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453 Extract of a Letter from New South Shetland. 454 fish needs not the intelligence convey-climate, though cold, is remarkably ed by sight; the nostrils, which per- healthful. By the return of the vessels, haps also perform the office of ears, further accounts may be soon expectopen on the interior of the mouth, and ed, but for these we must wait. In give immediate notice, to enable it to the mean wbile, we proceed to lay besecure its prize, which its numerous fore our readers the following extract. teeth enable it to do in an effectual manner. Fishermen believe that it is
“ George, New-Plymouth, particularly fond of the different
Jan. 3d. 1821. species of Dog-fishes ; and it is cer- "When I left home, I did not think tain that they have been found in its an opportunity would offer, through stomach. The habits, by which the which I should be able to write you Long Angler is distinguished from its an account of New South Shetland ; congener, have not been ascertained. but more ships are here than we exPolperro.
pected to find, when we left England. A London cutter leaves this place tomorrow, whose captain has kindly
offered to forward this letter to LiverSOUTH SHETLAND.
pool. In the second volume of the Imperial “ After a short passage of ten Magazine, col. 674, and col. 755, we weeks, we arrived at the Falkland gave some account of this newly dis- Islands, and landed full of hopes that covered territory; of the manner in we should kill wild oxen in abunwhich it became known to our coun-dance; but in this we were much distrymen ; of its productions; and pro- appointed. During our stay, I was bable extent. In consequence of the constantly pursuing them, but they favourable reports which were then were so wild as not to allow any one circulated, eight vessels were fitted to come near them. We were thereout from Liverpool, and some from fore obliged to put up with about one other ports, to repair thither on the hundred and twenty wild geese, and whale or seal fisheries, as circum- one wild boar. In this excursion my stances might direct. Several months gun unfortunately burst into fifty have elapsed since their departure, pieces, but, as good luck and care but, from the vast distance of this would have it, I received no harm land, lying much to the south of Cape whatever. Owing to this misfortune, Hom, and the seas being but little I have been obliged to put up with a frequented by Europeans, no accounts ship's musket ever since. whatever, until very lately, have been " We left-the Falkland Islands on received from the adventurers.
the 25th of November, and made this A few days since several letters, detestable place on the 1st of Decemhowever, reached Liverpool, one of ber; detestable, I say, because I am which, written by an officer on board certain it was the last place that ever one of the vessels, to his sister, has God Almighty made. As we have just been put into our hands. From many specimens of the truth of this this letter we give the following ex- assertion, I will give you one, which tract, which we doubt not will prove will convince any person that would both interesting and entertaining to believe the truth. When I was walkmost of our readers. It may not be ing one day on a mountain, where improper just to premise, that from I am certain never a human creature other letters it appears, that no ves- was before, I saw the ribs and head tige of verdure has yet been discover- bones of a whale lying in the snow; as ed, which confirms the account origi- snow never quits this place, even now nally inserted by us, on the testimony at midsummer. I have not seen a of Mr. Herring, in col. 674 of the Im- star, or moon light, since we came perial Magazine, although different hither, nor do we know
the difference reports have been thrown into circu- between midday and midnight when lation. A rich bed of coals has, how it is cloudy weather. The sun is only ever, been discovered, which to future two hours out of twenty four, below navigators may be of essential service; the horizon. but this is the only mineral substance “On our first making land, I came yet presented to their view. From in a boat to look for a harbour among another letter, we have learnt, that the the rocks, for we have nothing else but
456 rocks; and in going off again' to the time that it has been in our posession. ship, as a thick fog came on, we lost Our Greek character, destroyed by the ourselves, and very nearly for ever; late fire, not having been yet replaced, for, getting among the breakers, the we are under the necessity of insertboat was, upset, rolled over three ing his Greek words in English letter. times, and dashed us against the rocks.
Editor. Our escape was so miraculous, that all the men in the boat, who were It is generally received among Chriseight besid myself, when we got on tians, that Repentance and Faith are shore, were so sensible of the danger gifts of God. But since man acts as they had escaped, that they fell on a moral agent in the exercise of retheir knees to return thanks to God pentance and faith, a distinction has for his kind mercy towards us; so been drawn between the graceand the you may judge how we were, when a act; the former being God's work, sailor thinks of his Maker. In this and the latter man's. disaster, I lost my boots, great coat, One party of Christians maintain, and nearly all my rough clothing, so that God is willing to bestow the that I am now purser-rigged.
