gold, the Lords and Com. ter, seem to have as far exceeded the com- , mons, conceiving tome danger that the Regały, mon standard of learning in the age io which having such immense treasure at command, they lived, as any philosophers who have ap. would be above aiking aid of the subjeet, and peared in airy country either before their time mi ht become ico arbitrary and tyrannica, or fuce. They were succeeded in the four- made an act against multiplying gold and til. teench and hiteenth centuries, by a great ma. ver *.” This act, whatever might be the or my eminent men, both of our own country casion of palling it, though it gave some of and foreigners, u ho, in applying themselves to fti uction to the public exercite of alcheint, alchemy, made, incidentally, many uteful dir. yet it did not curt tive difpofition for it in in. coveries in various parts of chemistry. Such dividuals, nor remove the general credulity; were Arnoldus de Vi
Nova in France ; ous for, in the 35 Hen. VI. letters patent were countryman George Ripley ; Raymond Lully granted to several people, by which they of Majorca, who fuít introduced, or at leait were permitted to investigate an univeri more largely explained, the notion of an uni- medicine, and to perform the tranimataria verfal medicine ; and Balile Valentine, whose of metals into real gold and silver, with a excellent book, inti uled, Currus dntimonii tris non obftante of the fore-mentional stat cate, umipoalis, has contributed more than any thing which remained in full force till the year 165.. elle to the introduction of that useful mineral when, being conceived i ope; ale to the diinto the regular practice of most physicians in couragement of the melting and retang ai Europe : it has given occasion also to a va- metals, it was formally repealed t. riely of beneficial, as well as (a circumstance
[To be continued) which might be expected, when fo ticklith a
• Opera Mineralia explicata, p. io.
+ Mr. Boyle is said by his int rest to have procured the repeal of this fingular Itatate, and to have been probably induced thereto, in consequence of his having been periaat of the poflibility of the transmutation of metals into guld. See his life prefixed to the folo edir, his works, p. 83.
An ACCOUNT of the Celebrated COMTE DE CAGLIOSTRO.
[ Conciuded from Page 231.] OON
Cardinal de Rohan, who honoured him composing his features, and filling a laugh, with occasional visits, offered to introduce him he asked Mademoiselle La Tour the young lato a lady named VALOIS DE LA MOTTE. dy whether he was truly innocent ? To this
“ The Queen,” said the Cardinal, addres- question the more boldly than ingenuously sing himself to the Count, " is a prey to the answered in the affirmative. The Count redeepest melancholy, in consequence of a pre- plied, “ I Thall know the truth of it in an indi&tion that the is to die in child-bed. It Itant. Commend yourself to God and your would be the highest satisfaction to me, if hy innocence, step behind the screen, shut your any means I could undeceive her, and restore eyes, and think within yourself on any object her peace of mind., Madame de Valois is you most wish to see : if you are innocent, it every day with her Majesty ; and you wili will appear to you; if not, you will see 110. greatly oblige me, by telling her (if the should thing. alk your opinion) that the Queen will be fafe- “ Mademoiselle de , 13 Tour,'' continues ly brought-to-bed of a Prince.”
the Counc, “ followed my directions, and I To this proposal the Count, wishing to remained on the other side of the screen witla oblige the Cardinal, and pleased with the pror- tho Cardinal, who stood near the fire-place, pećt of contributing, though indirectly, to the not wrope in extacy, as Madame de la Morte preservation of the Queen's health, readily as- thinks proper to express it, hut holding his lented.
hand to his mouth, for fear of interrupting the On visitiog the Prince next day at his house, folemn scene by an ill-timed laugh." he there found the Counters de la Motte, who, Having made fome mystic gesticulations, after the usual civilities, opened the business I desired the young lady to stap on the Poor to him as foilows :
with her innocent foot, and tell me whether the I am acq iainted with a lady of great dir- saw any thing. She answered in the negative tinction at Vertailles, who has been fore. - Then, Miss," said I, Itriking the skreen waroed that she and another lady were to die smartly, “ you are not innocent."—This obin child-bed. The prediction has been veri- servation piqued the lady's pride" Hold," fied on one of the parties, and the survivor cried The, methinks I see the Queen."'-I was awaits the facal minute in the utmost uneals. then convinced that this innocent niece had ness. If you know what will happen, or if been properly instructed by her artful aunt. you think you can by any means find it out, I “ Desirous to kuow how the would go hall go to Versailles to-morrow and make my through her part, I requested her to describe report to the person concerned, who, (added the apparition : she said the lady was pregthe Countess) is ebe Queen berfeif.”.
