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Half-yearly Retrospect of British Literature. under different heads, which for splendid troductory to a work, intended to be pubengravings or typographical beauties, lished in numbers, which is to contain might very properly have been ranked in coloured sketches of flowers. Mr. IREthe present division, among these are Mr. LAND'S Picturesque Views on the River MASSON’s Stapelia nova, Mr. Rash. Wye, from its source at Plinlimmon Hill to its LEIGH's “ Specimens of Mineralogy” Mr. junction with the Severn, below Chepsiow,FREEMAN'S Specimens of British Plants," by: no means difcredit the reputation Mr. Lyon’s“ Antiquities at Woodchester," which he has already acquired as Mr. DALLAWAY'S Conftantinople," draughtsman. Dr. SMITH's publication of Mr. AB EASTERN LITERATURE, Bor's Lepidopterous InfeEts," &c. &c. MajorOUSELEY’S"Oriental Collections," &c. The works of unconnected art are few. which was mentioned in our last retrospect Mr.JOHNCHAMBERLAINE, keeper of the as an incipient work, we are sorry to unking's drawings and medals, (whose ele- derstand, is given up for want of patrogant engravings from the Caracci, we nage! the circumstance is to be doubly mentioned in our last retrospect) has pub- regretted, as the last six months have af. lished ten numbers of “ Imitations of origi- forded but one folitary publication on the nal Drawings, by Hans Holbein," in the subject of oriental letters! This is a small collection of his majesty. These drawings tract in two parts, by the author of of Holbein, are the portraits of some of Indian Antiquities,” entitled “ Sanscrit the chief personages of the court of Henry Fragments,&c. In the first part, Mr. the eighth; they were found in a bureau MAURICE vindicates himself from the at Kenlington; how they came there is censure, that his Indian history and Anunknown, for it is mentioned in Horace tiquities are written under the influence Walpole's " Anecdotes of Paintings," that of a particular fyftem : this system, he they had been sold into France, and passed obferves, is the Christian Religion, through a variety of hands. These system founded on the basis of incontrodrawings are eighty nine in number, and vertible fact, and supported by concurrent are held in very high estimation; they testimonies.” In this tract, he concludes have little more than outlines, are drawn his arguments relative to the Hindoo rewith chalk upon paper stained of a flesh cords, which in some points have been fup-, colour, and are Icarcely fhaded. The posed to militate against the Mofaic acheads of Sir Thomas More, Bishop Fisher, counts : “ with respect to the Hindoos, Sir Thomas Wyat, and Broke Lord says Mr. M. “as it does by no means Cobham, are regarded as matter pieces. appear to me, that they ever were acMr. CHAMBERLAINE's magnificent un- quainted with the Mosaic writings, they dertaking is to be completed in two could not possibly have obtained the numbers more: the engravings are execut- knowledge of the great events described ed by that very eminent artist BARTO. in their allegorical legends, but through Lozzi, as are those of the following the medium of traditions, preserved with work, published also by Mr. CHAMBER- more or less accuracy in the principal LAINE, namely" Imitations of original branches of the first great family after the Designs, by Leonardo de Vinci." A more deluge. To suppote, that Moses derived acceptable present can scarcely be offered his information from the Indian book, to the public, than a collection of imita through an Egyptian channel, as has tions from that wonderful master: the been loudly and repeatedly asserted by our curious and valuable volume of the ori- sceptical opponents, is the quintessence of ginals-of thirteen, the only cne in this abfurdity." The second part is drawn kingdom-was discovered foon after his from the same materials, with general present majesty's accession, in the fame VALLANCEY's publication, (which we cabinet wherein queen Caroline found the have already noticed under the departportraits by Holbein. The subjects of ment of History) and contains the nathese drawings, one number only of which tice of a Bramin colony in the British has yet appeared, are miscellaneous; such ilands. as portraits, single figures, tilting, horses, MATHEMATICS AND ASTRONOMY. &c. botany, perspective, gunnery, optics, An English translation has appeared hydraulics, mechanics, and very accu- in two octavo volumes, of the celebrated rate delineations, with a moft fpirited pen Leonard Euler's " Elements of Algebra;" of a variety of anatomical subjects. An one of the most explicit treatises on the fuha i useful little tract has been published en- . ject extant. This work is enriched with titled “ A new Treatise on Flower Paint- the critical and historical notes of M. ing,"containing, with other matter, direc: BERNOULLI, and with elaborate additions sions bow to mix various tints; it is in- by M. DE LA GRANGE. Like Colin Mac