grace upon all; and the reason which “But this is now all forgotten, and they assign for all not being made we are killing seals by thousands. The partakers of the gift, is man's obstiweather is as cold as you have it at nacy in not yielding to the operations Christmas. We are constantly wet, of God's spirit. This they receive as and overhead in blood and blubber. a truth veiled in mystery. Another The seals are not so plentiful as they party associate with the word gift were represented to be, before we something descriminative or restrictleft Liverpool, so we must put up with ive, as if only a few were intended to a moderate quantity. We have now be possessors of it. on board nine thousand skins, and I It is to be feared that these metaam still in hopes, that we shall pro- physical distinctions are so many cure about two thousand weekly. shackles laid upon the plain meaning You may judge from hence what of the word of God. Many are, like murder is committed merely for the Nicodemus, more anxious to know covering of the animal, for the grati- the mode, than implicitly to receive fication of our pride.
the truth of a fact. How Christ could “I could tell you a hundred things, have died for all, and yet all should but will reserve my stories till I can not be saved; how the influence of relate them when we meet again. God's spirit can operate, and yet But God knows when that will be, as man's freedom be preserved; and we expect to go to winter next year why man is exhorted to be faithful, in Russia.”
and yet he can have no merit in Another vessel, the Indian, of Liver- his perseverance ;-have appeared inpool, on the same station and employ- superable difficulties to many profesment, had from ten to twelve thousand sors of Christianity. skins on board, at the time the above Few persons, in searching the scripletter was written.
tures, keep in mind the essential difference that exists between the
idioms of the Hebrew and English ON REPENTANCE AND FAITH. languages. It ought to be recollected
that, although the New Testament is In the first volume of the Imperial written in Greek, yet the idiom is Magazine, col. 995, a question was in more allied to the Hebrew than to the serted respecting Faith; namely, Greek, and much more so than to any “Whether it ought to be considered modern language. Two prominent as wholly from God, or entirely from marks of Hebraism are seen in the man?” În Vol. II. col. 825, this ques- frequent use of Ellipsis and Metaphor. tion was examined by a correspon- As it regards the latter; we have fredept, but not so fully as to preclude quently cause for effect, adjunct for the following article, which, without its subject, quality for its object, deprofessing to furnish a direct reply to sign for execution, &c. and vice versa. the question, enters into its essence. We must therefore observe whether it The author has a right to demand is, the nature, cause, obligation, or from us an apology for the length of effect, of a thing, that is intended.
On Repentance and Faith.
I. The Scripture marks a distinc- | iii. 19. viii. 22. xvii. 30. xx. 20,21. For tion between that kind of repentance, obedience to all the gospel injunctions, which denotes sorrow terminating in is intended by God, and possible by remorse, or in a mere change of pur- man, pose, whether for better or worse, and The difficulty, however, may be that kind which ends in reformation solved upon the principle, that men's of conduct. See Dr. Campbell's Preli-actions, whether good or bad, when minary Dissertations. Scripture, how-spoken of in reference to God, are said ever, has no definition of repentance or to be done by him. Thus, the heart of faith.
of Pharaoh, and the hearts of the unTo preach repentance, sometimes believing Jews in the time of our Lord, means to state the duty of repentance; are said to be hardened by God, al(Matth. iii. 2. Mark vi. 12.) at other though the blame of hardening their times its necessity to salvation ;(Luke hearts is chargeable only on themxiii. 3.) and at other times God's good selves. Another very appropriate inness in accepting of repentance, (Luke stance we have in Deut. chap. xxix. 2, xxiv. 47.)
“ And that repentance 4.—“Ye have seen all that the LORD and remission of sins should be did before your eyes, in the land of preached in his name, among all na- Egypt, unto Pharaoh, and unto all his tions, beginning at Jerusalem.” The servants, and unto all his land; the following passage
synonymous ; great temptations which thine eyes "Him hath God exalted with his have seen, the signs, and those great right-hand to be a Prince and a Savi- miracles: yet the LORD hath not given our, for to give repentance to Israel, you an heart to perceive, and eyes to and forgiveness of sins,” Acts v. 31. see, and ears to hear, unto this day:”
Then hath God also to the yet their believing, or not believing, Gentiles granted repentance unto life," depended on their own choice, and chap. xi. 18. The subject of discus-their disobedience was charged upon sion was not the nature of repentance, themselves.-See Exod. xix. 4, 5. but the admission of the Gentiles to the Deut. i. 30, 32, and 39. same privileges with the Jews. See In the passage under consideration, chap. X. 45, 47. and xi. 1, 17. How-Paul seems to exhort Timothy to bear ever important the distinction is be- with a certain class of persons, as retween remorse and evangelical repent-pentance was probable. ance, it is evident, that this passage II. That faith is the gift of God, has is not a proof of it.
