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lications that touch on religion or public instruction, and the voltigeurs of Pichinca and Caracas general in order to prevent any from being published that Lamar had the command of the left, with the battahave not received the sanction of the synod.
lions of Peru, and legions Nos. 1, 2 and 3. The diviTurkey and Greece. It appears that the Sultan has sion of gen Lara was in reserve. resolved on a fifth campaign-a firman has been The two armies, although unequal in strength, wero issued in consequence. He is said to be much alarmed ardently desirous to fight. The number of the enefor the safety of his person.
my consisted of about ten thousand, and that of ours The Turks yet hold Patras; but its blockade by the five thousand eight hundred. Greeks is respected by the British. It was closely in The battalions of the second division of Colombia vested, and it was thought that, with Coron and Mo- marched, with supported arms, with an intrepidity that don, it could not hold out much longer, It is said had few examples. They had scarcely commenced that Ibrahim Pacha has been defeated in a grand their fire when the Spaniards began to loose ground, nayal battle off Candia, in which he lost fifty ves- and confusion instantly became apparent among them sels; but no farther particulars are given. The
The division of Peru, having met with a more vigorGreek elections had been made in a quiet and orderly ous resistance at the enemy's vangurd, under gen, manner, and the government appears as well con- Valdez, was re-inforced by gen. Lara with two batsolidated as could be expected.
tlions, under Vencedor and Vargas, of the Colombia Colombia. The private armed schooner Clara, has guard. From that moment nothing could resist the been captured by a Spanish merchantman, of 20 impetuosity of our brave. The second squadron of guns, and carried to Havana. The latter was sup- the hussars, of Junin, under the intrepid commander posed, by the captain of the former, to be a British Olabarria, made a brilliant charge upon the enemy's man of war, by which mistake, he lost his vessel.
squadron, which was posted on the right of general Brazil. The revenue of this empire is said to Valdez, and obtained a complete victory. The greamount to three millions of pounds sterling-its nadiers of Colombia having alighted, charged on population is estimated at four millions; of whom, foot, by our right Bank, the Spanish infantry. The two millions are slaves. The regular army is be- regiment of hussars of Colombia, under the active tween 25 and 30,000 strong, and the militia amounts colonel Silva, charged with their lances the grenato 50,000 men.
diers of the vice king's guard, and put them to the Hayti. The French papers of the 12th of Janu- route. This brave colonel received three wounds by ary, contain the documents relating to the negotia- lances in the action. All our troops conducted them tion between France and Hayti, for a recognition of selves as heroes during the short but terrible shock
of the battle. Our loss has been-l general, 8 ofthe independence of the latter, and which was terminated on the 3d of August, by the following note ficers, and 300 men, killed--and 6 generals, 24 of
ficers and 430 men, wounded:--That of the enemyfrom the minister of France:
The government, after the conference you have the vice king, wounded—6 generals dead, and 2,600 had with the minister of marine, has decided that, men, dead and wounded. for want of sufficient powers vested in you to accept The rest of the Spanish army, under general Cantethe conditions established in the royal ordinance, rac, capitulated wiih general Sucre, on the same day. with which you have been made acquainted, the ne- By this capitulation, all the possessions of the Spagotiation cannot proceed.”
niards in Peru, are given up to this republic. All the Letters from Paris state, that commissioners were Spainish army, and fifteen generals, are in our power. about lo sail from France to St. Domingo, to renew
The chief, ad interim, the negotiations.
MANUEL JOSE SOLER.
of this year
Liberation of Peru.
Perurians! The liberating army, commanded by 'from Carthagena, the Gazette of the last named the intrepid and skillful general Sucre, has at once place, of the 22d of January, was received, and the put an end to the war of Peru, and of the American translation of the following interesting accounts continent, by one of the most glorious victorics ever were made for the Norfolk Herald:
obtained by the arms of the new world. Yes! The
army has fulfilled the promise I made you on its OFFICIAL FROM PERŲ.
name to accomplish the liberty of Peru in the course ORDER OF THE DAY
Head quarters, Lima, December 22d, 1924. His excellency the liberator, received last night, fulfil the promise I made you to divest myself of the
Peruvians! The time has arrived when I must also through the aid-de-camp of gen. Sucre, (capt. Alarthe 9th inst. under the orders of the immortal gen. the tenth of February, (proxime), being the annivercon), the confirmation of the battle of Ayacucho, on dictatorship on the day that victory would seal your
destiny. The congress of Peru will be assembled on Sucre.
