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Defence of Birmingham and Dr. Parr.
biographical'narrative in question), I will with Birmingham, when a few conven.
venture to assert my opinion, that it is a ticles, and not a few private houses blazed
most flimfy and conceited performance, in devotion to the Church and King ?
equally disgusting by a parade of philo. It is to be feared that an act of intempe-
fophy, and by a hyperbolical expression rance, which we shall long deplore, is
of feeling

viewed by this critical bigot with com.
The death of Forster, the father, in his placency, or he would not have neglected
post of professor in the University of Halle, to gratify his malignant appetite with so
has lately been announced in the periodical delicious a morfel.
publications. Authentic memoirs of his Here, fir, we love temperate liberty
life would be curious and valuable. and social, harmony; and, with exception

Your's, &c. of the one instance of infuriated mistaken
June 5.

zeal, we support both, careless of Dr.

Parr, but preferring writings of that
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

divine, to the crude effusions which dif

play more acrimony, with the cowardice SIR,

of not being owned by the author. I am, HE malevolent fatire of the author

your's, &c.


P:"mingham, June 16, 1798.
been pointed out too frequently to have
escaped the knowledge of even those who
despise his species of wit, and consequently To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.
do not peruse his work; but the unjust
attacks of this caustic critic are not con-

fined to individual names, he fires grape IN

N your Magazine for the month of and canister, and sweeps away whole co-.

May last, I observe a letter from Mr. lunns, led only by association of ideas.

RUPP, of Manchester, containing fomo What but the name of Parr drew down remarks on my method of making and his insidious notice of my favourite town,

using oxygenated muriate of lime, for the more populous, and more distinguished

purpole of bleaching.

In this letter Mr. Rupp attempts to
by the variety and perfection of mecha-
nical improvements than any in the king- prove that the liquor so made, is more
dom? hear his words ;

expensive than that prepared by the usual

method, with alkaline falts; and that
· Birmingham, renown'd afar
" At once for halfpence and for Doctor Parr." 'muriatic acid for the purpose of bleaching,

both are interior to the simple oxygenated
Are we known only by those frivolous In juitice to myself, and that the public
appendages ? Dr. Parr's shining talents may not be milled by this gentleman's
are unobserved where the active genius of too hasty conclusions, I beg leave to make
mechanics produces a constant fource of the following observations,
inventions, and the most useful improve Mr. RUPP very justly observes, that
ments; at once giving honor to the ar in order to prove the superiority of this to
tist, and extensive opulence and credit to the usual liquor made with alhes, it must
the empire.

either be better in point of quality, or
Birmingham has been called the “ Toy- cheaper, In order to prove that it is not
Top of Furope," but Europe is well ac- cheaper, he states, the quantity of pearl
quainted with comforts and elegancies alhes necessary for fixing the oxygenated
which never could have been enjoyed with- gas, produced from 30 lb. of common
out the existence of machinery which talt, at 7žlb. 'Mr, Rupp cannot here
shortens labou, and enables the merchant mean saturation by the word fixing, for
to send the product to the remotest mar he surely knows that the pot ash in 7 lb.

of pearl afhes is not sufficient to saturate The readers of your valuable Miscel- the oxygenated acid that may be produced lany are not ignorant of the commercial from 30 lb. of falt. Indeed he afferts in importance which the arts acquire in their the subsequent part of his letter, that it progress, or of the value which philofo- will not saturate such a quantity of gas, phy will ever attach to the discoveries The meaning therefore of the assertion arising out of the industry of the mechanic mult be, that such a portion of pearl genius : but the anonymous satirist is afhes dissolved in a proper quantity of ignorant of these comprehenlive effects, water, will to far repress the volatility of and estimates the human understanding the gas, that is producible from 30lb. of according to its acquaintance with the cominon falt, as to forin an eligible, or fibres of Greek roots. Was le satisfied perhaps the most eligible bleaching li