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498 Half-yearly Retrospect of British Literature. laurin, Euler was totally blind at the charge of the archers under the Duke time he composed this work, one of the of York overthrew 2.400 men at arms at: last of his labours; it was written down the oniet of the battle, lo conquering a by the fervant to whom he dictated it. weapon was the bow, that the enemy The fimplicity, and the luminous arrange- could scarcely either fight or fiy; so that ment of thele elements, render them of berides the carnage, the English have incalculable utility to junior algebraic taken prisoners, as at Poitiers, double the ftudents. The application of female ta- number of their whole ariny*:' lents to literary inquiries, has been hy Elements and Froctice of rigging and far more general in our own times than in seamanhip, illustrated with Engravings,". any former period; but even in our is a work of great merit and utility. own times, there have been but few The anonymous author gives many judiLadies, whose attention has been devoted cious instructions to the ihip builder, the 10 the’abstruser sciences. Mrs. MARGA- rigger, and the failor; be has divided his RET BRYAN, of Margate, however, whole work into several heads, under each of honourable occupation is that of a school which is given a vocabulary of terms emmistress, has published " A compendicus ployed in that particular branch. Mr. System of Afiroromy, in a course of Fomiliar GAMBLE's" Esays on the different Modes Lectures," in order to facilitate the study of Communication by Signals,” is an interof that sublime science, and render it in- esting publication: it is accompanied teresting to young persons: the seems to with neat and well executed plates, and be well acquainted with her subject, and contains a clear and intelligible. history is very successful in her mode of commu- of the progressive improvements in this art, nication. It is an additional, and very from the first account of beacons to the most strong recommendation of this work, that approved methods of telegraphic correspondits various digressions, arising, indeed, ence.” naturally from the subject, have a moral Let us turn our attention to the peacei and religious tendency; they contain ful arts of many beautiful and elevated sentiments, AGRICULTURE AND HUSBANDRY. and continually lead the mind from con The bcard proceeds in collecting a vast templating the works of nature, to a con- mass of information on the present itate templation of their omnipotent and per- of agriculture in this kingdom, by em-> fectly benevolent Creator. It is much to ploying gentlemen of respectable talents be wilhed, that Mrs. B. could afford a in surveys of the different counties: Mr. cheaper edition of this useful work; the BILLINGSLEY has drawn up, for the present is seven-and-twenty fhillings. consideration of the board, his “General

It is not surprising, that at a period of View of the County of Somerset, with Obsuch terrible and extended warfare as the servations on the Means of its Improvepresent, some few works thould have ap. "ment." Mr. B. has performed his talk peared on the destructive science of with great induitry and ability; it is, on TACTICS.

the whole, one of the inost judicious and RICHARD OSWALD MASON, Efq. has scientific reports that have come under. published a pamphlet entitled “ Pro aris our observation. All the surveys are et Focis ;” the object of it is, to recom- drawn up in conformity to one single momend the revival of the long bow and the del, by which means, when they are compike in military operations. It must be ac- pleted, an abstract of the whole can more knowledged, that Mr. Mason has offered easily be made: this abstract, which it is some powerful reasons for his recommen- expected will not exceed two or three dation: the success of all our ancient quarto volumes, is to be laid before his. atchievements on the continent of France, inajesty and both houses of parliament; is attributed to the use of the long bow, after which, a general report is to be which, as for a nation, we are admirably made on the present state of the country, fitted, on account of our size and muscu- and on the best means for its improvelar strength. The comparative inefficacy ment. It is ardently to be hoped, that. of modern musquetry, and its consequent the new president will exert himself with expence, may be judged of, says our more persevering zeal tha

formerauthor, by a statement of Marshal 'Count who is, notwithstanding, on many acSaxe, in his Memoirs, that on a computa- counts, entitled to the greatest praise tion of the balls used in a day's action, not in the cause a general enclosure: to which one of upwards of eighty five took place. At the battle of Tournay, in 1794, Mr. M. fupposes that 128 balls disabled only

* See page 324 of this volume of the one object! “At Agincourt, one dif. Monthly Magazine.


