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It seeks to establish a union among the people of the States, which shall last through all time. Or, if the common fate of things human must be expected at some period to happen, yet that catastrophe is not anticipated. The instrument contains ample provisions for its amendment, at all times; none for its abandonment, at any time. It declares that new States may come into the Union, but it does not declare that old States may go out.
12. The Union is not a temporary partnership of States. It is the association of the people under a constitution of government, uniting their power, joining together their highest interests, cementing their present enjoyments, and blending, in one indivisible mass, all their hopes for the future. Whatsoever is steadfast in just political principles; whatsoever is permanent in the structure of human society; whatsoever there is which can derive an enduring character from being founded on deep-laid principles of constitutional liberty and on the broad foundation of the public will, -all these unite to entitle this instrument to be regarded as
A PERMANENT CONSTITUTION OF GOVERNMENT.
One of the most beautiful specimens of that species of riddle known as the charade is the following on the name of the poet Campbell. The first stanza should be read with quick time, a bold orotund tone, and loud force; the second, with slow time, diminished force, and low pitch; the third, with renewed animation and an exultant expression.
See in Index, CHARADE, FLAMBEAU, CAMPBELL, Praed.
And the screaming trump and thundering drum
Fall as thy father fell;
Toll ye my Second, toll!
Fling high the flambeau's light,
And sing the hymn of a parted soul,
The wreath upon his head,
The Cross upon his breast,
Let the prayer be said, and the tear be shed,
Call ye my Whole,
Go, call him by his name!
XCIII. — ANCIENT ORATORY.
Pronounce CERO, sis'e-ro, ESCHINES, ěs'ke-neez, DEMOSTHENES, deos'the-neez, PERICLES, per' e-kleez, Roscius, ros'se-us.
The following extract is from an interesting paper on ancient and modern eloquence, in Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine.
1. THE great body of men invariably impute inability to speak well in public to want of ideas; whereas, in reality, it generally arises from want of practice,
and often coexists with the greatest acquirements and the most brilliant genius. The main causes to which the extraordinary perfection of ancient oratory is to be ascribed, are the great pains which were bestowed on the education of the higher classes in this most difficult art, and the practice of preparing nearly all their finest orations before delivery. There were no short-hand writers in those days. The art of stenography was unknown. What was written came, and could only come, from the author himself. It is well known that several of the most celebrated speeches of Cicero never were delivered at all.
2. Indeed, to any one who considers the style of the speeches, not only of the great masters, but of all the orators of antiquity, it must be sufficiently evident that nearly all that has come down to us had been written. Some part, without doubt, was caught from the inspiration of the moment: a happy retort was sometimes the result of an interruption, — a felicitous reply to an antagonist's attack. But these were the exceptions,
not the rule.
3. Nor was less attention bestowed, in ancient times, upon training young men-to whatever profession they were destined in that important and difficult branch of oratory which consists in intonation and delivery. Cicero, when advanced in life, and in the meridian of his fame, took lessons from Roscius, the great tragic actor of the day; and the efforts of Demosthenes to overcome the impediments of a defective elocution, by putting pebbles in his mouth, and declaiming on the shores of the ocean, the roar of which resembled the murmurs of the forum, demonstrate that the greatest masters of the art of eloquence were fully alive to the vast influence of a powerful voice and animated delivery, in heightening the effect even of the most perfect efforts of oratory.
4. When asked, What is the first requisite of elo
quence? the last of these orators answered, "Action"; the second? "Action"; the third? "Action." Without going so great a length, and admitting the full influence of the genius of Demosthenes in composing the speeches which he so powerfully delivered, every one must admit the advantage of an impassioned delivery in heightening the effect of the highest, and concealing the defects of the most ordinary oratory.
5. We all know what would be the fate of a speaker in the House of Commons who should commit his speeches to memory, and take lessons from a Macready or Kean in their delivery. Beyond all doubt, derision would take the place of admiration; the laughs would be much more frequent than the cheers. Yet something like this is precisely what Cicero and Demosthenes did; it was thus that Pericles ruled the Athenian Democracy, and Eschines all but overturned the giant strength of his immortal adversary.
6. We are not to imagine that these men, whose works have stood the test of twenty centuries, were wrong in their system; it is not to be supposed that every subsequent nation of the earth has misdirected its admiration. It is more probable that some circumstances have occurred to turn oratory, in modern times, aside from its highest flights, and induced a style in public speaking which has now become habitual, but which is inconsistent with the most perfect attainment in the art.
7. Nor is it difficult, if we consider the composition of modern senates, and the objects for which they are assembled, to see what these circumstances are. But rely upon it, opportunities for oratory in its very highest style are not wanting. What is wanting is due attention early in life to that noble art, the lofty spirit which aims at great objects, and the energetic will, the resolute perseverance, which deem the labor of a lifetime a light price to pay for their attainment.
XCÍV. — SEAWEED.
The AZORES, or Western Islands, in the North Atlantic Ocean, receive their name from the Portuguese açor or Spanish azor, a hawk, great numbers of which bird were found on these islands when discovered by the Portuguese in 1432. A SKERRY is a rocky isle. The HEB'RI-DES lie off the west coast of Scotland; the ORKNEYS, off the north.
See in Index, HOARD, ELYSIAN, LONGFEllow.
Delivery. The versification is peculiar, and in places suggests an imitative modulation where the sound may seem "an echo to the sense." The rhyme of the fourth and fifth lines in the last stanza must not mislead the reader as to the pronunciation. In recorded, the o has its short sound as in nor; in hoarded, its long sound as in roar.
WHEN descends on the Atlantic
Storm-wind of the equinox,
Landward in his wrath he scourges
The toiling surges,
Laden with seaweed from the rocks:
From Bermuda's reefs, from edges
In some far-off bright Azore,
From Bahama, and the dashing,
Surges of San Salvador;
From the tumbling surf, that buries
And from wrecks of ships, and drifting
On the desolate, rainy seas;