nant, and dresied in white : the then proceedThe Count's answer to Madame de la Motte ed co describe her features, which exactly rewas, that all predictions were mere nonsense ; sembled the Queen's. I then defired her to bile advised her to tell the Queen, to recom. alk the lady whether he would be bro'ightmend herself to the divine protection, that her to-bed safely. She replied, she should. I first lying-in had been fortunate, and that her then ordered her to kiss the lady's hand reapproaching one would be equally lo. speelfully. The innocent creature killed her
The Counters not seeming satisfied with own hand, and came from behind the screen, tlais answer, the Count, in consequence of his perfectly fatisfied to think the had convinced promise to the Cardinal, assuming a serious us of her innocence. countenance, told the lady, “ Madam, as an The ladies eat fonie sweet meats, drank adept in the science of Nature, and acquaint- some lemonade, and in about a quarter of an ed with the arcana of magnetism, I am of opic hour retired by the back stairs. nion, that a being perfectly innocent may, in Thus ended a farce, as harmless in itself This case, operate more powerfully than any as it was laudable in its motive. other. If therefore you are desirous of know- The Cardinal, having thus brought me acing the truth, you must, in the first ittance, quainted with the Counte's, afked me what I find out foch an innocent creature.
thought of her ? I, who have always pretend" If that be the only difficulty,” replied ed to some skill in phifiogvomy, sincerely de. Madame de la Motte, “ I have a niece who clared, that I believed her to be a deceitful inanswers the description : I will bring her with triguing woman. The Cardinal differed in me to-morrow."
opinion from me, and soon after set out for The next day the Count was much fur. Saverne, where he remained a month or fix prised at being introduced, not, as he had ima. weeks. On his return, his visits to me de. gined, to a child about fix years old, but to 3 came more frequent, and I observed him io
be uneasy and thoughtful ; and whenever the months confinement, he underwent an exami. Countess was mentioned, I with my usual nation; in which he invariably perfifted in de. frankness, told him, " that woman deceives claring his innocence. During this interroga.
tory the following question was put to him : About a fortnight before he was arrested, Q. “ Your manner of living is expensive ; he one day said to me, “ I begin to think you you give much away, and accept of nothing is are right in your conjectures, and that Madame return ; you pay every body; how do you comde Valois is tbe woman you have described.” trive to get money?" He then, for the first time, related to me the A. “ This question has no kind of relatin transaction about the liecklace, and communi. to the case in point; however, I am willing cated his suspicions and fears that it had not to give you some satisfaction. Yet, of what been delivered to the Queen. This corrobo. importance is it to have it known, whether rated my former opinion.
I am the son of a monarch, or the child of a The next day the Princeinformed me that heggir; why I travel without making my. the Counters and her husband had, fearing the fell known, or by what means I procure the consequences of the above affair, fed for thel. money I want? As long as I pay a due re. ter to his house, and that they requested letters spect to the religion and laws of the country, of recommendation for England or Germany. discharge every obligation, and am uniformiy The Cardinal asked my advice in the business. doing good to all around me, the question you I told him there was but one way left, viz. to now put to me is improper and unbecoming. deliver her into the hands of the Police, and go I have always taken a pleasure in refusing to direcUy to Court, and lay the whole matter gratify the curiosity of the public on th.s ac. open to the King and bis Ministers, This count, notwithstanding all the calumnes mahe objected to as repugnant to his feelings and lice has invented againit me. I will nevergererofity. “In this case,” said I,“ God is theless condescend co tell you what I never your only resource.” The Cardinal, however, revealed to any one before. Know then, that having refused giving them the letters of re. the principal resource I have to boast of is, commendation, they set out for Burgundy, that as soon as I set my foot into any country, and I have heard nothing of them fince.” I there find a banker who supplies me wib
On the 15th of August the Cardinal was every thing I want : thus in France, San 3arrested. Several persons observed to the fin de Balle, or Moni. Sancolaz ar Lyon, Count, that as he was among the Prelate's would give me up their whole fortunes, were friends, he might poflibiy share the faine fate. I to ask it; but I have always requested chele But conscious of his innocence, he replied gentlemen not to lay they were my bankers. that he wa, perfectly religned, and would In addition to these resources, I derive farther Wait with patience whatever God or the go. alhistance from my extenîve koowlege." vernment should ordain.
The Count seems determined to keup his fe. Accordingly, at half past seven o'clock in cret ; and for reasons best known to his judges, the morning, on the 22d of August, a Com- has not yet recovered his liberty. As matters, miitary, an exempt and eight myrmidons of however, seem drawing near a favourable con. the Police entered luis boule, and after rum- clusion with the principal in this myfterious maging his fcrutoires, dragged hiin on foot in business, it is more than probable he will thie mot opprobrious manner, till a hackney- permitted to wander about Europe again, atcoch happening to pass by, he was permited ter (uffering a pun shment sufficient in his to enter it, and was conducted to the Pastile; opinion “to expiate the greatest crines"-19 unch piace his wife was likewise commit- a confinement of several months in the Ban
On the 30th of January 1786, after five stile.
For the EUROPEAN MAGAZINE.