Half-yearly Retrespect of British Literature. 499 thould be added, as objects of scarcely in. Mr. KNIGHT's hypothesis. Mr. K. l'eferior importance, the anrihilation of lates fcme curious experiments, illustrate tythes and entails. The firit volume has ing the effects of impregnating blossoins appeared of Communications to the with a foreign farina, the proper antheBoard of Agriculiure, en Sicijedits relative ræ having been destroyed before their mato the Husbandry and internal Improvement turity; iome beautiful varieties were proof the Country;

as to the contents of this duced by this adulterous connection. volume, no imali share of it is employed The present treatise, diffidently offered in the narrative of Sir JOHN SINCLAIR’s as an initiatory essay, is an elegant and political life, writien by himieli. A map scientific performance. of his travels through Europe accompa

Dr. PALLAS'S vs Account of the differ. nies this biography, and an abstract' is ent kinds of Sheep found in the Russian Doadded, which informs us, that the whole minions and among the Tartar Hordes of of his journey amounted to 7500 miles; Ajia,” has been translated by Dr. An. which were completed in about leven DERSON: the work is illustrated with fix months and a half: and contequentiy, plates, and five appendixes are added by that he must have travelled at the rate of Dr. A. tending to illustrate the natural thirty-three miles a day!!! Sir JOHN and æconomical history of Theep and other has a very high opine of the agricul- domefic animals. The first appendix re-, ture of Great Britain; he conceives, in- fers to limits between species and va. deed, that were all the information which rieties; the fecond treats on the effects of we possess on the subject, to be collectid climate, in aitering the wool of theep and fyftematized, it would approach very the third respects the changes produced neariy to perfection. Many of the commu on animals by food and management; the nications contained in this vclume, afford fourth contains an account of the fur. very useful hints on a variety of subjects. bearing animals; and the filth ofers many Lord WINCHELSEA, of whcin, cn one judicious and useful directions for choosing account, we have already made honour- sheep. Șir John ANSTRUTHER'S “ Reable mention, has an excellent paper in merks, Drill Hikardry," have inany this volume, on cottages: the same pa- of them becn published in the “ Bath Sotriotiini, which we before remarked, shines ciety Papírs." conspicuoutly on the prefent occation.' The eighth volume has lately appeared,

Under this head we have had but few of the Bath Society Papers," which, werks to notice: Mr. SIMON FRASER like all the others, contains a great va- has published a new edition (the sixth) of riety of articles, and, of course, articles Burn's Ecclefiaftical Law," and has of very unequal merit. Mr. Knight, a enriched it with many valuable notes, and genileman of acute obfervation and culti. with the insertion of many modern deci. vated taste, has published co' A Trsatise on fions; instead of contenting himself with the Culture of the Apple and Pear, and on barren references, he has undergone the tbe Man:ufacture of Cyder on1 Perry;” Mr. labour of making abstracts of cases, and KNIGHT forms a disputable, though in- has illustrated the points of coincidence genious hypothesis, namely, that fruit and opposition to the subject in debate. trees gradually degenerate by age beyond In Mr. Oan's Esay on the Law of a certain period, and finally lose their Ufury,” is contained a brief history of principal discriminative qualities: and the liws which relate to it; he points out that this degeneration affe&ts not merely what contracts come under the denomithe parent tree, but extends to all plants, nation of usuries, and how far usury afe which, by whatever means, have been pro- fects the validity of the contract : Mr. pagated from it. He argues on the idea, PLOWDEN'S more copious work on this that all plants of this fpecies, however subject, was mentioned in our last retropropagated from the same stock, “ par. spect. Mr. Gwillim's edition of Ba. take in some degree of the same life, and con's Abridgement of the Law, corwill attend it in the habits of their youth, retted, with coniiderable Additions, including their maturity, and decay; though they the latest Authorities,” is executed with will not be any way affected by any in- great fidelity and judgment. Mr. P. B. cidental injuries which the parent tree Cross's View of the Practical Benefits may sustain after they are detached from of the Laws and Constitution of England," it. The successful experiments of Mr. is rather an historical tract, in which the FORSYTH, in the garden at Kensington, measures which the legislature has adopted on the recovery of diseased and aged trees, at various times for the security of our seem to militate against the folidity of life, liberty, and property, are enumera