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Mr. Tennant's Defence of his Bleaching Liquor. 405 quor prepared with ashes.' Now, every Mr. RUPP next attempts to prove, chemist knows that this liquor will confift that both this and the usual livuor preof the folution of the usual salts, produced pared with alhes, are inferior to the timby receiving the oxygenated muriatic acid ple oxygenated muriatic acid for the purgas into a solution of pot ash, together poses of bleaching. with a quantity of oxygenated muriatic i I have already stated, that bleaching acid, in an uncombined state. It is like- liquor, containing the usual falts formed wise perfectly well known, that such li- from the oxygenated muriatic acid gas quor will destroy dyed colours. This and pot ash, together with uncombined liquor therefore with which Mr. RUPP oxygenated' muriatic acid, was totally compares that made of lime, is totally unfit for bleaching goods which contained unfit for bleaching any kinds of goods dyed colours. The simple oxygenated into which dyed colours enter, and con- acid is consequently totally unfit for fequently, wherever these are to be bleach- bleaching such goods. If, therefore, we ed, his statement does not apply. The set aside the liquor made with a full profact is, that where such goods are bleach- portion of ashes and also that made with ed, three times this quantity of alhes, or lime, a great proportion of the cotton even more, is universally used.

goods manufactured in Lancashire, and Wherever, therefore, such coloured goods almost the whole of the Glafgow fabrics are to be bleached (and fuch goods con will be deprived of this great improveftitute a great proportion of the cotton ment in the art of bleaching. It must be manufactory in Britain), his statement allowed, therefore, that even on the supwill not apply. But besides this, it is position of the inferiority of the power to be observed (as Mr. Rupp would possessed by the alkaline and lime liquors, have feen if he had read the specification, they must be retained for the purposes of or applied for information to any of the bleaching goods containing dyed colours. respectable bleachers in his own neigh- Also, that we must prefer lime to the albourhood who use the process, and who kaline liquor, because it is cheaper, by keep their doing so no secret), that the the difference of price between the alkali introduction of common falt along with and lime, and that this difference will be the lime in my process, was merely to in- very confiderable, because a very large crease the specific gravity of the water, proportion of alhes must be uied, in order for the better suspension of the lime; and to preserve the dyed colours that enter as an addition, that afterwards might or the composition of the goods, might not be made, as experience should It still reniains to determine, whether direct. The falt, therefore, is now re the simple oxygenated muriatic acid is gularly omitted ; mere agitation being more applicable to the purposes of bleachfound perfectly sufficient to keep the limeing, where no dyed colours enter the in suspension. With this correction, fabric, than alkaline or lime liquor. therefore, even with Mr. RUPP's pro In favour of the simple oxygenated portion of alhes, the comparative value acid, Mr. RUPP quotes his experiments of this part of the ingredients of the li-, in the last vol. of the “ Manchester Mequor made with 'alhes, and that made moirs." Where experiments are made only with lime, will be as 35. od. to 7d. and on a few grains, and where we have no in all cases, the faving brought about by better test of their relative differences or using the lime liquor in preference to that agreements, than a difference of colour made with alhes, will be equal to the dif- induced by a few drops, as it appears to ference of price between the ashes and the eye of an experimenter, perhaps, from lime, and even some diminution of the some preconceived theory, inclined to fa. quantity of lime may with safety be ad vour à particular conclusion, I would mitted. With regard to the additional build but little on fuch experiments; if labour in preparing the liquor, it is a we add to this, the great danger to the mere trifle. A workman must attend fabric, universally allowed by bleachers, while the liquor with alhes is preparing; in every attempt made with the simple when he makes the liquor with lime, he oxygenated acid, either in a fluid, or ganeeds only to add to his usual attendance zeous form; the impossibility of work 2 very moderate portion of bodily labour, men operating with it on account of its applied to agitate the liquor in the re- suffocating vapours, and the doubtfulness ceiver. Several of the bleachers in this of overcoming that, even by Mr. Rupp's country have now even laved him this, ingenious contrivance (for he cannot by connecting their agitators with their suppole, that a bleacher can calculate fo plash-mill, or other moving machinery, exactly, as to have exhausted the oxyget



a very

The Sacrament an Ancient Jewisho Rite. nated acid every time he finds it necessary my bleaching works here. I am, fire to remove the goods, from its action, and your most humble servant, I see no other way of preventing the Darnly,

CHAS. TENNANT, escape of the gas in Mr. Rupp's ma- 13th June, 1798.