ON DWARF S.
, of on an abıtract is given of the Hiltory of the jeet. The Commt in his relation gave the Royal Academy of Sciences of t'aris, for the history of Bebé, a Dwarf kept by the late ver 1764, in which we read the following Stanisaus, King of Poland, and who died in pollases.
1764, at the age of twenty-three, when he “Under this class of the Memoirs, the Hir. meatured only thirty-three inches. At the torian of the Academy has drawn up an Eilay time of his birth, he measured only between on Dvaits, founded on a relation read at the eight and nine inches. We have there taken Acıdemy by the Count de Treilan, and on butice of the Icapuinets of Bebe's realoning ta
culties, which do not appear to have been su. but of French extraction, and the middle size, perior to those of a well-caught pointer ; but They have three children, all giid., and none that the size and strength of the intellectual of them likely to be dwarfs. powers are not affected by the diminutiveness To provide for a family now became an or tenuity of the corporeal organs, is evident object big with difficulty, requiring all the exfrom a ftill more striking instance of littleness, ertion of his powers (which could promise given us by the same nobleman, in the person but little), and his talects, of which music of Monsieur Borulawski, a Polish gentleman, alone afforded any view of profit. He plays whom he saw ac Luneville, and who has since extremely well upon the guittar, and by ha. been at Paris, and who at the age of twenty- ving concerts in several of the principal cities two measured only (wenty-eight inches. in Germany, he raised temporary supplies. This miniature of a man, considering him on- At Vienna he was persuaded to turn his ly as to his bodily dimensions, appears a giant thoughts to England, where it was believed with regard to his mental powers and attain the public curiofity might in a little time bements. He is described by the Count as pos. nefit him fufficiently, to enable him to live feffing all the graces of wit, united with a independent in so cheap a country as Poland. found judgement and an excellent memory; He was furnished by very respectable friends so that we may with justice say of M. Boru. with recommendations to several of the most lawski, in the words of Seneca, and nearly in distinguished characters in this kingdom, as the order in which he has used them, “ Povle the Dutchess of Devonshire, Rutland, &c. &c. ingenium fortiffemum ac beatissimum sub quolibet whose kind patronage he is not backward to corpufculo latere," Epift. 66.
acknowledge. He was advised to let himThere are several curious circumstances re- self be seen as a curiosity, and the price of adlative to Count Borulawski left unnoticed in million was fixed at a guinea. The number this account. He was the son of a Polish no. of his visitors, of courie, was not very great, bleman attached to the fortunes of King Sta. After a pretty long stay in London he went nislaus, who lost his property in consequence to Bath and Bristol, visited Dublin and some of that attachment, and who had fix children, other parts of Ireland ; from whence he rethree dwarfs, and three well-grown. What turned by way of Liverpool, Manchester, and is fingular enough, they were born alternate Birmingham, to London, where he now is. ly, a big one and a little one, though both pa. In every place he acquired a number of friends, rents were of the common size. The little In reality the ease and politeness of his manCount's youngest after was much less than ners and address please no less than the dimi. him, but died at the age of twenty-three. nutive, yet elegant, proportions of his figure The Count continued to grow till he was astonish those who visit him. His person is about thirty, and has at present attained his pleasing and graceful, and his look manly and 47th year, and the height of three feet (no noble. . He speaks French fluently, and Eng. inches. He never experienced any fickness, lith tolerably. He is remarkably lively and but lved in a police and affluent manner w- chearful, tho' fitted for the most serious der the patronage of a lady, a friend of the fa- and rational conversation. Such is this wonmily, till love at the age of forty-one intruded derful little man-an object of curiosity reale into his little peaceful bosom, and involved ly worthy the attention of the philosopher, bim in matrimony, care, and perplexity. the man of taste, and the anatomist. The lady he chose was of his own country,
To the PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY of LONDON. GENTLEMEN, To attempt to interweave the scattered ly publications of the plan of the writer, or
threads of Grecian history into one con. the diligence with which he has laboured it: rected narrative, and to incorporate the pro. I leave to the learned the care of collating his gress of arts with that of arms, is undoubtedly authorities, and confine mylelí to a topic that a very commendable design. Should the av- lies more open to common observation. thor succeed, he will be chosen as the guide There is, from obvious causes, a strong of the young, and the companion of the ad- tendency in modern authors to adorn their vanced, scholar. But the importance of such works as highly as possible ; and if it mult a work needs no other proof than the efforts be allowed that this care has produced gold which have been made at different times to exquisitely wrought, it is certain that mucha achieve it, and the interest taken by the pub- gaudy and glittering, but worthless, tinsel lic in a late undertaking of this kind. I do has been obtruded upon the world, But not mean at present to dispute the favourable nothing can supply the want of substantial opinion which has been given in some month- value. He who unwarily feeds too greedily EUROP. MAG.