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convey to the mind feelings equally disgust- ready exceeded our intended bounds, we me ing.”

refer the amateur to the work itself f We could dwell with pleasure on every further information on this engaging sub Stage of this delightful art ; but, having al. ject.

Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester.

Boards. 1785. Cadell.

Vol. I. & II. Sve

I 2S.

HE origin of this Society and the na- That it be recommended to each membe 1

ture of its Menioits are set forth in a to enter the Society's room with silence an prefatory audrels. Many years fince, without ceremony. a few gentlemen, inhabitants of the town, That a library be formed for the use o. who were inspired with a taste for literature the Society. and philosophy, tormed themselves into a That a gold medal be given to the authors kind of weekly club, for the purpose of con- of the best Experimental Paper on any tuhverfing on subjects of that pature. These ject relative to Arts and Manufactures; and meetings were continued, with some inter. to encourage the exertions of young men who ruption, for several years; and many respec- attend the meetings of the Society as visitors, table persons being desirous of becoming that a silver medal be annually given to any members, the numbers were increased to one of them, under the age of twenty-one, far, as to induce the founders of the Society who shall, within the year, have furnished to think of extending their original design. the Society with the best paper on any subject Presidents and other officers were elected, of literature or philofophy: and a code of laws formed, and a regular Society That the Society Mall publith a volume of conftituted, and denominated, The Literary Miscellaneous Papers every two years.and Pbilo apbical Scorely of Manchejies.This we beg leave to object 10 : it is the relo

The following are some of its laws and re. lution of a fraternity of publishers, rather gulations :

than of a fociety of literati ard philosophers. That the number of members invested The harvest of literature is uncertain, and with the privilege of voting, electing mem- the volume, we presume, must be of or near bers, &c. be limited to fity.

unto fome certain size. If a paucity of papers That honorary menibers, residing at a dir- occur, the chatt mult be thrown in to swell tance from Manchester, be eligible, &c. out the bigIf an abundance should in

That every election be conducted by bal- any two year's be the case, valuable papers lot, &c.

must be thut out for want of room. We That iwo prefients, four vice-presidents, humbly conceive, that this and every other two secretaries, airealurer, and librarian, be Philosophical Society should publish their elected annually, &c.

Transactions whenever they have collected a That a committee of papers he appointed . volume of some certain fize, without any reat the same time, confilting of the above and gard whatever to stated times of publication ; 11x ordinary niemibers, who are to decide hy and generally the smaller the volume, and conbillot concerning the intertion in the reg Iter, fequently the more frequent the publication, or the publication, of any paper whicla thail the better: fer in this philosophic age no lime have been reid helore the Sodity, &c. should be loft in communicating discoveries to

That vifiors be inli uducou with permission the world: every spark either adds to the light, of the chairman.

or kindles a fresh flame; and who can forelee That the subjects of conversation compre. the period of existence of the present blaze of hend Natural Philosophy, Theoretical and human invention and discovery? Like a fire Experimental Chemistry, Polite Literature, that has been long (mothered under a weight Civil Law, General Politics, Commerce, and of rubbi,h, it now bursts forth with a degree the Arts; but that Religion, the Practical of fervor perhaps before unknown : but Branches of Phyfic, and British Politics, be bright as it now appears, it must, as all nature, deemed prohibited.

have an end; and no time should be loft, That the Society meet every Wednesday nor opportunities neglected, to increase, evening, except during the months of June, whilft we can, the extent of human knowJuly, August, and September ; and that each ledge. meeting commence at half past six, and be concluded at half past eight o'clock.

This respectable Society at, present consists That cach member thall pay one guinea of annually, to defray the rent of the room, and

. other incidental expences; and also to esta. blith a fund for the benefit of the Society.

Rev.

Thuthas Percival, Å. D. &c. Presidents

.

