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KING CARNIVAL LEADING HIS PROCESSION AT NICE, FRANCE

The great carnival at Nice, which annually attracts thousands of pleasure-seekers, has again been ushered in as of old.

Here we see H. R. H. King Carnival proceeding down the Avenue de la Victoire, acclaimed

by his subjects

International

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A NEW RESIDENTIAL TRACT IN THE CITY

OF SAN
FRANCISCO

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This tract, it is stated, is typical of many that

are now being laid out in San Francisco. These new residential sections are easily reached from the business center by means of the new Twin Peaks Tunnel, which is over two miles in length

Keystone

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NO

-ON-SUPPORT is a felony, under trial. Before that condition could arise, ing that the wife has made complaint

the law, in the District of Colum- however, a zealous officer of the city against him for non-support and in

bia, and is punishable by the Police Department, detailed to the Dis. viting him to appear at his office at criminal courts just as is arson, larceny, trict Attorney's office to prepare cases three o'clock on the following Thursday house-breaking, or any other misde. for presentation to the Grand Jury, hit afternoon to discuss the matter. It is meanor. Until recently actions by wives upon a method that in a quite unofficial usually arranged, without the knowlagainst their husbands for failure to application has proved to be expeditious, edge of the husband, that the wife shall support them and their children came much less expensive, and altogether be there at the same time. Each Thursunder the jurisdiction of the juvenile much more human in the disposition of day is a busyo day—there is always a and probation court. A recent construc- cases of matrimonial disagreements and well-filled anteroom. The husbands tion of the law, however, transferred consequent non-support. Thus it has usually appear, probably not infre them directly to the office of the United come about that George S. Weber, the quently because they think they must States District Attorney. The strictly officer in charge, with the co-operation appear. Each one has a good "sit-down" technical execution of the law in such of his brother detective Frank M. Helan, talk with the officers, and then, if he is cases is of long duration, is expensive, has, in effect, established and set in willing, the wife is brought in and they and is generally quite lacking in the operation, almost before he knew what

talk things over, with the result that application of any helpful human rela- he was really doing, a “domestic rela- the husband generally agrees to some tions. tions court."

form of support and very often family Washington, for its population, has in The procedure is a simple one. When differences are healed then and there, the course of a year a quite large per- an aggrieved wife appears at the office and the two go away together, happy centage of non-support cases-probably of the District Attorney to make com- and thankful for the agency that has not more than in other cities, but more plaint of a neglectful husband, she is brought them together. If the husband conspicuous because they are brought to referred to Mr. Weber, who, instead of does not appear, or if after the conferpublic attention. Possibly the number passing the case directly to the Grand ence he is obstinate and will not promise is due in part to its colored population Jury, first ascertains what support the to do his duty, his case goes to the and the number of small wage-earners wife thinks her husband might afford to Grand Jury the next day; generally he of the common labor type. It was ap- pay-it is amazing what small sums are is indicted, and, if unable to obtain bail, parent in October, when it became frequently agreed upon--and also what remanded at once to jail to await trial, necessary for the District Attorney to prospects there may be of a reconcilia- conviction, and sentence to a termin assume non-support cases, that the tion if the separated parties were prison. courts would soon become clogged and brought together. He then writes in an During the three months that this congested and the jail overfilled with unofficial way—that is, not by a formal unique "domestic relations court" has offenders under indictment awaiting summons process to the husband, say- been in existence the results have been

most gratifying. Out of three hundred and fifty cases Mr. Weber says that one Mundred families have been reunited, and that in those instances where reconciliation was not effected one hun. dred and eighty husbands have been induced to, and for the most part do, zive support to their families. Only thirty have been indicted and compelled to go through the slow, expensive, and

disheartening stages of trial, conviction, trict Government the large expenses that and imprisonment. By their zeal as offi- are ordinarily involved in the grinding cials of the state and their distinctly of court wheels. This has worked human interest in unfortunates these to the satisfaction of all concerned, and two men, through the court of their own none are happier in the results than the creation, have healed many marital two officers who originated the plan and wounds, maintained many wage-earners have carried it to a successful fruition as such rather than assisted in their and who' now have the satisfaction of withdrawal from labor and unproductive being peacemakers rather than law enconfinement in jails, and saved the Dis. forcers.

