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And, in conclusion3,

Nonsuits my mediators; "For certes," says he,

"I have already chose my officer." And what was he? Forsooth, a great arithmetician,

One Michael Cassio, a Florentine,

A fellow almost damn'd in a fair wife1;
That never set a squadron in the field,

Nor the division of a battle knows

More than a spinster; unless the bookish theoric,
Wherein the toged consuls can propose


As masterly as he mere prattle, without practice,
Is all his soldiership. But he, sir, had th' election;
And I, of whom his eyes had seen the proof,
At Rhodes, at Cyprus, and on other grounds,
Christian and heathen,-must be be-lee'd and calm'd
By debitor and creditor, this counter-caster:
He, in good time, must his lieutenant be,

And I, (God bless the mark!) his Moor-ship's ancient".
Rod. By heaven, I rather would have been his hang-


3 And, in conclusion,] These words, which no doubt were Shakespeare's, are omitted in the folio, 1623. We regulate the lines as in the quarto, 1622: the quarto, 1630, is like the folio in this respect.

4 A fellow almost damn'd in a fair wife;] It appears by a subsequent part of the play (A. iv. sc. 1) that the belief was that Cassio was about to be married to Bianca. This line has occasioned a good deal of controversy, and various conjectures have been hazarded. Tyrwhitt would read life for "wife;" and Mr. Petrie of Edinburgh suggests to me, that "wife" may have been misprinted for guise, which, I must own, is not a very probable conjecture. The text is most likely right.


unless the bookish THEORIC,

Wherein the TOGED consuls-] "Theoric" is the same as theory, and the word was not uncommonly so used. The folio misprints " toged" of the quarto, 1622, tongued, as in "Coriolanus," Vol. vi. p. 190, it had misprinted "toga," tongue. "Toged," of course, refers to the toga, or robe, which the consuls, or councillors, of Venice wore.

6 CHRISTIAN and heathen,] So the quarto, 1622: the folio, Christen'd, in which error it is followed by the quarto, 1630. Both the latter are as evidently right in reading "be be-lee'd," instead of "be led."

7 And I, (God bless the mark !) his MOOR-SHIP's ancient.] The Master of the Revels having perhaps objected to the exclamation, "God bless the mark !" the line was left imperfect in the folio, where it stands. "And I (bless the mark) has Moorship's ancient." The quarto, 1630, interpolated "Sir," to complete the The quarto, 1622, has “ (God bless the mark !)" but misprints Moor-ship's," Worship's.


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Iago. But there's no remedy: 'tis the curse of ser


Preferment goes by letter, and affection,

Not by the old gradation, where each second

Stood heir t' the first.

Whether I in any just term am affin'd'

To love the Moor.


Now, sir, be judge yourself,

I would not follow him, then.

Iago. O, sir! content you;

I follow him to serve my turn upon him:
We cannot all be masters, nor all masters
Cannot be truly follow'd. You shall mark

Many a duteous and knee-crooking knave,
That, doting on his own obsequious bondage,
Wears out his time, much like his master's ass,

For nought but provender; and when he's old, cashier'd:
Whip me such honest knaves. Others there are,
Who, trimm'd in forms and visages of duty,
Keep yet their hearts attending on themselves,
And, throwing but shows of service on their lords,
Do well thrive by them; and when they have lin'd
their coats,

Do themselves homage: these fellows have some soul;
And such a one do I profess myself.

For, sir,

It is as sure as you are Roderigo,

Were I the Moor, I would not be Iago:

In following him, I follow but myself;
Heaven is my judge, not I for love and duty,
But seeming so, for my peculiar end:

For when my outward action doth demonstrate
The native act and figure of my heart

In compliment extern, 'tis not long after

Not by the old gradation,] This is the reading of the quartos, 1622 and 1630: "And not by old gradation," are the words of the folio.

9 - am AFFIN'D] The quarto, 1622, has assign'd. For "affin'd," (the reading of the folio, and of the quarto, 1630) see Vol. vi. p. 28.

But I will wear my heart upon my sleeve

For daws to peck at': I am not what I am.

Rod. What a full fortune' does the thick-lips owe, If he can carry't thus !


Call up her father;

Rouse him make after him, poison his delight,
Proclaim him in the streets: incense her kinsmen;
And though he in a fertile climate dwell,

Plague him with flies: though that his joy be joy,
Yet throw such changes of vexation on't,
As it may lose some colour.