The Rev. Sam. Hall, A. M.

it would be presumption to affert, that these Chas. White, Esq. F. R.S.&c. Vice-Presi. enabled to resist the effects of external heat.

are the only means by which the body is George Lloyd, Esq.

dents. Mr. George Bew,

There may be others; and it is not unrealonThe Rev. Thos. Barnes, D. D Secretaries. hafs by its tonic influence, increases the

able to suppures that as external cold, perMr. Thomas Henry, F. R. S. } Mr. Isaac Molle,

Treasurer. power of the body to generate heat, so exMr. Thomas Robinson, Librarian,

ternal heat may diminish that power, and with about thirty ordinary members, and up

thus lefsen che quantity of heat generated withwards of forty bonorary members, among in, while the evaporation, produced by the whom the names of Dr. B. Franklin, Dr. same cause, guards it againit receiving any

acceffion from without." Priestley, and other great men are enrolled ; forming together the brightest constellation of Philosophers which, perhaps, ever appeared lofophy in general, and especially on the

On the Advantages of Literature and Thi. in a provincial society. The select papers of Confiitency of Literary and Philosophical with such a Society cannot fail of being highly in. teresting to the philosophical world at large, F. R. S. Read O&t. 3, 1781.

Commercial Pursuits. By Thomas Henry, and an analysis of them must, we flatter

This is a well-written paper ; but we difeurselves, prove acceptable to our readers

fer efsentially from its ingenious author with Some Remarks on the Opinion that the respect to the general application of literature Animal Body poffelses the Power of generat- and philosophy to commerce and manufacto. ing Cold. By George Bell, M. D. Read ry.-Geography and the living languages May 16, 1781.

may be as useful to the merchant, as some This paper contains some valuable obser. knowledge of mechanics, hydraulics, che. rations on the well-known experiment of mistry, and the polite arts, so far as they ! Drs, Fordyce and Blagden in a heated room; serve to establish a justness of taste, may be where, finding that the heat of their own to the manufacturer : but we are firm and bodies did not increase in proportion to the clear in our opinion, that business, in what. heat of the air in the room, they concluded ever shape, and fiudy are utterly incompatible, that arimal bodies have a power of generating saving such studies as are immediately concold. This our author considers as an erro- nected with the business of the student ; and DCous conclusion; and accounts for the effect to the young tradesman we would rather rein the following manner :-" The first commend Postlethwaite than the Clallics, caule," he says, " which prevented their and the conversation of men of business tha2 bodies from receiving a greater degree of that of men of erudition. There may be heat was, ele rarefaction of obe air with some few “ tradesmen of fortune" in the wbicb bey were surrounded. Second, The neighbourhood of Manchester, who may seem

seperation made from the jurface of the to be an exception from this general pofi:ion ; bos.-And Jaitly, The fucceflive afflux of but we conceive it to be a miitiken and mirbiad ts ibe surface of a temperature inferior chievous employment to low the fecus of rekibat of be surrounding air; by wbich means finement, the parent of inactivity and extrathe small quantity of heat which penetrated vagance, in a manufacturing country. We the skin would be immediately carried off and agree with this very sensible writer, that the bezfared throughout the body; and it gentleman and the profelli in lit reap many would have required the space of many advantages from ftudy; and that “the purtours before the whole mass could have re- suit of knowledge, when properly applied, ceived any considerable increase of heat." and uncer due influence, is of the greatest Aker supporting his theory by a variety of importance to mankind.” By civilizacion, other reasonings, our author thus concludes

the horrors of war itelt are lortened ; bis ingenious paper :

an enemy is treated with hum nity and kinde " There may be said to be the means neis; the milver virtues fud and i cance through which the human body is preserved among the clath of arıns; and then, when is nearly the same temperature, when it hap- compelled to hoftilities, ieck victory not to pens to be placed for a time in an atmosphere enllave or destroy', bit in the mom: nt of trista superior degree of heat. They seem to me umph seek opportunities to evitice their cle. to adequate to this effect, tbat I would even mency and generufity to the vanquished foc." y are to impute the increase of the tempera. Nevertheless we are of opinion with our tare of the body, from 96 to 1eo degrees, author's adversaries, that “the commerci... which happened in the experiments, rather to man should contine his kuowledge to trade; the acceleration of the blood, than to the in- and that his compting house lliould be his fur of heat from the external air. While study." We alio agree with them, in that the De cause of animal heat remains unknown, knowledge of the manufacturer thould be fuch EC 207, Mag.