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ATTLES have been won and bat. You will feel a score of Jaels

A word of explanation concerning the tles have been lost because of In your temple driving nails!

relation which the mosquito bears to insect pests. Great enterprises You will wonder if you are shot

malaria, however, appears to be in order have failed because of the destruction

Through the liver-case or what!

before proceeding with the subject of

You will wonder if such heat wrought by disease-carrying and disease

Isn't Hades; and repeat!

fishes in relation to mosquito control. distributing insects. In our own coun

Then you'll sweat until, at length,

Malaria is caused by an organism which try vast areas of agricultural lands are

You - won't have

kitten's grows and multiplies in the red cells of little used and practically undeveloped

strength!

the human blood, and the only way because of the prevalence of an insect

these organisms can be carried from one borne disease, malaria! Cities and com

In about ten days from now

person to another is through the females

Make to health a parting bow:munities have grown and prospered re

of a certain group of mosquitoes belong

For you're going to have the fever, gardless of endemic yellow fever, which

Yellow eyes!

ing to the genus Anopheles. So far as is also an insect-borne disease, but this

known, the malaria parasite does not cannot be said of any place where

Public health officers who have had an live in any other mosquitoes. In the malaria seriously prevails. Malaria is opportunity to observe and study ma- stomach of the Anopheles it, however, a disease that works slowly but surely. laria are fully aware of the seriousness not only lives, but multiplies. Some of It is not the immediate cause of death of the disease, and they are making the new organisms then migrate from as often as a number of other diseases, great efforts to enlighten the public. the mosquito's stomach to its mouth, but in many instances it certainly is an The response has not always been of the and when it again bites' a person some important contributing factor, for ma- desired degree, mainly for two reasons: of the parasites are injected into the laria is a disease which debilitates. It

first, the disease is not one that tends blood as the mosquito sinks its proboscis saps the patient's strength as it makes to frighten man to action; second, to through the skin and into a blood vessel. its savage attacks from time to time, control ialaria requires funds. The In this way, and this way only, is maand thus the powers of resisting other

average man will not spend a dollar un- laria transmitted from one individual to diseases are broken down. Because the less he is sure that he will. receive a another. The theories that malaria is disease works slowly and by degrees, dollar in return. Some men require a caused by night air, bad air from ponds and because it is not the immediate dollar and a quarter or a dollar and a and swamps, from the drinking of bad cause of death frequently, there is half, and others wish to collect the in- water, from the eating of chinkapins or nothing spectacular about it. Conse

terest in advance. A dollar spent in watermelons after the first of October, quently it does not frighten the public anti-malaria work is a most excellent are mere trash. like smallpox, yellow fever, and typhoid, investment, but the burden of convinc- Conquering the mosquito pest by the and it does not receive the attention

ing the public of this fact falls upon the employment of top-feeding fish, while which it justly deserves. An attack of

shoulders of the public health officers, comparatively new in anti-malaria work, malaria is bad while it lasts, but it is

and this is not always an easy matter. nevertheless is a very old way of checksoon over and apparently forgotten until Fine examples illustrating the fact ing mosquito production, for it is na. the next brood of organisms is liberated

that malaria can be controlled by pre- ture's way. It has been known for many and fever again results. An attack of

venting mosquito production in large years that certain fish fed on wiggle. the disease is aptly described in the fol.

numbers are available. We need only to tails, or young mosquitoes, when placed lowing poem by the late Mr. Gilbert, a

refer to work done by the Federal Gov- in aquaria, water barrels, cisterns, etc., Panama Canal Zone poet, who, as is ernment on the Panama Canal Zone, and but their value in larger waters was evident, knew malaria from first-hand

to the cantonment zone work during variously overestimated or underestiexperience:

the recent war. The cost of this work, mated. There also was no definite in

however, was quite high, and therefore formation concerning the fish which You are going to have the fever,

much attention is now being devoted 10 were of most value. Within the last Yellow eyes!

finding more economical methods of se- four years much headway, however, has In about ten days from now

curing the same, or even better, results. been made in determining which species Iron bands will clamp your brow;

As these newer and cheaper methods are are the chief enemies of the immature Your tongue resemble curdled cream,

being developed the burden of the mosquito. (It of course must be underA rusty streak the center seam; Your mouth will taste

of untold health officers and the public is becom- stood that the young or immature mosthings,

ing lighter, and anti-malaria operations quito, larvæ and pupa, live in the With claws and horns and fins and no doubt will be greatly extended.

water.) Considerable information too wings;

One of the newer and cheaper methods has been gained concerning the manner Your head will weigh a ton or more,

of fighting mosquitoes and malaria con. of the employment of fish and the de. And forty,gales within it roar!

sists in the employment of top-feeding gree of control which may be expected

fish. It is the major purpose of this from their introduction into waters of In about ten days from now

article to convey information concerning various kinds. You will feebly wonder how

the fish used and the manner of their Most of the members of the top All your hones can break in twain And so quickly knit again!

employment for anti-mosquito work. minnow family appear to be natu:

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serves

as

an

tribution, occurring in at least some of
the waters in all malarious sections of
the South. Thus it has from the begin-
ning and continues to provide a measure
of mosquito control. In other words,
Gambusia has served as a check on ma-
laria from the beginning of civilization
in the South and the consequent intro-
duction of malaria. It is the firm belief
of the writer that several large and
prosperous cities in the South never
would have been built had it not been
for this enemy of the mosquito.