After five months of skilful manæuvring on both sary of the decree by which was confided to me this sides, and several engagements, which always result- supreme authority, and which I will then return to ed glorious to our arms, gen. Sucre took his position the legislative body which honored me with their in Ayacucho, and waited for the enemy. On the 8th confidence. These are not empty words. instant, the two armies had some skirmishes. On the Peruvians! Peru has suffered great military disas9th, the liberating army was attacked by the enemy, ters. The troops who guarded it, occupied ide free wbó had posted himself on the heights in front of provinces of the north and carried war against the our camp. Gen. Valdez, on the vanguard, command. congress:--The navy obeyed no longer the commands ed the right, with four field pieces, four battalions, of the government: The ex-president, Riva Agueco, and two squadrons of hussars--general Monet com- by turns a usurper, rebel and traitor, fought against manded the centre, with five battalions and general his country and her allies: The auxiliaries of Cbili, Villalobos the left, with seven pieces and four batta- by their lamentable defection, deprived us of the aslions. The remainder of the cavalry and of the sistance of their troops; and those of Buenos Ayres. Spanish army remained in the rear.
having revoltcd in Callao against their chiefs, deliverOur attack was made in the following order: gen. ed that place to the enemy: The president, Torre Cordova attacked the right, with the second division Tagle, making an appeal to the Spaniards to occupy of Colombia, composed of the battalions of Bogota, i this capital, achiered the destruction of Peru.
Discord, misery, discontent and personal interests baggages and horses, the garrisons remaining in any bad spread their bane through every part of the coun- part of the territory, and other forces and articles try. Peru seemed to exist no more--all was dissolv- belonging to the Spanish government. ed! Under these awful circumstances, the congress Second-Every individual belonging to the Spanish appointed me a dictator to save the relics of their army will be at liberty to return to his country, and last hopes.
bis passage will be defrayed by the state of PeruThe loyalty, the constancy, and the valor of the meanwhile he shall be treated with due consideraarmy of Colombia, have performed this wonderful tion, and will receive, at least, one half undertaking. The Peruvians, when a civil war was according to his grade, during his stay in the territory. raging, acknowledged the legitimate government, and Answer-Granted: but the government of Peru have rendered imniense services to the country; will only grant the half pay according to proporwhile the troops who protected them, have covered tionate regulations for the transportation. Those themselves with glory on the fields of Junin and Aya- who will return to Spain, will not carry arms against cucho. Factions have disappeared from the soil of America, during the war of the independence; and Peru. This capital has recovered forever its sweet no one will go into any part of America occupied by liberty. Callao is invested, and must be given up by the Spanish armies. capitulation.
Third-Any individual belonging to the Spanish Peruvians! Peace has succeeded to war; union to discord: order to anarchy; and happiness to mis-army: wishing to enlist in the army of Peru, will en
joy his former grade. fortune! But never forget, I beseech you, that, for
Answer-Granted. these blessings, you are indebted to the illustrious
Fourth--No one shall be accountable for his forvictors of Ayacucho. Perurians? The day on which your congress will king's cause, nor those known as smugglers: in this
mer opinions, nor for his particular services in the meet will be a day of glory! the day that will consum-particular they will be entitled to the rights of all nate the most fervent wishes of my ambition-Do the articles of this treaty: not ask more!
Answer-Granted: if, by their conduct, they do not (Signed)
disturb the public order, and if they conforin to the Extraordinary Gazette of the government of Lima, laws. Wednesday, 220 December, 1824.
