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the revenues of the crown among his friends, and he took with him only seventy talents, or a month's pay for his army. When Perdiccas asked him what he reserved for himself, he replied, "Hope." This it was that furnished him with energy to advise and execute; this it was that set both his head and heart to work, and animated him to do his utmost; this it was that overcame all difficulties, and aided him in the accomplishment of designs that seemed almost beyond his reach. To hope is the way to have, and the issue is often owing to belief and expectation. Transcendant above all other hopes, however, is the Christian's hope, of which the poet has said,

"Hope! let the wretch once conscious of the joy,
Whom now despairing agonies destroy,
Speak, for he can, and none so well as he,
What treasures centre, what delights in thee.
Had he the gems, the spices, and the land
That boasts the treasure all at his command,
The fragrant grove, the' inestimable mine,
Were light when weighed against one smile of thine."

As soon as Alexander landed in Asia, he went to Troy, and sacrificed to Pallas, the patroness of the Greeks, and offered libations at the tomb of the hero Achilles, whom he proposed for his model.

From Troy Alexander marched to Lampsacus, which he had determined to destroy, in order to punish the rebellion of its inhabitants. Anaximenes, a famous historian, who had been very intimate with Philip his father, and his (Alexander's) own tutor, was a native of this city. Anaximenes came to meet him, and Alexander, suspecting that he would plead for his city to be spared, in order that he might be beforehand with him, declared that he would not grant any request he might make. "The favour I have to desire of you," said Anaximenes, “is, that you would destroy Lampsacus," by which witty evasion the city was saved.

Alexander passed onward from Lampsacus, and came to the river Granicus, ‡ in the lesser Phrygia. On the banks of this river he found the governors of the western provinces assembled,

Respecting the site of ancient Troy, modern geographers and classical antiquaries have been greatly at a loss. The plain of Troy has been repeatedly visited by classical travellers, in order to verify Homer's description of the tomb of Ilus, the green fig trees, the hot and cold springs, and the sources of the Scamander, Simois, and Thymbrius; but none of them have agreed in fixing the localities of the Iliad. In the days of Strabo, however, ancient Troy was considered to have stood within three miles of New Ilium, which, as Strabo informs us, was only a small village, distinguished by a temple dedicated to Minerva.

+ Lampsacus is about thirty miles in direct distance from Ilium, and was once renowned for its safe and capacious harbour at the entrance of the Propontis, or Sea of Marmora, opposite Callipolis, and its noble temple dedicated to Cybele, the Phrygian goddess. It was also famous for its excellent wine, on which account it was given to Themistocles, the Athenian exile, by Artaxerxes Longi. manus. By some travellers its ruins have been identified with those lately discovered at and around a village called Tchardack.

The Granicus lay thirty-five miles from Lampsacus in direct distance. It is a narrow, deep, and rapid stream, originating in the northern slope of the range of Ida, and running a north-east course of forty geographical miles to the Propontis. Its western banks are said to be high,

steep, and rugged. Its modern name is the Oostrola.

with an army of 100,000 foot, and 20,000 horse, to oppose his passage; contrary to the advice of that experienced general, Memnon the Rhodian, whose opinion was, that they should not hazard a battle, but lay waste the plains, and even the cities, thereby to starve the invaders, and oblige Alexander to return into Europe; as well as to make a powerful diversion, by carrying war into Macedonia and Greece. This plan was rejected with scorn, as "unworthy of the magnanimity of the Persians." Arsites, governor of Phrygia, moreover, protested that he would never suffer the Greeks to lay waste the country over which he presided.

The Persian cavalry, which was very numerous, lined the banks of the Granicus; and the foot, consisting chiefly of Greek mercenaries, was posted behind the cavalry on an easy ascent. Parmenio, commander of the Macedonian infantry, observing the disposition of the enemy's army, advised Alexander to encamp on the opposite banks of the river, that his troops might have rest, and not to attempt the passage till the next morning, the river being deep, the banks craggy and steep, his troops fatigued with their march, whilst those of the enemy had rested for several days. Alexander replied that it would be a disgrace to him and his army should they, after crossing the Hellespont, suffer their progress to be stopped by a rivulet.