Bleacher, chine, whenever this operation becomes necessary), we must conclude in favour of To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. the liquor made with lime, and the more SIR, especially, as even the bleachers, who operate on white goods, now, in general, A MONG the most curious tapics of

theological disquisitions, the origin find it necessary to be at the expence of of transubstantiation, or the belief of the athes in their bleaching liquor.

real presence, has never, I think, been yet Mr. RUPP has next drawn an objec- sufficiently cleared; but, to ourselves and tion to the liquor made with lime, from to this age, it is of little importance. In

fertile source of every kind of ar · the eye of every christian, but the catholic, gument, viz. from chemical theory, and it is an obsolete superstition, and only juspects that the lime, or muriate of lime, now serves to remind one of a sanguinary may become a mordant, and so make the epocha, in the annals of modern Europe, goods liable to become yellow after when the human race was thinned for one bleaching with this liquor; or unfit them of the most absurd of idolatries, that of for being used in printing: Besides the cooking a God, and of eating him up matter of fact, which totally contradicts alive; assuredly, when the Egyptians this, as has been ascertained by the ex- worshipped the onions growing in their perience of several printfields, particu. garden, they were more rational. larly by that at Messrs. FINLAY and But the kite still remains, although, Co's, in this neighbourhood, and at in the bread and wine, we do not any the field of Messrs. Orr's, at Stratford, more imagine we eat the real body, or in Ireland, I am unacquainted with drink the real blood of Jesus. I have long any proof, that lime, or any of its faline been desirous of discovering the origin of compounds, were ever found to possess this extraordinary ceremony; but my in.. any power in fixing colours in dying quiries have hitherto been baffled, among either cotton or linen, in as far as relates the learned. In a very eccentric work, at least to the madder and weld coppers. lately published, among a mass of other

These observations will, I hope, fatisfy matter, there is a note on this curious the public, with regard to the force of topic, which, as I know not to deny, I Mr. Rupp's objections to my method of would wish to offer it to your theological preparing bleaching liqnor; and the ap- correspondents, either to refute, or to exprobation it has received from numerous plain. The note in question, is the foland respectable bleachers in England, lowing, literally transcribed. Scotland, and Ireland, will still be al. “ Christianity is nothing but improved lowed to establish the character of a fim- Judaism. I will give one instance, which ple invention, which, in whatever manner

I have never observed remarked, The SAit may benefit me, will, I have no doubt, CRAMENT, for which so many have suffered, foon appear a great national benefit. is a simple rite, now performed every fabI have no doubt, if Mr. Rupp had bath night by the religious Jew. Wine and

the known, that from the date of my letters house ; after a benedi&tion, he hands the cup

bread are placed hefore the master patent, I have been ready to treat with round, and breaking the bread, gives to each all bleachers upon the moit moderate

a portion. Jesus, amidst his disciples, was terms, for the sale of licences to practise performing this rite, called KEEDUSH, and my invention; he would have taken the in the allegorical style of a young Rabbin, trouble to investigate a little more fully said of the bread and wine, “ This is my into its merits himfelf, and likewise to blood, and this is my body;" which they have heard the report of the very eminent certainly were, when assimilated in his perbleachers who are employing my process fon. To this fimple circumstance, we owe in his own immediate neighbourhood, be- all the idiocy and cruelty of transubstantiation !” fore he had condemned it in tò unqualified

VAURIEN, vol ü. p. 219:

According to this account, the modern Sufficient proofs of the approbation it Jew, while ne refuses to take the facrahas met with, may be feen by applying ment, actually performs it hebdomadally; to Mr. William Tate, jun. Phenix and the modern Christian, while he imaFire Office, Manchester; to CHARLES gines it a test of his creed, in fact, only DUFFIN, Esq. Inspector General to the joins in a very ancient Jevis ceremony. Irish Linen Board, Dublin; or to me, at

I am, Sir, your obedient Servant,
York, June 4, 1798.

C. P.

a manner.