Fifth-Any inhabitant of Peru, either European or
American, ecclesiastic or merchant, land-owner or LIBERATING ARMY,
workman, wishing to remove to another country, Head quarters at Ayacucho, 10th Dec. 1824.
will be at liberty so to do by virtue of this convention, TO HIS EXCELLENCY THE LIBERATOR.
and to take with him his family and property-he Most excellent sir: The treaty which I have the will be protected by the state until bis departure, and honor to transmit to your excellency, signed on the if he prefers to remain, he will be considered a Perufield of battle, where the blood of the liberating army vian. bas secured the independence of Peru, becomes the Answer-Granted: with regard to the inhabitants guarantee of the peace of the republic, and is the of the country to be delivered, and agreeably to the most brilliant result of the vietory of Ayacucho. The conditions mentioned in the preceding article. united army feels the liveliest satisfaction in presenting to your excellency all the territory of Peru, which
Sixth-The state of Peru will also respect the prohas submitted to your authority, before five months perty of the Spaniards who may be absent from the campaign. All the royal army, all the provinces it territory-they will be at liberty, for the period of occupied in this republic, all its places, artillery, three years, to dispose of their property, which will magazines, and fifteen Spanish generals, are the be considered in the same point of view as that of trophies which the united army offers to your excel- Americans, unwilling to go to the peninsula, although lency, as a token worthy the illustrious savior of they may have property in that country. Peru; who, from Junin, pointed out to the army the
Answer-Granted: as in the preceding article, profield of Ayacucho as the spot to cover themselves with vided the conduct of these individuals will, in no way, glory.
be hostile to the cause of the freedom and indepenGod preserve your excellency,
dence of America-in the event of which, the go (Signed) ANTONIO JOSE DE SUCRE.
vernment of Peru reserves to itself the privilege
acting freely and discretionary. P.S. I had forgotten to inform your excellency of z remarkable circumstance. According to the rolls
Seventh-The term of one year will be granted to taken from the enemy, it appears they had 9,310 men all the interested parties, in order to avail themon the field of battle, while the liberating army had selves of the stipulations embraced in the fifth artionly 5,780. (Signed)
SUCRE. cle--their property will be subjected to the ordinary
duties, but that of individuals belonging to the army
to be free of duties. Don Jose Canterac, Lieutenant general of the royal Answer-Granted. armies of his Catholic majesty, being charged with Eighth—The state of Peru will acknowledge the the supreme command of Peru, in the absence of his debts contracted by the administration of the Spaexcellency, the vice king D. JOSE LA SERNA, wound- nish government in the territory thereof to the pre-. ed and taken prisoner in the battle fought this day, sent day, after having taken the advices of the generals and Answer—The congress of Peru will decide with rechiess, re-united after the bloody battle of Ayacucho, gard to this article what will be inost convenient to &c. &c. has thought it convenient to propose and to the interests of the republic. regulate with the general of division, Antonio Jose de Ninth-All the individuals employed in public offiSucre, commanding in chief the united army of ces, will be continued therein il it be their desire; Peru, the conditions contained in the following arti- otherwise, those preferring to leave tho country will cles:
be comprehended under the articles 2d and 5tii. First-The territory, garrisoned by the Spanish Answer-Those of the meritorious will be continu. troops in Peru, as far as the Desaguadoro, shall be de- ed in their oftices if the government should think prolivered to the united liberating army, with the parksper, of artillery, chests, and all the military magazines. Tenth--Every individual belonging to the army, or
Answer-Granted: and will also be included in the in the government's employ, who may wish to be delivery all the remainder of the Spanish army, the lerazed from the rolis and to remain in the country,
will be at liberty so to do: and in that case their
Inaugural Address. persons will be respected. Answer-Granted.
