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the North ever produced. What I mean covering him up close, received from the are the clothes in which the great Gustavus patient a violent box on his ear. Some Adolphus and the intrepid Charles XII. hours after, observing the prince more calm, died by a fate not unusual to kings. The he entreated to know how he had incurred first, if I remember, is a sort of a buff his displeasure, or what he had done to waistcoat, made antique fashion, very plain, have merited a blow. “A blow?” replied and without the least ornaments; the Charles; “I don't remember anything of second, which was even more remarkable, it: I remember, indeed, that I thought consisted only of a coarse blue cloth coat, myself in the battle of Arbela, fighting for a large hat of less value, a shirt of coarse Darius, where I gave Alexander a blow linen, large boots, and buff gloves made which brought him to the ground.” to cover a great part of the arm. His What great effects might not these two saddle, his pistols, and his sword have qualities of courage and constancy have nothing in them remarkable: the meanest produced, had they at first received a just soldier was in this respect no way inferior direction! Charles, with proper instructo his gallant monarch. I shall use this tions, thus naturally disposed, would have opportunity to give you some particulars been the delight and the glory of his age. of the life of a man already so well known, Happy those princes who are educated which I had from persons who knew him by men who are at once virtuous and wise, when a child, and who now, by a fate not and have been for some time in the school unusual to courtiers, spend a life of poverty of affliction; who weigh happiness against and retirement, and talk over in raptures glory, and teach their royal pupils the real all the actions of their old victorious king, value of fame; who are ever showing the companion, and master.
superior dignity of man to that of royalty Courage and inflexible constancy formed -that a peasant who does his duty is a the basis of this monarch's character. In nobler character than a king of even midhis tenderest years he gave instances of dling reputation ! Happy, I say, were both. When he was yet scarcely seven princes, could such men be found to instruct years old, being at dinner with the queen them; but those to whom such an educahis mother, intending to give a bit of bread tion is generally intrusted are men who to a great dog he was fond of, this hungry themselves have acted in a sphere too high animal snapt too greedily at the morsel, to know mankind. Puffed up themselves and bit his hand in a terrible manner. with the ideas of false grandeur, and The wound bled copiously; but our young measuring merit by adventitious circumhero, without offering to cry, or taking the stances of greatness, they generally comleast notice of his misfortune, endeavoured municate those atal prejudices to their to conceal what had happened, lest his pupils, confirm their pride by adulation, or dog should be brought into trouble, and increase their ignorance by teaching them wrapped his bloody hand in the napkin. to despise that wisdom which is found The queen, perceiving that he did not eat, among the poor. asked him the reason. He contented him- But not to moralize when I only intend self with replying, that he thanked her, a story,—what is related of the journeys he was not hungry. They thought he was of this prince is no less astonishing. He taken ill, and so repeated their solicitations; has sometimes been on horseback for fourbut all was in vain, though the poor child and-twenty hours successively, and thus was already grown pale with the loss of traversed the greatest part of his kingdom. blood. An officer who attended at table At last none of his officers were found at last perceived it; for Charles would capable of following him; he thus consooner have died than betrayed his dog, sequently rode the greatest part of his who, he knew, intended no injury. journeys quite alone, without taking a
At another time, when in the small-pox, moment's repose, and without any other and his case appeared dangerous, he grew subsistence but a bit of bread. In one of one day very uneasy in his bed, and a these rapid courses he underwent an advengentleman who watched him, desirous of ture singular enough. Riding thus post
one day, all alone, he had the misfortune pleased with the most awkward efforts to have his horse fall dead under him. of rustic mirth; thought cross purposes This might have embarrassed an ordinary the highest stretch of human wit, and man, but it gave Charles no sort of uneasi- questions and commands the most rational