On the Personification of Abstract Ideas in Poetry. 407 For the Monthly Magazine. briefly elucidate them by well-known An Essay on the PersoNIFICATION of which human faces are marked with the

examples. The pasions of Le Brun, in ABSTRACT IDEAS in POETRY.

strongest expressions of anger, terror, A &.

poets have employed in order to fications. The common female figure of produce that novelty which is essential to Justice with her sword, scales and banda high degree of pleasure or surprise, age, is purely emblematical. That of none is more remarkable than the exhi- Plenty, represented by a full-fed, cheerbition of new forms of animated beings, ful figure, bearing a cornucopia, is of endowed with peculiar powers and qua- the mixed species. These illustrations lities, by which they are rendered actors are taken from painting; but the ideas in the scenes into which they are intro- may equally be conveyed by words. duced. Of these, there are two principal Under each of the preceding heads I species; the one, comprising those fuper- shall adduce a variety of examples from natural beings which derive their origin the poets, which will give scope to such from popular fuperftition or philosophical critical remarks, as-may tend to establish doctrine, modified by the poet's imagina- clear and precise notions concerning the tion; the other, consisting of creatures respective excellence of the several kinds. merely of poetical invention, formed, by The natural species of personification will means of the process called personification, first be confidered; then by an insensible from abstract ideas of the mind. Of gradation we shall flide into the mixed, these last, Addison, in one of his elegant and conclude with the purely emblematipapers On the Pleasures of the Imagi- cal. nation(Spectator, No. 420), speaks in 1. It may be proper before entering the following manner : There is an- pupon the particulars of this festion, to other fort of imaginary beings, that we anticipate a doubt which will readily fonetimes meet with in the poets, when fuggelt itself to a reflecting mind. In the author represents any paffion, appe- what, it may be asked, confifts the merit tite, virtue, or vice, under a visible shape, or advantage of a kind of fiction which and makes it a person or an actor in his approaches fo nearly to reality? If rage, poem.” To this enumeration, however, for instance, be depicted only by the might have been added some abstract ideas figure of a man in a violent fit of fury, personified; fuch as nature, time, death, what are the inventive powers exerted by Sleep, and the like, which equally come the poet, or what is gained by the perfonunder this head of poetical creation. Of ification? It is to be acknowledged, that such, then, it is the purpose of the pre- in these cases, the merit of invention, fent Effay to treat; and it is the manner peculiarly fo termed, can scarcely be in which these fictitious personages are claimed.' Yet since every circumstance formed, rather than the propriety of their must be accumulated by the poet which introduction into the poem, that I mean can give force and life to the piece, and at present to consider; not excluding, a general character be formed out of the however, some remarks on their imme- detached features of a numher of individiate agency; which, in fact, may be duals, to which must frequently be added regarded as part of their description and scenery and accompaniments contrived to character.

correspond with, and enhance the effects On comparing a number of examples of, the leading figure, the necessity of of this kind of personification, it pre. fuperior descriptive talents in order to fently appears, that there are two general fucceed in such representations cannot be methods by which it is effected. Either disputed. Then, with respect to the use a fimply human form is drawn, impressed of such fictions, it is to be considered, in a super-eminent degree with the qua that these imaginary beings are lity or circumstance intended to be per. merely human agents, circumscribed by sonified ; or a creature of the fancy is known laws in their operations : they are exhibited, the character and design of a kind of genii, whose sphere of action is which is expressed by certain typical ad only limited by a congruity dependent on juncts or emblems. The first of these their several characters. But the truth may be termed a natural, the second, an of these observations will be fufficiently emblematical, figure. From the union of illustrated during the investigation of these two modes, a third, or mixed fpe. each particular example. cies is produced. That these diftintions I shall begin with the personified figure may be immediately conceived, I fall of FAMINE, or rather, HUNGER, as MONTHLY MAG, No. XXXII,