Ata quarter before 12 o'clock, the president elect, Eleventh--The town of Callao will be delivered to accompanied by the president of the United States, the united liberating army, and its garrison will be included in the articles of this treaty.
and escorted by a considerable body of gentlemen, Answer-Granted: but the town of Callao, with all composed of strangers and citizens, and the military her colors and military articles, shall be delivered to or the District, repaired to the capitol, where he was the liberator, and be subject to his disposal on or before twenty days.
received by the committeo of arrangement of the sex Twelfth_Superior officers of both armies will be nate, and conducted into the senate chamber; from sent to the provinces for the purpose of delivering whence he proceeded, with the senate, to the hall.o and receiving the archives, magazines, appurtenances, and the troops, deposited in and stationed at, the the house of representatives, attended by the heads different garrisons.
of departments, the marshal of the District of ColumAnswerGranted: the same formalities will be observed at the delivery of Callao. The provinces bia, and the gentlemen selected as his associates, for will be delivered to the independent authorities in fif the officers of the day, and the mayors of the three teen days, and the places the most reinote in all the corporations of the District. present month. Thirteenth-The vessels of war and merchantmen
The president of the senate, with the secretary of in the ports of Peru, will be allowed the term of six the senate, were placed on the right of the chair; the months, from the date of the ratification of this trea- ex-president op his right, and the speaker oi the house ty, to get their stores and provisions on board, to enable them to depart from the Pacific.
of representatives, with the clerk of that house, on Answer--Granted: but the ships of war will only his left; the heads of departments were seated on the be permitted to make preparations for their voyage; right, and the foreign ministers, with their suits, on without committing any act of hostility, cither there or on quitting the Pacific—they being obliged to leave the left of the chair. all the seas of America without touching at any port The judges of the supreme court occupied a table of Chili, or any other portin America, which may be
in frort of the chair. occupied by the Spaniards. Fourteenth-Passports will be granted to the ships
The senate filled the seats immediately in front; of war and merchantmen for their uninterrupted na- members of congress, including the judges of the cirvigation from the Pacific to their ports in Europe. cuit court of the District of Columbia, with their os
A:swer-Granted: Agreeably to the preceding article.
ficers, and such persons as, by the standing rules of Fifteenth-All the chiess and officers made prisan- congress, are admitted to seats within the chambers, ers at the battle of this day, will be set at liberty from occupied seats on the floor. Oficers, civil, military this moment, as well as the prisoners taken in anterior actions by either of the armies.
and naval, were also admitted in the lobbies and up, Answer-Granted: and the wounded will be taken on the door of the hall. care of until they shall be able to dispose of them. selves.
Sixteenth-The generals, chiefs and officers will retain the use of their uniforms and their swords--and
JOIN QUINCY ADAMS, will also retain in their service such assistants as correspond with their rank, and their servants, On being sucorn into office, as president of the United Ansicer-Granted: but, during their stay in the ter.
States, on the 4th of March, 1825. ritory, they will submit to the laws of the country.
In compliance with an usage, coeval with the esis. Seventeenth-To those individuals of the army who tence of our federal constitution, and sanctioned by may have come to the determination, with regard to the example of my predecessors in the career upon their future destination, agreeably to this treaty, leave which I am about to enter, I appear, my fellow citiwill be granted them to re-unite with their families zens, in your presence, and in ihat of heaven, to bind their other interests, and to remove to the place they myself by the solemnities of a religious obligation, may have chosen; in which case they will be furnish- to the faithful performance of the duties alloited to ed with passports so that they may not be molested in me, in the station to which I have been called. any of the independent states until their arrival at
In unfolding to my countrymen the principles by their places of destination.
which I shall be governed, in the fulfilment of those Answer--Granted.
duties, my first resort will be to that constitution, Eighteenth-Any doubt that may arise in the stipula- which I shall swear, to the best of my ability, to pretions of the articles of the present treaty, will be in- serve, protect and defend. That revered instrument terpreted in favor of the individuals of the Spanish enumerates the powers, and prescribes the duties, of army.
the executive magistrate; and, in its first words, deAnsier-Granted: this stipulation will depend on clares the purposes to which these, and the whole the good faith of the contracting parties.
aution of the government, instituted hy it, should be And having concluded and ratified this treaty, invariably and sacredly devoted-to form a more which is hereby approved, there will be made four perfect union, establish justice, ensure domestic trancopies of the same, two of which will remain in the quility, provide for the common defence, promote power of each of the parties whose signatures are the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberhereto afixed,&c.