Sure of finding another horse, but amusement for spending the evening. not equally so of meeting with a good Happy could so charming an illusion still saddle and pistols, he ungirths his horse, continue. I find age and knowledge only .claps the whole equipage on his own back, contribute to sour our dispositions. My and, thus accoutred, marches on to the present enjoyments may be more refined, next inn, which by good fortune was not but they are infinitely less pleasing. The far off. Entering the stable, he here found pleasure Garrick gives can no way coman horse entirely to his mind; so, without pare to that I have received from a farther ceremony, he clapped on his saddle country wag, who imitated a Quaker's and housing with great composure, and
The music of Mattei is dissowas just going to mount, when the gentle- nance to what I felt when our old dairyman who owned the horse was apprised maid sang, me into tears with Johnny of a stranger's going to steal his property Armstrong's Last Good Night, or the out of the stable. Upon asking the king, cruelty of Barbara Allen. whom he had never seen, bluntly how he Writers of every age have endeavoured presumed to meddle with his horse, Charles to show that pleasure is in us, and not in coolly replied, squeezing in his lips, which the objects offered for our amusement. was his usual custom, that he took the If the soul be happily disposed, everyhorse because he wanted one; "for you thing becomes a subject of entertainment, see,” continued he, “if I have none, I shall and distress will almost want a name. be obliged to carry the saddle myself.” Every occurrence passes in review like This answer did not seem at all satisfac- the figures of a procession: some may be tory to the gentleman, who instantly drew awkward, others ill dressed; but none his sword. In this the king was not much but a fool is for this enraged with the behindhand with him, and to it they were master of the ceremonies. going, when the guards by this time came I remember to have once seen a slave up, and testified that surprise which was in a fortification in Flanders, who apnatural to see arms in the hand of a sub-peared no way touched with his situation. ject against his king. Imagine whether He was maimed, cleformed, and chained; the gentleman was less surprised than obliged to toil from the appearance of they at his unpremeditated disobedience. day till nightfall, and condemned to this His astonishment, however, was soon dis- for life; yet with all these circumstances sipated by the king, who, taking him by of apparent wretchedness, he sang, would the hand, assured him he was a brave have danced, but that he wanted a leg, fellow, and himself would take care he and appeared the merriest, happiest man should be provided for. This promise of all the garrison. What a practical was afterwards fulfilled, and I have been philosopher was here! an happy constiassured the king made him a captain. tution supplied philosophy, and though
seemingly destitute of wisdom, he was HAPPINESS IN A GREAT MEASURE really wise. No reading or study had DEPENDENT ON CONSTITUTION.
contributed to disenchant the fairy-land
around him. Everything furnished him WHEN I reflect on the unambitious re- with an opportunity of mirth ; and though tirement in which I passed the earlier some thought him, from his insensibility, part of my life in the country, I cannot a fool, he was such an idiot as philosophers avoid feeling some pain in thinking that might wish in vain to imitate. those happy days are never to return. They who, like him, can place them. In that retreat all nature seemed capable selves on that side of the world in which of affording pleasure: I then made no everything appears in a ridiculous or refinements on happiness, but could be pleasing light, will find something in every occurrence to excite their good our good humour be construed by others humour. The most calamitous events, into insensibility, or even idiotism: it is either to themselves or others, can bring happiness to ourselves; and none but a no new affliction : the whole world is to fool would measure his satisfaction by them a theatre, on which comedies only | what the world thinks of it. are acted.
All the bustle of heroism or Dick Wildgoose was one of the happiest the rants of ambition serve only to silly fellows I ever knew. He was of the heighten the absurdity of the scene, and number of those good-natured creatures make the humour more poignant. They that are said to do no harm to any but feel, in short, as little anguish at their themselves. Whenever Dick fell into own distress, or the complaints of others, any misery, he usually called it “ seeing as the undertaker, though dressed in life. If his head was broke by a chairblack, feels sorrow at a funeral.