been believed, in consequence of what An objector, it is probable, is ready Paul says in his epistle to the Epheto produce a passage, which, in his sians, (ii. 8.) “ For by grace are ye estimation, contains an insuperable saved thro' faith, and that not of your
“If God peradventure will selves; it is the gift of God.”. There give them repentance to the acknow- is a considerable degree of obscurity ledging of the truth,” 2 Tim. ii. 25. in this translation of the passage, Here, it may be said, repentance is owing to the misplacing of the verb represented not only as a gift, as it to be. The passage would be much regards those who do repent, but as be- clearer thus : For by grace are ye ing arbitrarily withheld from those who saved through faith ; and that is not do not repent. There are two objec of yourselves, being the gift of God. tions to the latter position; and if it The proposition, By grace are ye fall, the former will also fall. First ; saved through faith ; means, either "God is not willing that any should the cause of our salvation,“ by grace ;) perish, but that all should come to or, the instrument of it,“ through faith.” repentance, 2 Peter iii. 9.; and, He The ninth verse determines which ; willeth that all men eome to the know- “Not of works, lest any man should ledge (or acknowledging) of the truth,” boast.” The subject is not, whether 1 Tim. ii. 4. Secondly, all
men are faith, but whether sulvation, is of grace commanded to repent, not merely as
or of works. Hence, that which the being under a natural obligation, but apostle affirms is not of ourselves,
consequence of repentance being but the gift of God, is not faith, but an appointed pre-requisite to our en salvation. It is evident, that from the joyment of the favour and salvation beginning to the end of the chapter, of God, freely and sincerely offered he shews, that
salvation to both Jews 10 sinners, Luke xiii. 3. Acts ii. 37. and Gentiles, is, without conformity No. 27,- VOL. III.
460 to the law of Moses, given of God's native case. The Septuagint translafree grace in Christ Jesus. Why then tion changes the verb from the active should the apostle, at the very seat of to the passive, voice.. Instead of sayhis subject, make a digression con- ing, "he counted it to him for righteouscerning faith ; applying to it, what an ness;" as in the Hebrew, and in our attentive reader would naturally ap- translation, Gen. xv. 6.; it has, “ ply to the subject itself.
was counted to him for righteousness." Another objection arises from the The pronoun it in the Hebrew, is in construction of the sentence. The the feminine gender, and is used in pronoun touto, that, is in the neuter that gender for the neuter, answering gender, and therefore it cannot refer to touto, in the Greek. This, there to pisteos, faith, which is in the femi- fore, is to the point in hand. nine gender. To this it may be repli- The next example which shall be ed, “ That there are some rare instan- adduced, is in Philemon, ver. 18. “If ces, in which an improper gender is he hath wronged thee, or oweth thee used.” These cases arise from too aught, put that on my account.” Here, close a translation from the Hebrew, the word that evidently refers to the especially in the Septuagint. In some wrong, expressed in the verb wronged, instances autē, feminine gender, is or the debt, in the verb oweth. It may used instead of touto, neuter gender, be objected, that ti (aliquid,) is the anin conformity to the Hebrew pro- (tecedent to touto, (that.) Ti, is here noun's being used in the feminine used adverbially, for Paul promises gender instead of the neuter, which not to repair what had been damaged, it wants. But this plea does not but to repay the loss which Philemon stand good in the present instance, might have sustained by the absence the phrase being the writer's own of Onesimus, or the debt, which might language. The plea of inadvertency have been contracted by him. Again, cannot be substantiated, for the most 1 Pet. ii. 8. “ And a stone of stumilliterate Grecian would have avoided bling, and a rock of offence, even to saying, pisteos kai touto, if he had in- them which stumble at the word, being tended pisteos as the antecedent to disobedient, whereunto (or, unto which) touto, seeing that they are separated also they were appointed;" which reonly by one word. What then, it may fers to proskoptousi, they stumble. The be asked, is the antecedent to touto? meaning of which is, that their stum, The verb este sesõsmenoi, ye are saved. bling at the word was the appointed There is a noun comprehended in the consequence of their disobedience, import of the verb; for, ye are saved, see ver. 7. Touto occurs in ver. 20, is synonymous with, ye have salvation and refers to the circumstance exSalvation is the noun to which touto pressed by doing well, suffering for it
, refers; and uniformly the pronoun and taking it patiently. Again, touto, in takes the peuter gender in such cases, ver. 21, refers to pakontes, they that whatever is the gender of the noun suffer. These examples are more in the abstract.
A few examples than sufficient. will set the subject entirely at rest. Another passage brought in proof
In Rom. iv. 3. Gal. iii. 6. & James of the position, that faith is the gift ii. 23. we have the following words :- of God, is in Philip. i. 29. “ For unto “ Abraham believed God, and it was you it is given, in the behalf of Christ
, accounted to him for righteousness. .”(not only to believe on him, but also) The word it, evidently refers to Abra- to suffer for his sake.”