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Half-yearly Retrospect of British Literature. ated. It is but justice to add, that Mr. both to a creditor and debtor, are stated Cross is highly delighted with his own with fairness and precision. performance. Little, if any thing, is to MEDICINE, PHYSIOLOGY, ANATOMY, be found in Mr. HUTCHESon's i Treatife on Excise and Qui tam Information, as Dr. CURRIE’s - Medical Reports on the they relate to Summary Froceedings before Effects of Water, cold or warm, as a ReJupices of the Peace,” which may not be 'medy in Fover and febrile Diseases," &c. found in Burn; the index to all the excise is a work of uncommon inportance; acts of parliament, is correctly and ably that its usefulness, may be extended as executed. Mr. CHARLES WATKINS, al- widely as possible, the Dr. has fet the ready known to the public by one or two most excellent example of avoiding all professional publications, bas written “ A unnecessary technical phraseology. Why i Treatise on Copybolds." A subject of more must science be shrouded in a pompous difficult elucidation could scarcely have hieroglyphic language, unintelligible to been selected; Mr. WATKINS, however, the profanum vulgus, who always confti. has been extremely succetsful, fo far as he tute the mass of mankind ? has already proceeded: the first volume better, perhaps," says Dr.CURRIE," that only has yet been published; another will medicine, like all other branches of na. complete the work. Mr. ANSTRUTHER tural knowledge, were brought from its has published the third, and, fo far as hiding place, and exhibited in the fimhimself is concerned, concluding volunie plicity of science and the nakedness of of his “ Reports of Cafes argued and deter. truth. The defolating fever of the West mined in the Court of Exchequer, from Mich. Indies has hitherto found no adequate

Term 36 Geo. III. to Trinity Term 37 antagonist from among all the powers of Geo. III. both inclusive;" we have reason medicine : the effects of mercury have to believe, that this useful work will be been occasionally flattering; and as the continued by some other hand. Two nitric acid, in cales of lues and hepatitis, gentlemen, Mr. BOSANQUET, of Lin. las often been found a successful iubiticoln's Inn, and Mr. Puller, of the tute, Dr. C. suggested to several pracInner Temple, have published “Reforts titioners, the application of it in cales of of Cases,” &c. in the courts of Common fever. But ablution with cold water has Pleas and Exchequer Chambers, in Easter been so long, and to beneficially employ. and Trinity terms, 37 Geo. III. 1797. ed in typhus (the low contagious fever), This specimen is favourable to their in- both at the hcípital in Liverpool and in dustry and talents. Mr. MARRIOT'S private practice, among physicians in that « New Law Dictionary,” is undoubtedly part of the kingdom particularly, that a useful work, and may be consulted with Dr. C. who is “exposed, by situation, to .advantage by magistrates as well as pro- the reiterated sounds of death from the felfed lawyers; when Mr. M. states that western world,” determined to publish an his dictionary comprehends a general account of this successful mode of treatabridgement of the law, on a more exten- ment, hoping to introduce an additional five plan than has hitherto been attempts power to oppose the tremendous pestied, he exceeds the bounds both of ino- lence of a West India fever. Dr. C. desty and truth. Mr. SMEE's “ Complete has preserved a register of a hundred and Collection of Abstracts of Acts of Parliament, fifty-three cafes-be confidered that more and Cases, with Opinions of the Judges," would be fuperfluous --- where the cure on a variety of taxes, is a book of very was chiefly conded to the affufion of convenient and useful reference: the ab- cold, water. Freih water was first em. fracts appear to be made with judgment ployed; but a saturated solution of seaand with accuracy. It is stated in the salt in water was preferred, and afteradvertisement to a pamphlet, intitled wards adopted : in the firit place, be" Confiderations on the Advantages and cause falt-water stimulates the cutaneous Disadvantages attending Commilions of vessels, by which means the debilitating Bankruptcy,"". &c. that the profits of the action of cold is probably prevented; work is are intended to be given to that and, secondly, because either for the purhumane institution, the Society for the Re. pose of immersion or affufion, salt-water hief of Persons imprisoned for Small Debis:" is considerably more grateful to the pawith fo laudable an object on the part of tient than fresh. We would gladly enter the author, we hope the work will felt. at large into the partic»lar merits of this Its contents are not of a nature to infure performance, which, i: point of execution á very extended circulation; the legal and utility, merits the highest commenponsequences of a commission, however, dation; but to analyze is no part of our


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Half-yearly Retrospect of British Literature.