Rod. Here is her father's house: I'll call aloud.

Iago. Do; with like timorous accent, and dire yell, As when, by night and negligence, the fire

Is spied in populous cities.

Rod. What ho! Brabantio! signior Brabantio, ho! Iago. Awake! what, ho! Brabantio! thieves! thieves! thieves !

Look to your house, your daughter, and your bags!
Thieves thieves!

Enter BRABANTIO, above, at a Window.

Bra. What is the reason of this terrible summons? What is the matter there?

Rod. Signior, is all your family within?

Iago. Are your doors lock'd1?


Why? wherefore ask you this? Iago. 'Zounds, sir! you are robb'd; for shame, put

on your gown;

1 For DAWS to peck at :] So the folio: the quarto, doves: the quarto, 1630, like the folio, has "daws.”

2 What a FULL fortune-] The folio misprints "full," fall; but both the quartos read "full," and in "Cymbeline" we have the expression "full fortune," and in "Antony and Cleopatra ""full fortun'd."

3 Yet throw such CHANGES ] The folio has chances: the quartos, 1622 and 1630, 66 changes," which in all probability is the true reading.

4 Are your doors lock'd?] The quarto, 1630, is like the folio here: the quarto, 1622, reads, "Are all doore lockts?" and not, as Steevens states, "Are all doors lock'd?"

your soul:

Your heart is burst, you have lost half
Even now, now, very now, an old black ram
Is tupping your white ewe. Arise, arise!
Awake the snorting citizens with the bell,
Or else the devil will make a grandsire of you.
Arise, I say.


What! have you lost your wits?

Rod. Most reverend signior, do you know my voice? Bra. Not I: what are you ?

Rod. My name is Roderigo.


The worse welcome":

I have charg'd thee not to haunt about my doors.
In honest plainness thou hast heard me say,

My daughter is not for thee; and now, in madness,
Being full of supper and distempering draughts,
Upon malicious bravery dost thou come

To start my quiet.

Rod. Sir, sir, sir,


But thou must needs be sure,

My spirit, and my place, have in them power

To make this bitter to thee.


Patience, good sir.

Bra. What tell'st thou me of robbing? this is


My house is not a grange.

Most grave


of those, that will

Because we come are ruffians, you'll

Rod. In simple and pure soul I come to you. Iago. 'Zounds, sir! you are one not serve God, if the devil bid you. to do you service, and you think we have your daughter covered with a Barbary horse: you'll have your nephews neigh to you; you'll have coursers for cousins, and gennets for germans.

Bra. What profane wretch art thou?

5 The WORSE welcome :] In the folio only, " The worser welcome." Upon malicious BRAVERY] So the quartos, 1622 and 1630: the folio has knavery. In Brabantio's next speech, the folio has spirits for "spirit."

Iago. I am one, sir, that comes to tell you, your daughter and the Moor are now making the beast with two backs.

Bra. Thou art a villain.


You are- -a senator.

Bra. This thou shalt answer: I know thee, Ro


Rod. Sir, I will answer any thing. But I beseech you, If 't be your pleasure', and most wise consent,

(As partly, I find, it is) that your fair daughter,
At this odd-even and dull watch o' the night,
Transported with no worse nor better guard,
But with a knave of common hire, a gondolier,
To the gross clasps of a lascivious Moor,
If this be known to you, and your allowance,
We then have done you bold and saucy wrongs;
But if you know not this, my manners tell me,
We have your wrong rebuke. Do not believe,
That from the sense of all civility,

I thus would play and trifle with your reverence:
Your daughter, if you have not given her leave,
I say again, hath made a gross revolt,

Tying her duty, beauty, wit, and fortunes,

In an extravagant and wheeling stranger,

Of here and every where. Straight satisfy yourself:
If she be in her chamber, or your house,

Let loose on me the justice of the state
For thus deluding you3.


Strike on the tinder, ho!

Give me a taper!-call up all my people!—

This accident is not unlike my dream;

Belief of it oppresses me already.-
Light, I say! light!

[Exit from above.

7 If't be your pleasure,] The portion of Roderigo's speech, from these words inclusive, down to "straight satisfy yourself," is not in the quarto, 1622, but it is in the folio, and in the quarto, 1630.

8 For thus deluding you.] We follow the folio, and the quarto, 1630: the quarto, 1622, has "For this delusion."

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