ty to the people of this union, in their successive'ge
norations. Since the adoption of this social compact, Delivered and signed, with our hands, on the field one of these generations has passed away. It is the of Ayacucho, the 9th of December, 1824.
work of our forefathers. Administered by some of JOSE CANTERAC.
the most cminent men, who contributed to its forma. ANTONIO JOSE DE SUCRE. tion, through a most evenlsul period in the annals of
ADDRESS DELIVERED BY
the world, and through all the vicissitudes of peace me, to observe that the great result of this experiment and war, incidental to the condition of associated upon the theory of human rights, has, at the close of man, it has not disappointed the hopes and aspira- that generation by which it was formed, been crowntions of those illustrious benefactors of their age and ed with success equal to the most sarguine expectanation. It has promoted the lasting welfare of that tions of its founders. Union, justice, tranquility, the country, so dear to us all; it has, to an extent, far common defence, the general welfare, and the blessbeyond the ordinary lot of humanity, secured the sings of liberty—all have been promoted by the gofreedom and happiness of this people. We now reovernment under which we have lived. Standing at this ceive it as a precious inheritance from those to whom point of time; looking back to that generation which we are indebted for its establishment, doubly bound has gone by, and forward to that which is advancing, by the examples which they have left us, and by the we may, at once, indulge in grateful exultation, and blessings which we have enjoyed, as the fruits of their in cheering hope. From the experience of the past, labors, to transmit the same, unimpaired, to the suc- we derive instructive lessons for the future. of the ceeding generation.
two great political parties which have divided the In the compass of thirty-six years, since this great opinions and feelings of our country, the candid and national covenant was instituted, a body of laws enact- the just will now admit, that both have contributed ed under its authority, and in conformity with its pro- splendid talents, spotless integrity, ardent patriotism visions, has unfolded its powers, and carried into prac. ministration of this government; and that both have
and disinterested sacrifices, to the formation and adtical operation its effective energies. Surbordinate departments have distributed the executive functions in required a liberal indulgence for a portion of human their various relations, to foreign affairs, to the re
infirmity and error. The revolutionary wars of Euvenue and expenditures, and to the military force of rope, commencing precisely at the moment when the the union, by land and sea. A co-ordinate depart-government of the United States first went into opement of the judiciary has expounded the constitution ration under this constitution, excited a collision of and the laws; settling, in harmonious coincidence sentiments and of sympathies, wbich kindled all the with the legislative will, numerous weighty questions passions, and embittered the conflict of parties, till of construction which the imperfection of human lan- the nation was involved in war, and the anion was guage had rendered unavoidable. The year of jubi- shaken to its centre. This time of trial embraced a lee since the first formation of our union has just period of five-and-twenty years, during which, the elapsed; that of the declaration of our independence policy of the union, in its relations with Europe, conis at hand. The consummation of both was effected stituted the principal basis of our political divisions, by this constitution. Since that period, a population and the most arduous part of the action of our fedeof four millions has multiplied to twelve. A territory, ral government. With the catastrophe in which the bounded by the Mississippi, has been extended from wars of the French revolution terminated, and our sea to sea. New states have been admitted to the own subsequent peace with Great Britain, this baneful union, in numbers nearly equal to those of the first weed of party strife was uprooted. From that time, confederation. Treaties of peace, amity and com- no difference of principle, connected either with the merce, have been concluded with the principal do- theory of government, or with our intercourse with minions of the earth. The people of other nations, foreign nations, has existed, or been called forth, in inhabitants of regions acquired, not by conquest, but force sufficient to sustain a continued combination by compact, have been united with us in the partici- of parties, or give more than wholesome animation pation of our rights and duties, of our burdens and to public sentiment, or legislative debate. Our poliblessings. The forest has fallen by the axe of our tical creed is, without a dissenting voice that can be woodsmen—the soil has been made to teem by the heard, that the will of the people is the source, and tillage of our farmers; our commerce has whitened the happiness of the people the end, of all legitimate every ocean. The dominion of man over physical government upon earth-That the best security for nature has been extended by the invention of our the beneficence, and the best guaranty against the artists. Liberty and law have marched, hand in hand. abuse of power, consists in the freedom, the purity, All the purposes of human association have been ac- and the frequency of popular elections-That the complished as effectively as under any other govern- general government of the union, and the separate ment on the globe; and at a cost, little exceeding, in governments of the states, are all sovereignties of lia whole generation, the expenditures of other nations mited powers; fellow servants of the same masters, in a single year.