man, or his pocket picked by a sharper, Of all the men I ever read of, the he comforted himself by imitating the famous Cardinal de Retz possessed this Hibernian dialect of the one, or the more happiness of temper in the highest degree. fashionable cant of the other. Nothing As he was a man of gallantry, and came amiss to Dick. His inattention to despised all that wore the pedantic ap- ' money matters had incensed his father to pearance of philosophy, wherever pleasure such a degree, that all the intercession of was to be sold he was generally foremost friends in his favour was fruitless. The to raise the auction. Being an universal old gentleman was on his deathbed. The admirer of the fair sex, when he found whole family, and Dick among the one lady cruel, he generally fell in love number, gathered round him. “ I leave with another, from whom he expected my second son Andrew,” said the expiring a more favourable reception; if she too miser,“ my whole estate, and desire him rejected his addresses, he never thought to be frugal.” Andrew in a sorrowsul of retiring into deserts, or pining in hope tone, as is usual on these occasions, less distress: he persuaded himself that, “prayed Heaven to prolong his life and instead of loving the lady, he only fancied ' health to enjoy it himself.”—“ I recomhe had loved her, and so all was well mend Simon, my third son, to the care again. When Fortune wore her angriest of his elder brother, and leave him beside look, when he at last fell into the power four thousand pounds.”- Ah, father!” of his most deadly enemy, Cardinal Maza- cried Simon, (in great affliction to be rine, and was confined a close prisoner sure,)“ may Heaven give you life and in the Castle of Valenciennes, he never health to enjoy it yourself!” At last, attempted to support his distress by . turning to poor Dick, “ As for you, you wisdom or philosophy, for he pretended have always been a sad dog-you'll never to neither. He laughed at himself and come to good, you'll never be rich; I'll his persecutor, and seemed infinitely leave you a shilling to buy an halter."pleased at his new situation.
In this Ah, father!” cries Dick, without any mansion of distress, though secluded from emotion, “may Heaven give you life and his friends, though denied all the amuse- health to enjoy it yourself!” This was ments, and even the conveniences, of life, all the trouble the loss of fortune gave teased every hour by the impertinence of this thoughtless imprudent creature. wretches who were employed to guard However, the tenderness of an uncle him, he still retained his good humour, i recompensed the neglect of a father; laughed at all their little spite, and carried and Dick is not only excessively goodthe jest so far as to be revenged, by humoured, but competently rich. writing the life of his gaoler.
The world, in short, may cry out at a All that philosophy can teach is to be bankrupt who appears at a ball; at an stubborn or sullen under misfortunes. author who laughs at the public which The Cardinals example will instruct us pronounces him a dunce; at a general to be merry in circumstances of the who smiles at the reproach of the vulgar; highest affliction. It matters not whether or the lady who keeps her good humour in
spite of scandal: but such is the wisest Her hands are not alternately stretched behaviour they can possibly assume. It out, and then drawn in again, as with the is certainly a better way to oppose cala- singing women at Sadlers' Wells: they mity by dissipation, than to take up the are employed with graceful variety, and arms of reason or resolution to oppose it: every moment please with new and unexby the first method we forget our miseries, pected eloquence. Add to this, that their by the last we only conceal them from motion is generally from the shoulder; others. By struggling with misfortunes she never flourishes her hands while the we are sure to receive some wounds in upper part of her arm is motionless, nor the conflict: the only method to come off has she the ridiculous appearance as if victorious is by running away.
her elbows were pinned to her hips.
But of all the cautions to be given to ON OUR THEATRES.
our rising actresses, I would particularly MADEMOISELLE CLAIRON, a celebrated recommend it to them never to take actress at Paris, seems to me the most notice of the audience upon any occasion perfect female figure I have ever seen whatsoever; let the spectators applaud upon any stage. Not perhaps that nature never so loudly, their praises should pass, has been more liberal of personal beauty except at the end of the epilogue, with to her, than some to be seen upon our seeming inattention. I can never pardon theatres at home. There are actresses here a lady on the stage who, when she draws who have as much of what connoisseurs the admiration of the whole audience, call statuary grace, by which is meant ele- turns about to make them a low courtesy gance unconnected with motion, as she; for their applause. Such a figure no longer but they all fall infinitely short of her continues Belvidera, but at once drops into when the soul comes to give expression Mrs. Cibber. Suppose a sober tradesman, to the limbs, and animates every feature. who once a year takes his shilling's worth