F

even

as

as will lead him to judge of the quality of raw 2diy, a salt formed by the union of the same materials, and whether bis wares be pro- acid with magnesian earth; and laftly, 2 perly fabricated and finished, rather than in small quantity of selenite,

The quantity of leading littory, folving problems in Euclid, faline matter contained in a pint of sea water, or poring over the pages of police literature; in the British feas, is, according to Neumann, left “ his resined ideas thould teach him that about one ounce in each pint. I When this suspicion is niean;" and left his “credulity water is Nowly evaporated, the common sale Mould plunge him into ruin.”

first crystallizes, and the marine m.gnefia

falt is left in, what is called, the bitternOn Crystallization. By Alexander Eason, purging bitter falt, commonly named Ep'on

from which, by a subsequent procels, tik M. D. Read Nov. 14, 1781.

falt, is obtained. By this separation, the le. This paper contains some loose thoughts on

or bay falt is rendered much better adapıcı the interesting subject of crystallization. The

for the preservation of animal fubítances writer thinks it " highly probable that the

than the salt of the rocks and Springs in Che crystallization of falts, the freezing of wa

Thire and Worcestershire, where, from uba ter, and the formation of precious Itones,

I apprehend to be a mistaken notion, the befaltes, &c. are ail the effects of the faine

this bittern does not exitt in the brine, th cause; and if, he adds, we conjecture the liquor is so hatily evaporated, that the cryt setting of metals is a species of crystallization,

tals of common falt retain much of the mag we shall nut be wide of the truth, This

ncían falt among them. For the magnefia much is certain, that all the femi-metals,

falt is highly septic, and greatly impairs th when broken, discover a laminated texture,

properties of the other. and in each particular metal, t'ie lunsina are

“ The tuo methods which occurred to me always of a given or contant form.”

as likely to answer the wishes of my friend

were, lít, the addition of qucklime, a O the Preservation of Sea-water from 2dly, that of common falt. To, the trial Punefact on by means of Quicklime. By the former I was induced by its krown anti Thomas Henry, F. R. S. *

septic effects on common water; and it Here we iee thus sensible and instructive ascertained, that a small portion of commo writer in his proper element, chemistry. “A. falt promotes, whereas a larger retards, pu bout the ime," he says, “I published my trefaction. inchi of preserving water, at sea, from : Experiment. To one quart of sea wate putrefaction, &c. t a gentleman, who had

were added two scruples of freth quicklumne ostend a quantry of lea water, for the to another, b.lf an ounce of common culinar purpoie of bitch ng a child, complained to fält ; and a third was kept is a stand:ru me that it loon became putrid, and requested without any addition. The mouths of th INX I would think of fume expedient to bottles being loosely covered with papay preseive it.

they were exposed to the action of the fun “ The principal falts contained in sea u ater in some of the hottest weather of the la are, ut, common marine or culinary fali, summer. comfounded of total alkali and marine acid;

1981.

To this paper is annexed an account of a newly invented machine for impregnalin wser or other Auid with fixed air, &c. communicated to Mr. Henry, by J. Haygart: M. B. F R. S. Read Nov. 21, 1781.

+ Au account of a method of preierving water, at sea, from putref. Etion, and of refcrin; to the water its original purity and pleasantners, by a cheap and easy process, &c. London

in Sir Torhern Bergman's analysis of sea water taken in, in the beginning of June 17-6, about the istiinde of the Canaries, from the depth of fixty fathoms, the folid conterk liit pint of the water were

G15.
Of common ral: 2537
Sliced magnesia 696

Dr. Scr. Grs.
Gyprum

8,

5

or

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Total

330, satume of the works at Nort:wich, the evaporation is carried on in fo gentle a manei, todett larg" cubicuid cr;itals de tuinied; and the salt thus prepared is faid to be equat celu ir códi 39 6.44 laure

in

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" In about a week, the standard became on which Manufactures principally depend. very etiensive ; and the water, with the ad- By the same. Read Jan. 9, 1582. dioena quantity of falt, did not continue The foregoing papererinced in a sufficient sweet many bours longer ; whereas that degree, the Icarning and ingenuity of its auwith lime coueinued many months, with. thor : this does more, thewing us at the ou ever exhibiting the least marks of putri. same time his good sense and judgmentdity."- To this fucceed twelve other experi- qualifications, we conceive, of infinitely ments; after which the author makes,

greater value.