3 G



On the Personification of Abstract Ideas in Poetry, represented by Ovid in his “ Metamor- estate, and at last, absolutely to devour phoses.Ceres, having vowed revenge himself. There is something ludicrous against Erisi&thon for cutting down a in this idea, which may serve to Mew the sacred tree, sends a meslenger for this difficulty of preserving strict propriety ghaltly phantom, who is thus described : ' throughout an imaginary scene ; yet the Famem lapidoso videt in agro,

agency of Famine. cannot be said to be

This notion Unguibus & raras vellentem dentibus herbas. unsuitable to her nature. Hirtus erat crinis; cava lumina; pallor in of inspiring a quality by touching or

breathing on a person, may frequently be ore; Labra incama fitu; scabræ rubigine fauces : met with in the best poets to express the Dura cutis, per quam spectari viscera posient; action of those fi&titious beings. Ofla sub incurvis inftabant arida lumbis ; Churchill's “ Prophecy of Famine" Ventris erat pro ventre locus; pendere pu- affords no addition to the descriptive part

of the personification, except some strokes Pectus, & a spinæ tantummodo crate teneri: of satirical humour, disgraced by naAuxerat articulos macies, genuumque rigebat tional illiberality. The employment of Orbis, et immodico prodibant tubera talo.

the imaginary being to utter a prophecy,

Met. l. viii. 799. is agreeable enough to the general notion Crouch'd in a ftony field he sees the pow'r of a genius, and is rendered more chaPlucking with teeth and nails the scanty herb. racteristic by the local circumstance of Shaggy her locks ; her eyes were funk in the pretence to second light.

pits; Paleness o’erspread her face; her whiten’d of Sleep, as likewise drawn by the

The next figure I fall present is that pits Were hoar with mould; her jaws beset with Though he is raised to the title and dig,

elegant and inventive pencil of Ovid. rust; Thro' her harsh hide her inwards all were

nity of the God Somnus, yet in form and shewn;

attributes he is a mere drowsy mortal; The arid bones above her crooked loins and the poet's invention is chiefly displayed Stood forth; a void the belly's place fupply'd; in the scenery and accompaniments. He Pendant her breast appear'd, and held alone inhabits a gloomy cavern, into which By the bare wick’ry spine; the wasting flesh the rays of the fun never penetrate, but Had swell’d the joints; each knee, a rigid where a kind of perpetual twilight reigns

.ball, Each ankle seem’da monstrous bunch of bone. and enlivening sounds are banished, and

in the foggy air. From hence all thrill It is scarcely possible to conceive a a dead silence eternally prevails, broken more striking image of a famished person. only by the soft murmurs of the waters The hard skin, hanging breasts, crate or

of Lethe. Around the entrance grow all basket work of the ribs and spine, and kinds of soporiferous herbs. The god joints apparently enlarged, are circum- himself lies fast alleep on an ebon couch itances drawn from the life, and repres of Iris, who is sent to him with a mef

raised high with down. On the approach sented with wonderful force. same time, the figure is merely natural. fage, with much ado he rouses himself. Here are no types or emblems, as, in- His painful reluctant efforts are very deed, none were wanted; for such a sub. happily exprefled in the following lines : ject could not fail of being its own in tarda Deus gravitate jacentes terpreter. The surrounding scenery is Vix oculos tollens, iterumque iterumque equally real.


Summaque percutiens nutanti pectora mento, Eft locus extremis Scythiæ glacialis in oris, Excullit tandem sibi se; cubitoque levatus Triste solum, fterilis, fine fruge, fine arbore Quid veniat -- scitatur. Met. xi, 616. tellus.

The god, his heavy eyes scarce lifting up, In icy Scythia's farthest bound, there lies

Once and again sunk down ; his nodding chin A fteril, gloomy, cornless, treeless tract.

Struck on his breast; at length himself he The fanciful or preternatural part of

Thook the fiction is the manner in which the Out of himself, and on his elbow rais'd, poet employs this phantom. He makes Inquir’d his cause of coming. her take the opportuuity of Erifiéthon's Ovid acts judiciously in making the lying atleep, to inspire him with her ber- subject of the request to such a power as felf; and the poor man awakes possessed ealy and brief as possible. It is only by a most intatiable hunger, which com

that he would send one of the dreams, pels him, first, according to the French which are represented as constantly flitphrase, manger for bien, to eat up his ting, like bats, about the cave of Sleep.


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