Her first appearance is excessively en- at Drury Lane, in order to be delighted gaging: she never comes in staring round with the figure of a queen-the Queen of upon the company, as if she intended to Sheba, for instance, or any other queen-count the benefits of the house, or at least this honest man has no other idea of the to see, as well as be seen. Her eyes are great but from their superior pride and always, at first, intently fixed upon the impertinence : suppose such a man placed persons of the drama, and she lifts them, among the spectators, the first figure that by degrees, with enchanting diffidence, appears on the stage is the queen herself, upon the spectators. Her first speech, courtesying and cringing to all the comor at least the first part of it, is delivered pany; how can he fancy her the haughty with scarce any motion of the arm : her favourite of King Solomon the wise, who hands and her tongue never set out toge- appears actually more submissive than ther; but the one prepares us for the the wife of his bosom ? We are all other. She sometimes begins with a tradesmen of a nicer relish in this respect, mute eloquent attitude; but never goes and such conduct must disgust every forward all at once with hands, eyes, head, spectator who loves to have the illusion and voice. This observation, though it of nature strong upon him. may appear of no importance, should cer- Yet, while I recommend to our actresses tainly be adverted to; nor do I see any a skilful attention to gesture, I would not one performer (Garrick only excepted) have them study it in the looking-glass. among us, that is not in this particular This, without some precaution, will
render apt to offend. By this simple beginning their action formal; by too great an intishe gives herself a power of rising in the macy with this they become stiff and passion of the scene. As she proceeds ' affected. People seldom improve when every gesture, every look, acquires new they have no other model but themselves violence, till at last, transported, she fills to copy after. I remember to have known the whole vehemence of the part, and all a notable performer of the other sex, who the idea of the poet,
| made great use of this flattering monitor,
and yet was one of the stiffest figures I Every man who has seen the world, and
I am told his apartment was has had his ups and downs in life, as the hung round with looking-glasses, that he expression is, must have frequently expe. might see his person twenty times reflected rienced the truth of this doctrine, and upon entering the room; and I will make must know, that to have much, or to seem bold to say, he saw twenty very ugly to have it, is the only way to have more. fellows whenever he did so.
Ovid finely compares a man of broken
fortune to a falling column; the lower it No. III.-Saturday, October 20, 1759. sinks, the greater weight it is obliged to
sustain. Thus, when a man has no occaON THE USE OF LANGUAGE.
sion to borrow, he finds numbers willing The manner in which most writers begin to lend him. Should he ask his friend to their treatises on the use of language is lend him a hundred pounds, it is possible, generally thus :-“ Language has been from the largeness of his demand, he may granted to man, in order to discover his find credit for twenty; but should he wants and necessities, so as to have them humbly only sue for a trifle, it is two to relieved by society. Whatever we desire, one whether he might be trusted for twowhatever we wish, it is but to clothe those pence. A certain young fellow at George's, desires or wishes in words, in order to whenever he had occasion to ask his friend fruition. The principal use of language, for a guinea, used to prelude his request therefore,” say they, “is to express our as if he wanted two hundred, and talked wants, so as to receive a speedy redress.” so familiarly of large sums, that none could Such an account as this may serve to
ever think he wanted a small one. The satisfy grammarians and rhetoricians well same gentleman, whenever he wanted enough, but men who know the world credit for a new suit from his tailor, always maintain very contrary maxims; they hold, made a proposal in laced clothes : for he and I think with some show of reason, found by experience that if he appeared that he who best knows how to conceal shabby on these occasions, Mr. Lynch had his necessity and desires is the most likely taken an oath against trusting; or, what person to find redress, and that the true
was every bit as bad, his foreman was out use of speech is not so much to express of the way, and would not be at home our wants, as to conceal them.
these two days. When we reflect on the manner in which There can be no inducement to reveal mankind generally confer their favours, our wants, except to find pity, and by this we shall find that they who seem to want means relief; but before a poor man opens them least are the very persons who most his mind in such circumstances, he should liberally share them. There is something first consider whether he is contented to so attractive in riches, that the large heap lose the esteem of the person he solicits, generally collects from the smaller; and and whether he is willing to give up friendthe poor find as much pleasure in increas- ship only to excite compassion. Pity and ing the enormous mass, as the miser who friendship are passions incompatible with owns it sees happiness in its increase. Nor each other, and it is impossible that both is there in this anything repugnant to the can reside in any breast for the smallest laws of true morality. Seneca himself space, without impairing each other. allows that, in conferring benefits, the Friendship is made up of esteem and present should always be suited to the pleasure; pity is composed of sorrow and dignity of the receiver. Thus the rich contempt: the mind may for some time receive large presents, and are thanked fluctuate between them, but it never can for accepting them; men of middling entertain both together. stations are obliged to be content with Yet let it not be thought that I would presents something less; while the beggar, exclude pity from the human mind. There who may be truly said to want indeed, are scarcely any who are not, in some is well paid if a farthing rewards his degree, possessed of this pleasing softness; warmest solicitations.
but it is at best but a short-lived passion,