After having set forth in a anong others, the following oblervations. facistuctory manner the uility of general

" He also see, that there are limits to the kuowledge in the acquisition of particular a 'Uison of quicklime, beyond which we arts and sciences, he lays, “ I have ventured Camp101 proceed without forming lime wa- to chalk out the outlines of a plan--the

ne quantity of two scruples to a sole ohject and principle of which is, the qurt we lea water, though not fuificient to improvement of our manufactures, by the decem fe the whole of the magnesian salt, improvenient of those arts on which they was yu ulequate to the preservat on of the depend.--Those arts are Chemistry and NieWaiti. One drachm more quichulime separa- chanics. The fult object of this icheme is, let the wine of the magnetia, and, when a to provide a public repository among us, for further addition wys 'n ide, a lime water was

chemical and mechanic knowledge. lo immédiately formed.

this repository are to be collected models of machines, &c.-ingre'ient, for dyeing, &c.

with a fuperintenciant to give lectures, advice On the Nature and etsential Character of

and attintance. An end of this mechanic Pretry, as diftinguithed from Prose. By Ichool is to finish the education of a young Tha Bornes, D.D. Read December

5,

tradesman or manufacturer.

“ But the principal advantage I should Aiter much laboricus writing--an unne. propote from this scheme, is this: Here Poday abundance of fancy.printing-vith would be a kind of general oracle, whicii vlorg argu nents and learned quotations- those miglic consult, wilo were engaged in te lutur very honeftly leaves the lubject mechanical improvements, and who miglit wiate be fouud it.

here, at once, gain that information, which it might cost them months and years to ub

tain by their bwn unallifted efforts.” On the Affinity subrifting between the We mention this scheme the rather, as Az, %ith a Plan for promoting and extend- out of it giew the prelent College of Manwas Manuiactures, by encouraging those Arts ebepler. (To be Continued

11.

A Palosophical, Historical, and Moral Exly on ON M.Js, by a friend of the Sisterhood.

In 3 vols Svo. London, T. C.duell, 1785.

[Continued from Page 444 of Vol. VIII.] GREEABLY to our promise, we glad- of curious characters in the fisterhood of old

ly embrace the opportunity of rendering maids, and whenever I gain intelligence of jut.ce to the venerabie Sisterhood, by chtera a new curvliy belonging to this clats, I foro Estoor readers the more piealing confider- fake all other occupations, to flusy it with 21 of those amiable qualities, which, like the patient attention of a true virtuolo, Caribbles, are peculiarly their own.

“ Asioon as I am propery introduced toine To involve either the whole sex indifcri. frem ancient maiden, i sit plaidoiophically dorsal minately,

or any cials of females in one blind, and endea sour to discover through that iua Cordilicgu shed censure, would be equally crustatica of little fingularities vlid a loos baal aad absurd : as well might a man life of celibacy has produced, her genuine chafrordunce a pine-apple a very bad fruit, be- racter, the real difpofition of her heart, aud (21fe he accidentally tasted only a piece of the exact alirude of her head. Derbind, which had left a blister on his lips. " Having made an accurate Jrawing of this

it While other antiquarians,” says our piece of antiquity in its present itare, I confi. chor," have laborioudly employed and ex- der what the must have been in her youth; Lied their powers in searching for old ruins and, having settled my conjectures on this e: Gothic architecture, or fome Druidical re- point, I proceed to reflections on the kind of Endins, I have traverted the kingdom in queft wife she might probably have made, and

1 " These proportions may vary according to the strength of the qnicklime employed,"

F 2

teach

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teach myself whether I ought to contemplate who retain their health and faculties, rare her present state with fatis a lion or concern. cease to practise any ingenious art, or to d