The two armies continued some time looking at each other on the opposite banks of the river, as if dreading the event. The Persians waited till the Macedonians entered the river, in order to charge them to advantage upon their landing, and the latter seemed to be making choice of a place proper for crossing, and observing the dispositions of their enemies. Alexander, at length, having ordered his horse to be brought, commanded his nobles to follow him. He himself commanded the right wing, and Parmenio the left. The king first caused a strong detachment to march into the river, himself following it with the rest of his forces. Parmenio advanced afterwards with the left wing; the trumpets throughout the whole host sounding, and the whole army raising cries of joy.

The Persians, seeing the detachment advance into the river, began to let fly their arrows, and march to a place where the declivity was not so great, in order to prevent the Macedonians from landing. As they drew near the bank, a fierce engagement ensued; the Macedonians endeavouring to land, and the Persians pushing them again into the river. As Memnon commanded in this place, the first ranks of the Macedonians perished; and the rest, after having with great difficulty gained the shore, were driven anew into the river. Alexander, however, who had followed them closely, reinforced them with his best troops, and putting himself at their head, routed the Persians, upon which the whole army followed after and attacked the enemy on all sides. A sickening scene ensued. The Persian horse was first defeated with great slaughter, and the infantry shared the same fate. The Grecian infantry retired in good order to a neighbouring hill, whence they sent deputies to Alexander, demanding leave to retreat unmolested; but Alexander following the dictates of wrath rather

than those of reason, rushed into the midst of this body of soldiers, and destroyed the whole, except 2000, who were taken prisoners.

In this engagement, the Persians lost 20,000 foot, and 2500 horse. On the side of the Macedonians, twenty-five of the royal horse perished at the first attack. Alexander ordered Lysippus to make their statues in brass, which were set up in Dios, a city of Macedon, from whence they were many years after carried to Rome by Q. Metellus. According to Arrian, about sixty of the other horse were killed, and nearly thirty foot, who the next day were laid with their arms and equipage in one common grave. Their fathers and children had an exemption granted them from every kind of tribute and service.


The victory of the Granicus put Alexander in possession of Sardis,† the capital of Asia Minor, which was the bulwark of the Persian empire on the side next the sea. The citizens surrendered on his approach, upon which Alexander gave them their liberty, and permitted them to enjoy their own laws.

Four days after, Alexander arrived at Ephesus,‡ carrying with him those who had been banished from thence for being his adherents, and restored its popular form of government. Here he offered sacrifices to Diana, and assigned to the temple of that goddess all the tributes that were paid to the Persians. He was ambitious of having the name of the celebrated temple of Diana, which was then rebuilding, changed for his own, and he offered to defray the whole cost of the work on such conditions; but the Ephesians evaded the request, by telling him that it was inconsistent for one god to erect temples to another!

"The force of flattery could no further go." Before Alexander left Ephesus, the deputies of the cities of Tralles and Magnesia waited upon him with the keys of those places.

From Ephesus, Alexander marched to Miletus,§ which city, deceived by the hopes of a powerful support from the Persian fleet then lying off the coast, closed their gates against him. Memnon had shut himself up in this fortress, with many of his soldiers, and was determined to make a vigorous defence. After several days' fruitless efforts, however, Alexander compelled the besieged to capitulate. He treated the Milesians with great humanity, allowing them to live according to their own laws. Memnon was allowed to march out with his Greeks unmolested; but the Persians were put to the sword, or sold for slaves.

This account is taken from the Greeks, the only one we have of the battle of the Granicus. It seems incredible, that in the combat with the Greek mercenaries, who were men of equal courage with themselves, they should all have been killed on the spot, after a brave defence, without a proportionate carnage on the part of the Macedonians. False love of their country's glory, doubtless, caused the Greek historians to depart from the truth in narrating this event.

Sardis lay about 138 miles in direct distance, s. E. of the Granicus.

Ephesus lay south-west of Sardis, about sixty-three Roman miles in direct distance.

§ Miletus lay twenty-eight miles south-east of Ephesus in direct distance, on the Lalmian Gulf, which is supposed by some to be the Lake of Ufa Bashee.