It is not claimed that fish in any lo-
cality have furnished complete mosquito
control. It is not nature's way to per-
mit one form of animal life to extermi.
nate another. Consequently, in many
waters barriers have been placed be-
tween the fish and the immature mos-
quito. These barriers may consist of
plant growths or of floating or anchored
débris, over which the wiggletails hover
out of sight and out of reach of the fishi.
Again, Gambusia has enemies, consisting

chiefly of larger predatory fishes, water A SECTION OF A POND SHOWING AN AREA OVERGROWN WITH "SILVER-LEAF GRASS,"

snakes, and birds, which may prevent it
WHICH FORMS GOOD PROTECTION FOR MOSQUITO LARVÆ AGAINST FISH

from becoming abundant enough to de-
stroy all the wiggletails which are ob-

tainable in the water. There also are enemies of the mosquito, but one species

intromittent organ for

waters in nearly every locality which occurring in the Southern States of this the conveyance of the male element are inaccessible to the fish through country has been found to be of espe- (sperms) from the male to the female, natural channels, and consequently have cially great value. This fish is the com- for, curiously enough, in Gambusia the not become populated with members of mon, insignificant-looking top minnow, eggs are fertilized and hatched within the finny tribe. It is here where man's also known in some localities as the the body of the female and the young help is needed. Plants and floatage pro"top-water minnow" or merely as "top- are born alive, in broods of a few to a viding protection for the immature moswaters,” in other localities as the “pot- hundred or so at a time, each female quito against fish may be removed or, bellied minnow." To science this little producing several broods of young dur- in some instances, chemically treated in fish is known as Gambusia affinis. Since ing one summer.

such a way as to render them worthless only a single species from the waters of The young when born are about one- as protectors of mosquito larvæ and the United States is recognized, it here- half inch in length. They are well- pupa. The enemies of Gambusia may after in this article will be referred to developed and fully formed fish, being either be removed from the water or de as Gambusia—a name which, etymologi. able to swim with ease and quite thor- stroyed, or sometimes places of refuge cally speaking, signifies “nothing,” of oughly able to take care of themselves. for the minnows may be provided. The no account, a joke or farce, meaning It is indeed very fortunate for the young waters which have not become populated that when you catch a Gambusia you fish that they come into the world so with top minnows through natural chancatch nothing. It, then, is evident that well prepared to lead an independent nels should be artificially stocked, and the naturalist who selected this name life, for they receive no parental care the use of Gambusia for bait must be failed to guess the importance which whatever. Even the mother at once be- discouraged. these little fish some day would assume. comes an enemy. In the aquarium, at A great reduction in mosquito produc

The female Gambusia is much larger least, the brutal parent often eats up her tion and a consequent decline in the than the male and much the mightier own young as rapidly as they are born. development of new cases of malaria sex, but even the giant females rarely The young fish grow rapidly, and some- will result if the suggestions offered in attain a length of 238 inches. The times they become sexually mature at the preceding paragraph are followed. males have a somewhat more slender the age of three months and themselves Gambusia, as already indicated, lives body, and rarely, if ever, exceed a length then begin producing offspring. Thus and multiplies under a wide range of of 112 inches. In the aquarium the two generations result during a single conditions. It lives in very stagnant cruel, ferocious female often pounces summer.

water and it endures more pollution upon the small male, making attack The fact that Gambusia brings forth than most other species of fish. It may after attack, each time inflicting a its young alive is of great advantage in be used in practically all standing wound or taking a mouthful of flesh, the utilization of this fish for anti- bodies of water, sluggish ditches, cis. which is devoured. The result of course malaria work, for the necessity for a terns, shallow wells, water barrels, etc. is that the male is killed and devoured special environment required by egg- Gambusia does not live in rivers and to the extent of the feeding capacity of laying species for depositing and hatch- creeks with strong currents, in which the female.

ing the eggs is not necessary, as the mosquitoes of course do not breed. Its The color in both sexes is a modest young are born while the adults move natural habitat is in the quiet waters. gray, but the male may be distinguished about in the water. Reproduction takes in which it frequents the very quiet. from the female by the shape of the anal place almost anywhere, even in the shallow arms and bays, and it seeks and fin, the fin on the median line of the aquarium. This enables the anti-malaria acquires its food at the surface, where body situated just behind the vent. In worker to use this fish in many kinds of the immature mosquito spends much of the female this fin is normally de- waters, the introduction of a brood stock its life and where it must come for air. veloped, consisting of rays connected by only being necessary, as the offsprin! The common names "top minnows" and membrane, but in the male the rays are usually soon abundantly populate the **top-waters” no doubt originated from united and prolonged, and the fin forms water.

the fact that this fish so often is seen a long spear-shaped prong. This prong Gambusia furthermore is of wide dis- swimming at the surface of the water. It

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