“ Every man has his taste. Whether my play any amusmg accomplishment, whi speculations may be superior or not to those of had ever gained them applause. more fashionable antiquaries, is a point I shall Indeed that perfect leisure, and that e leave to the world 10 confuler ; I will only emption from the burthen of housebo fay, that if the Society of Antiquarians shouid cares, which the old maid enjoys, is high think this study of mine may entitle me to calculated to allift her progress in works be admitted of their com mmunity, I could ingenuity and such works, by detachir enrich their Archäologia with sketches of ma- the mind from idle, impertinent, and centor ny a fair neglected ruin, which have hither. . ous ideas, contributes much to support u to escaped their researches.

natural benevolence of the heart, and “ With some of these sketches I have in- confer a degree of happiness on many a wo deed attempted to adorn my own little vo. thy spinster of gentle manners and of ea Jumes; but others I shall Mill retain in my fortunes. private Cabinet, ull I have happily awaken. The truth of this remark is exemplified h ed in our country a more lively and affec. the history of the elderly daughter of a Doc! tionate relith for the sugular branch of virou, Coral. The Doctor was educated in the stud which I am now introducing for the fuft of physic, but having a greater passion for th time to the notice, and I hope the cultiva- curious than the useful, degenerated from tion of the public.

physician to a virtuoso. He was, however " In the many years of profound specula. enabled to live without the aid of his profe çien which I desvied to the study of old fion by means of his wife's fortune, who maids, hefore I hegan this elaborate, and I being of a de icate conftitution, and dying in Lut this on mortai eslay, I observed that the child-bed, lelt bim an only daughter, o better part of the fifterhood are distingu.thed whom he was as fond as a virtuofo can be o by three amiahle characteristics --- Ingenuity, any living and ordinary production of nature Patience, and Charity.

As the grew up, the displayed a talent fo To each of there our author has given a drawing, and by surprising her father by anseparate chapter : cur limits will however accurate delineation of three of the most preonly permit us to touch each fubject lightly, cious articles in his cabinet, so warmed the which he has with great skillexpatiated on at old naturalist's heart, that he declared, he large.

would give her socol. onthe day of marriage, Though ingenuity may be considered as a Theodora, who had now reached the age of characteristic of the fair sex in general, yet nineteen, was of lo affectionate a difpofition, there are many circuinstances which tend to that she not only loved her father mot weaken and diminish this quality in the mar- tenderly, but looked upon his whimfical r.ed woman, and many others which have hubby-horse with a partial veneration. This án equal tendency to strengthen and increase circumstance contributed much to their mu. it in ine'old maid. The married dame, the tual happiness, and rendered the young author not onapely though somewhat severely lady less eager to escape from the custody of compares to the high-fed indolent prelate, a fanciful old father. Theodora, however, who having gained the object of his pursuit, admitted the visits of a Mr. Blandford, a and cla:ed with the ceremouwus dignity of bis young man of acute undertanding and polithStation, is liable to neglect the cultivation of ed manners, who had the address to ingratiwhole spiritual talents which ought to adorn it; ate himself with the Doctor, who very while the ancient virgin is sopposed to re- candidly told the young man what he iutendsemble the uubeneficed ecclefiattic, who, con- ed for bis daughter,declaring at the same time, fcious of his humiliating condition, endea- that he left her entirely at her own disposal. voyers to furmount its ditadvantages, by Theodora, though prejudiced in favour of her the acquisition and display of thoie accom- aximirer, had hitherto given no other answer plinn ents, which, if they do not raise him to his addresses, but that the thought herself to a tugher rank, freure him undignified as tou young to marry. While matters were he is bith attention and esteem.

in the situation, Dr. Coral was summoned to Married ladjes, it is a general complaint, a diftoace by a letter from a friend, informing are apt to neglect those interiors pursuits him of the death of a brother virtuoso, with a subsich distinguished their youth ; the harpfi hint that he might enrich limielf by the posi chord and the pencil, thoie graichil is well chase of a very choice collection of the most aspleating amníements, are goneraily configned valuable rarities, which, if he was quick to obl vion four a:ter marriage, owing to the enough in bis .pplication, he migle potiinly hostinel or diflipalo sutrichi lucceed the te. oblin hy iritale contract. This was too great 5:2y Hymen. Odma's, op de contrary, is een przi.on to rent ; without waiting the

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