501 plan. It will not be thought imperti. work is, that curious disorder of respiranent, however, to state the manner in tión called convulfive afthma, in which which the effufion of cold water ought to " the muscles are contracted with more be used in fever : one exacerbatioit, and one energy and violence than in any other ; remiflion of fever, are usually observable but the contractions do not obey any in the space of twenty-four hours ; the law, nor assume any form which is not most advantageous time for affufion is, common to the extraordinary action of the when the exacerbation is at its height, or fame iuicles in milder instances of dyspimmediately after its declination is begun; noea.”. The cure of asthma, according this is usually in the evening; but the af to Dr. Bref, is to be attempted in the fufion may be used at any time of the intermissious; he does not undertake to day, when there is no sense of chillings pre- conquer the paroxysin at its accession, fent; when the heat of the surface is stea- unless it belong to the species which dealily above what is natural; and when pends on habit. As a means of relief, there is ng general or profuse perspiration. he recommends, generally, nauseating An aspersion of cold water during the doses of Ipecacuanha, faline, and bitter cold stage of the paroxysm of fever may medicines; vinegar and chalk, and exbe fatal : its immediate effects are a pectorants, not oily; antispalinodics are suspended respiration, together with a found useless, except when the contrace pulle, fluttering, feeble, and incalculably tions depend on habit, which furnithes quick : it should never be resorted to, additional weight to the argument against therefore, even though the thermometer, spalinodic conitriction of the bronchia. when applied to the body, should indicate The information to be derived from this unusual heat, if the patient feels a chilli- work is very considerable. If in all renefs pervade him ; nor can it be used with spects it is not satisfactory, we must acsafety, though the patient feels no chilli- knowledge the novelty of the arrangeness, if the heat of the body, measured by ment, and the difficulty of the subject a thermometer, only equals the natural heat: which has never before had due atand, lastly, the use of it is dangerous tention paid to its importance.. 'A when the body is under profuse perfpi.' tranfiation has appeared from the Ger. ration, even though its heat, at the mo man of Dr. HUFELAND on “ The Art of ment of application, be greater than the preserving Life.” Dr. H. makes the folnatural heat ; for perspiration is of itself lowing judicious distin iion in his prea cooling process. Under these restric- face : "the object of the medical art, is tions the affution of cold water may be health ; that of the macrobiotic, long life. used at any period of fever, and is reme The means employed in the medical are dial in a great variety of febrile difor- regulated according to the present state ders; in all cafes, however, its effects of the body and its variations ; thofe of will be more falutary as it is used more the macrobiotic by general principles.” early. The fame general rules may be This ingenious work is evidently intendadopted for the use of cold water in fever, ed rather for the public at large, than for as a drink, with those for external appli- the profession in particular: the author cation. This interesting work of Dr. c. considers the nature of life in an organizis written with great perspicuity, ele- ed being; what is its efsence, and what gance, and simplicity. In terms of com are its wants; he endeavours to discover mendation we would also notice Dr. under what circumstances the proceis can BREE'S “ Practical Inquiry on disordered be hastened and shortened; or retardeel and Respiration.In this inquiry is exhi. prolonged. Dr. H. suppoles that the bited a comprehensive view of the nu- duration of life, will, cæteris paribus, be merous incidental circumstances which proportionate, 1. to the innate quantity may injurioully affect respiration, and of vital power ; 2. to the greater or less cafés of asthma are included under a ges' firmness of its organs ; 3. to the speedier neral proposition of extensive applica- or lower consumption; and, 4. to the tion to diseases of the lungs : " that cer- perfect or imperfect restoration, On each tain inordinate contractions of the re- of these grounds several important conspiratory muscles indicate the presence of clusions are deduced, and rules laid down a matter offending the pulmonary organs, for the attainment of a healthful longeeither by its oppressive bulk, or acrid vity. This work, though not containing quality, or both." The author proposes much novelty of remark, is well' worth this as the most important object of in- perusal. The fame obfervation is appliquiry; and a great part of his elaborate cable to Dr. BEDDOES' Lectures, introwork is dedicated to the support of this du&tory to a Course of popular Instruction on pofitione One principal subject of the the Conftitution and Management of the Hur


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