uncontroled within their respective spheres, unconSuch is the unexaggerated picture of our condition, the firmesi security of peace, is the preparation, dur
trolable by encroachments upon each other--That under a constitution founded upon the republican ing peace, of the defences of war-that a rigorous principle of equal rights. To admit that this picture economy, and accountability of public expenditures, has its shades, is but to say that it is still the condition should guard against the aggravation, and alleviate, of men upon earth. From evil, physical, moral and when possible, the burden of taxation—That the milipolitical, it is not our claim to be exempt. We have tary should be kept in strict subordination to the civil suffered, sometimes by the visitation of Heaven, power-That the freedom of the press and of relithrough disease; often by the wrongs and injustice of gious opinion should be inviolate-That the policy of other nations, even to the extremities of war; and, our country is peace, and the ark of our salvation, lastly, by dissentions among ourselves-dissentions, union, are articles of faith upon which we are all perhaps, inseparable from the enjoyment of freedom, agreed. If there have been those who doubled whebut which have more than once appeared to threaten ther a confederated representative democracy were a the dissolution of the union, and, with it, the overthrow of all the enjoyments of our present lot, and all government competent to the wise and orderly ma. our earthly hopes of the future. The causes of these those doubts have been dispelled. If there have
nagement of the common concerns of a mighty nation, dissentions have been various, founded upon dif- been projects of partial confederacies, lo be erected ferences of speculation in the theory of republican go- upon the ruins of the union, they have been scatvernment; upon conflicting views of policy, in our tered to the winds. If there have been dangerous relations with foreign nations; upon, jealousies of attachments to one foreign nation, and antipathies partial and sectional interests, aggravated by preju- against another, they have been extinguished.dices and prepossessions, which strangers to each ten years of peace, at home and abroad, have asother are ever apt to entertain.
suaged the animosities of political contention, and It is a source of gratification and of encouragement to blended into harmony the most discordant elements
of public opinion. There still remains one effort of by that eminent citizen, at the time of his first induer, magnanimity, one sacrifice of prejudice and passion, tion to this office, in his career of eight years, the into be made by the individuals throughout the nalion, ternal taxes bave been repealed; sixty millions of the who have heretofore followed the standards of poli- public debt have been discharged; provision has been tical party. It is that of discarding every remnant of made for the comfort and relief of the aged and indirancor against cach other; of embracing, as country- gent, among the surviving warriors of the revolution; men and friends; and of yielding to talents and virtue the regular armed force has been reduced, and its alone, that confidence which, in times of contention constitution revised and perfected; the accountability for principle, was bestowed only upon those who bore for the expenditures of public moneys has been made the badge of party communion.