Having possessed himself of Miletus, Alexander marched into Caria, in order to besiege Halicarnassus, the capital || of that province, which defied his power. This city was of most difficult access; nature and art combined in its defence. Memnon, moreover, had thrown himself into it with a considerable body of troops, and seconded by nother general of great prowess, Ephialtes, he resolved to withstand the Macedonian power to the utmost. Whatever could be expected from the most intrepid bravery, and the most consummate knowledge in the art of war, was practised on this occasion by the adverse parties. The Macedonians, with immense labour, filled up the ditches, and brought their engines near the walls; but their works were soon demolished, and their engines burned. Repeated attempts of this nature were made, and any other general but Alexander would have foregone the enterprise; but he encouraged his troops to persevere, and at length they succeeded. Memnon abandoned the city, and, going on board the Persian fleet, of which he was admiral, he conveyed the inhabitants with all their effects to the island of Cos, not far distant. Alexander, finding the city without riches and inhabitants, rased it to the ground, the citadel only excepted.

To conciliate the Asiatic colonies from Greece, Alexander now declared them free, and exempt from tribute. This had the wished-for effect; all the Greek cities of Asia declared in his favour, which very much facilitated his progress.

The last action of this military campaign, according to Diodorus Siculus, was with the Marmarians, an inconsiderable people inhabiting the western border of Lycia. Their city was placed on a rock, and was accounted impregnable. These rude mountaineers fell on the rear of the Macedonian army, destroyed many men, and captured a great part of their baggage. This enraged Alexander, who immediately invested their stronghold, and attacked it by storm for two successive days. The old men among the besieged, seeing no prospect of a longer defence, would have advised surrender; but the young men scorned such advice. Their elders then advised them to put all their superannuated men, together with their women and children, to death, and then, if possible, to force their way through the Macedonians. This advice was acted upon. Every one going home, made a great feast, and after eating and drinking with his wife and children, shut the door of his house, and set it on fire! While the fires were raging, to the number of six hundred, they forced their way through the Macedonian guards, and escaped to the mountains.

Alexander now put his army into winter quarters; but before he did this, in order to

This city lay forty miles south-east of Miletus in direct distance. It is now a heap of ruins. It was once famous for the stately mausoleum, or tomb, erected in honour of Mausolus, king of Caria, of which this city was the capital, by Artemisia, his widowed queen. Herodotus, the father of historians, was born here; so also was Dionysius, the Greek historian of Rome, and the poets Heraclitus and Callimachus.

The appellation, Marmarians, still exists in Marmorice, the name of a bay on the south-east side of the Gulf of Macri, on the west side of Lycia; and the present inhabitants are described as being of the same predatory habits as their ancestors.

conciliate his soldiers, he dismissed such as had married that year, and sent them to their homes, with orders to return again next spring. This was a wise military regulation, and seems to have been derived from the law prescribed by Moses, Deut. xxiv. 5. Probably Aristotle, the tutor of Alexander, learned it from the Jews, of whom he makes honourable mention: the philosopher, indeed, speaks of a Jew, whom he met in Asia, as communicating more information to him in the Greek language than he received in


About the same time, Alexander adopted the bold expedient of dismissing his fleet, which was too small to cope with the Persian fleet, collected from Phenicia and Egypt, and yet too large for his treasury to maintain. In doing this he declared to his lieutenants, that by conquering the land, he would render himself master of the sea, since every harbour that surrendered to him must diminish the naval resources of the enemy, and tend to disable them from invading Greece in his absence; and also contribute to hold open his communication with his own dominions, and introduce fresh supplies from thence, when he should find it expedient to advance into the heart of Asia.

Next spring, B.C. 333, Alexander recommenced the reduction of the maritime provinces. His progress at first met with some interruption. Near Phaselis, a small sea-port, on the west side of the gulf of Attaliah, and on the eastern shore of the Lycian Peninsula, is a defile along the sea shore, which is always dry in the summer, but when the sea rises is impassable. As the winter was not yet past, his forces were obliged to march a whole day in the water, but they surmounted the difficulty, and passed onward. Some historians relate that the sea, by the Divine command, opened a way to him, contrary to the usual course of nature; but this is evidently a parody, suggested by flattery, on the astounding miracle of the passage of the Israelites through the Red Sea.