It is evident, ham's act of faith, expressed by the from the 28th and 30th verses, that the verb believed. An idiomatical trans- subject of the Apostle's discourse is lation is, Abraham believed God, and not concerning the nature of faith, but his faith was accounted to him for concerning the state and privilege of righteousness. See Rom. iv. 5, 9. the Philippians, being denoted by sufThe pronoun it, is not expressed in the fering like him, in the cause of Christ
, original, being not necessary accord- and for his account. Faith is introing to the nature of the language ; but duced parenthetically; and the whole if the quotation had been made from means, that believers in Christ were the Hebrew instead of the Septuagint
, fore-appointed to be sufferers for him, the pronoun would have been ex- See Rom. viii. 17, 29.1 Thess. iii
. 3. pressed, because it would have been 1 Pet. ii. 21. in the accusative, instead of the nomi- that if we allow that faith is called
It may be remarked,
461 Examination of Remarks on Mutual Affection. 462 the gift of God, then sufferings are It may be objected, that the lookequally the gift of God. The verb it ing and mourning mentioned in Zechais given, is used here impersonally, riah, are of a gracious nature, for it is signifying a privilege, as in Matt. xiii. said, “ I will pour upon the house of 11. compared with ver. 17, and in David, and upon the inhabitants of John iii. 27.
Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and
supIII. Another question is, Whether plications. This proves too much, for repentance precedes, or 'follows faith? it proves that men are inclined to pray Were we to be guided by the order before the exercise of either faith or adhered to in scripture, we should repentance. Simon Magus was comfind that repentance precedes faith. manded to pray, not before, but after, See Mark i. 15. Acts xx. 21. There his repentance, Acts viii. 22. must, however, be faith in God, be- IV. It has been a subject of much fore there can be repentance towards dispute, whether a man can believe that him; but there must be repentance Christ is the Son of God, and yet contowards God, before there can be faith tinue unrenewed. Simon Magus betowards Jesus Christ. There must be lieved, and yet he was in the bond of conviction of our sin and misery, be- iniquity, Acts viii. 13, 23. It has also fore there can be trust in Christ for been agitated, whether any but a gedeliverance. There must also be sor- nuine believer ought to pray. Simon row and confession of sin, before there Magus was commanded to pray for can be remission of sins: Acts ii. 38. the forgiveness of his sins; Paul iii. 19. viii. 22. 1 John i. 19. But prayed, and was exhorted to pray, for remission of sins, or justification, im- the forgiveness of his sins, Acts ix. 11. mediately follows faith in Jesus Christ : and xxii. 16. Rom. iii. 22, 26, 28. and iv. 3. V. Faith in Christ, is a belief of the Therefore, repentance must precede testimony concerning him, and a relifaith.
ance on the promise of salvation through It is maintained by many, that evan- him. The former regards the assent gelical repentance is a godly sorrow, of the understanding; and the latter, the in consequence of a believing view of consent of the will. The former is the sufferings of Christ for sin. The effected by the force of evidence; and only passago brought in proof of this the latter, by the influence of the Holy opinion, is not from the New Testa- Spirit. ment, as might be expected, but from
Z. the Old Testament. " And they shall
Aberdeen, 8th Feb. 1820. look on me whom they have pierced, and they shall mourn for him, &c.” Zech, xii. 10. The looking is 'consi- Cursory Examination of T. R.'s Answer dered as answering to faith, and the
to a Query on Mutual Affection. mourning to repentance.
“ Nor think thou seest a wild disorder here: sage is a prophecy; and its fulfilment,
Through this illustrious chaos to the sight, in a primary sense, we find Acts ii.
Arrangement neat, and chastest order, reign.” 36, 37. “ Therefore, let all the house
YOUNG. of Israel know assuredly, that God
MR. EDITOR. hath made that same Jesus, whom ye SIR,-In the 26th number of your have crucified, both Lord and Christ. Magazine, col. 350, is inserted an Now, when they heard this, they were Answer, by T. R. to a Query, on the pricked in their heart, and said unto existence of Mutual Affection, between Peter, and to the rest of the apostles, individuals, in futurity. Men and brethren, what shall we do ?” To be as concise as possible, I beg Here, we have the fulfilment, without the reader to refer to T. R.'s absoeither repentance towards God, or faith lutely negative opinion, upon the towards our Lord Jesus Christ: for above Question. • Mutual affection, Peter says, in the following verse, and the kindred affinity of spirits, (he Repent;" and in the 41st verse it is says,) are mere relative modes of the
“ Then they that gladly re- human kind, in their finite state ; and ceived his word, (or believed in Jesus are consistent, only, with our confined Christ,) were baptized.”
views of time: consequently, they will Its fulfilment in another sense, (see cease to be, when the finite term shall Rev. i. 7.)
will not be adduced in fa- have expired, and the creature shall vour of the opinion opposed.
have entered on that which is infinite