more effective; the Floridas have been peaceably acThe collisions of party spirit, which originate in quired, and our boundary has been extended to the speculative opinions, or in different views of admi- Pacific ocean; the independence of the southern nas nistrative policy, are, in their nature, transitory.- tions of this hemisphere has been recognised, and reThose which are founded on geographical divisions, commended, by example and by council, to the poadverse interests of soil, climate, and modes of do- tentates of Europe; progress has been made in the mestic life, are more permanent, and, therefore, per desence of the country, by fortifications and the inhaps, more dangerous. It is this which gives inesti- crease of the navy-towards the effectual suppression mable value to the character of our government, at of the African traffic in slaves--in alluring the aboence federal and national. It holds out to us a per- riginal hunters of our land to the cultivation of the petual admonition to preserve, alike and with equal soil and of the mind-in exploring the interior reanxiety, the rights of each individual state in its own gions of the union, and in preparing, by scientific regovernment, and the rights of the whole nation, in searches and surveys, for the further application of that of the union. Whatever is of domestic con- our national resources to the internal improvement cernment, unconnected with the other members of of our country. the union, or with foreign lands, belongs exclusively In this brief outline of the promise and performto the administration of the state governments.- ance of my immediate predecessor, the line of duty, Whatsoever directly involves the rights and interests for his successor, is clearly delineated. To pursue of the federative fraternity, or of foreign powers, is, to their consummation those purposes of improveof the resort of this general government. The du- ment in our common condition, instituted or recomties of both are obvious in the general principle, mended by him, will embrace the whole sphere of though sometimes perplexed with dificulties in the my obligations. To the topic of internal improvedetail. To respect the rights of the state govern ment, emphatically urged by him at his inauguraments is the inviolable duty of that of the union: tion, I recur with peculiar satisfaction. It is that the government of every stale will feel its own obli- from which I am convinced that the unborn millions gation to respect and preserve the rights of the whole of our posterity, who are in future ages to people this The prejudices every where too commonly entertain continent, will derive their most fervent gratitude to ed against distant strangers, are worn away, and the the founders of the union; that in which the benefijealousies of jarring interests are allayed by the com- cent action of its government will be most deeply position and functions of the great national councils, felt and acknowledged. The magnificence and annually assembled from all quarters of the union, at splendor of their public works are among the imthis place. Here the distinguished men from every perishable glories of the ancieut republics. The section of our country, while meeting to deliberate roads and aqueducts of Rome have been the admiraupon the great interests of those by whom they are tion of all after ages, and have survived, thousands deputed, learn to estimate the talents, and do justice of years, after all her conquests have been swallow. to the virtues of each other. The harmony of the ed up in despotism, or become the spoil of barbarination is promoted, and the whole union is knit to ans. Some diversity of opinion has prevailed with gether by ihe sentiments of mutual respect, the ha regard to the powers of congress for legislation upon bits of social intercourse, and the ties of personal objects of this nature. The most respectful deferfriendship, formed between the representatives of once is due to doubts, originating in pure patriotism, its several parts, in the performance of their service and sustained by venerated authority. But nearly at this metropolis.
twenty years have passed since the construction of
the first national road was commenced. The auPassing from this general review of the purposes thority for its construction was then unquestioned. and injunctions of the federal constitution, and their. To how many thousands of our countrymen has it results, as indicating the first traces of the path of proved a benefit? To what single individual has it duty, in the discharge of my public trust, I turn to ever proved an injury? Repeated liberal and candid the administration of my iminediate predecessor, as discussions in the legislature have conciliated the the second. It has passed away in a period of pro- sentiments, and approximated the opinions of en. found peace; how much to the satisfaction of our lightened minds, upon the question of constitutional country, and to the honour of our country's name, power. I cannot but hope that, by the same process is known to you all. The great features of its of friendly, patient and persevering deliberation, all policy, in general concurrence with the will of constitutional objections will ultimately be removed. the legislature, have been-To cherish peace while the extent and limitation of the powers of the genepreparing for defensive war–To yield exact, jus: ral government, in relation to this transcendently tice to other nations, and maintain the rights of important interest, will be settled and acknowledged, our own-To cherish the principles of freedom and to the common satisfaction of all; and every specuof equal rights, wherever ihey were proclaimed-To lative scruple will be solved by a practical public discharge, with all possible promptitude, the national blessing. debt-To reduce, within the narrowesi limits of efficiency, the military force--To improve the orga Fellow-citizens, you are acquainted with the pecu. nization and discipline of the army-To provide and liar circumstances of the recent election, which sustain a school of military science-To extend equal have resulted in affording me the opportunity of adprotection to all the great interests of the nation-To dressing you at this time. You have heard the expopromote the civilization of the Indian tribes; and-To sition of the principles which will direct me in the proceed in the great system of internal improvements fulfilment of the high and solemn trust imposed within the limits of the constitutional power of th' upon me in this station. Less possessed of your conunion. Under the pledge of these promises, madfidence, in advance, than any of my predecessors, I