While Alexander was in the neighbourhood of Phaselis, he discovered the conspiracy to which allusion has before been made; [see page 87.] The traitor was discovered, and suffered death for his perfidy.

From Phaselis, Alexander marched to Perga, in Pamphylia, on the river Cestrus; and from thence to Aspendus, on the river Eurymedon, east of Perga; which, though a well fortified place, surrendered without sustaining a siege. From hence Alexander marched north-west to the pass of Telmessus, a strong defile in the range of Taurus, and which, had the inhabitants of that place known how to avail themselves of the advantageous position of their city,* which commanded the pass on one side, as a high mountain did on the other, they might have defended it against all Alexander's attempts to penetrate through it into Phrygia, and compelled him to attempt a passage in some other quarter. Alexander knew this. and therefore he encamped at

This city must not be confounded with the Telmessus on the south-east angle of the Gulf of Macri, which was once a large and flourishing city, as the sarcophagi, and other remains found there, certify.

the foot of the pass, of which the Telmessians had possessed themselves, at the close of night, hoping that the fear of an attack would induce them to withdraw. To his great joy they did withdraw, and shut themselves up in their city, so that he passed through without any obstruction. He passed their city by as one of inferior consequence, his great object being now to gain possession of the interior of Asia Minor. From the defile of Telmessus, Alexander crossed the high upland of Milyas, which Bochart deduces from the Phenician word mulia, "an elevated mound," to Celænæ,† which surrendered after a truce of sixty days, granted by him with a promise to that effect, if no succours should arrive in the interim.

From Celænæ Alexander marched over the lofty chain now called the Moorad Dagh, to Gordium, the ancient and celebrated residence of king Midas, situated on the river Sangarius. Having taken the city, he was desirous of seeing the famous chariot to which the Gordian knot was tied. This knot, which fastened the yoke to the beam, was tied with so much art, and the strings were adjusted in so intricate a manner, that it could not be discovered where they commenced, or where they ended. An oracle had foretold, that the man who could untie it should possess the empire of Asia; and Curtius relates, that Alexander being fully persuaded that this promise related to himself, he, after many fruitless trials, exclaimed, "It is no matter which way it be untied," and thereupon cut it with his sword. Aristobulus, however, who was an eye-witness of the transaction, assures us, that Alexander wrested a wooden pin out of the beam of the chariot, which being driven in across the beam held it up, and so took the yoke from it. In this version of the story Plutarch coincides.

In the mean time, Darius was preparing to make a vigorous defence. Memnon the Rhodian advised him to retaliate, by carrying the war into Macedonia, stating that the Lacedæmonians and several other Greek nations, who were adverse to the Macedonians, would be ready to join him, and that Alexander would be compelled to return to defend his own country. Darius approved of the plan, and appointed Memnon admiral of the fleet, and captain general of all the forces designed for that expedition. Memnon was at the island of Cos when he received this commission, and this place was the rendezvous for the fleet. Memnon soon commenced operations. He made himself master of the island of Chios and all Lesbos, the city of Mitylene excepted. From thence he was preparing to pass over into Eubœa, but he died before Mitylene, which city he was compelled to besiege.

The death of Memnon was a severe loss to the Persian monarch. No one was able to supply his place, and the only enterprise which could have saved his empire was therefore abandoned.

+ Celænæ lay about seventy-five geographical miles north-west of the defile of l'elmessus.

Gordium lay a little east of Celænæ. It is difficult to fix its site, but all agree that it stood on the Sangarius. It was founded by Gordius, but it did not long retain its honours; for in the time of Strabo it had become a mere village.

The sole resource of Darius now lay in the armies of the east, and these he resolved to command in person. The rendezvous of his army was Babylon, where, upon mustering, they were found to be about 400,000, 500,000, or 600,000 men; for such are the different accounts of ancient authors.

One of the king's counsellors, Charidemus, a Greek refugee, had opposed the monarch's heading his own troops; saying, that he ought not to risk his life; and he pledged himself that, with the command of 100,000 men, of whom a third part should be Greek mercenaries, he would compel the conqueror to abandon his enterprise. Darius was disposed to accede; but his ministers, generally, rejected this course through envy, and insinuated that Charidemus meant to betray their cause to the Macedonians. Fired at this insult, he called them cowards in the king's presence, for which he was ordered to instant execution. As he went to his death, he exclaimed, that the king would shortly repent of his injustice, and be punished with the loss of his empire; which was verified by the event, and required no gift of prophecy to suppose, now that the Persians were left to themselves.

Before Darius departed to meet Alexander, according to ancient historians, he had an ominous dream. He thought he saw the Macedonian phalanx on fire; that Alexander waited on him, as a servant, and in his former courier dress; and that he then went into the temple of Belus, and disappeared. Plutarch says, that by this dream, Heaven seemed to signify that honour and prosperity would attend the Macedonians; and that Alexander would become master of Asia, like Darius, who, from a simple courier, became king; but that he would soon die, and leave his glory behind him. This result accords with prophecy in a remarkable manner, (see Dan. viii. 5—8, xi. 3, 4;) and it is probable, as Dr. Hales suggests, that it might have been disclosed by the magi, who understood these prophecies, though they dared not unfold them to the king.


We return to Alexander. Big with the hope of conquest, he passed from Gordium east to Ancyra, a city of that part of Phrygia, afterwards called Galatia, from the Gauls, who seized upon it. From Ancyra, Alexander proceeded north to Paphlagonia, crossing the lofty ridge of Olympus, which separates Galatia from Bithynia and Paphlagonia, the terminus of which march was probably the city of Sora, eighty-three miles in direct distance from Ancyra. From thence he marched south-east by the Halys and Mount Taurus to Cilicia, crossing, in his way, the same

Ancyra lay fifty-five geographical miles south-east of the assumed site of Gordium in Rennel's map, near the source of a river, which flows south-east to the Halys. It formed one of the three capitals of Galatia, the other two being Tavium and Pessinus. It is celebrated in profane history as being taken by the consul Cneius Manlius Vulso; as being raised to the rank of the metropolitan city of that province by Augustus; and as entertaining the apostate Julian, on his way to the Persian war. In sacred history, Ancyra is noted for having received the impress of the feet of the great apostle of the Gentiles. It was here St. Paul preached to the Galatians. In the fourth century, Ancyra was made an episcopal see. Ancyra is the modern Angora, which is a city of considerable note in the east.

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pass by which the younger Cyrus had entered that country. He came to Tarsus, which, from Sora, was a march of 430 miles direct.

Through this city the Cydnus runs, a river remarkable for its clear and limpid streams, but very cold, with a gentle winding current. Alexander having imprudently bathed in this river in the heat of the day, and when covered with sweat and dust, a serious illness was the consequence, which threatened his life. He was recovered from his sickness by the skill of his physician, Philip, an Acarnanian, and his own magnanimity in drinking the potion prescribed, after he had received a letter, intimating that he was bribed by Darius to poison him, while Philip was reading it without any emotion. He knew the attachment and fidelity which his physician bare to him, and doubt was removed. It was well said by Aristotle, that friendship is composed of a single soul inhabiting a pair of bodies. Where true friendship exists, pain and joy are mutual; and he that touches the heart of one friend, touches the heart of the other.

In the mean time, Darius had commenced his march at the head of his numerous army, and had advanced as far as the plains of Mesopotamia. Here the Greek mercenaries advised him to wait for the enemy; but imagining that Alexander's tardiness to meet him was the effect of terror, and fearing that he would flee from him to avoid an action, he hastened toward Cilicia, where the cavalry and the number of his troops, from the mountainous nature of the country, would be of little service to him.

The order Darius observed in his march was as follows. Before the army were carried silver altars, on which burned the fire, called by them sacred and eternal; and these were followed by the magi, singing hymns, and 365 youths in scarlet robes. After these came a consecrated cart drawn by white horses, and followed by one of an extraordinary size, which they called "The horse of the sun." The equerries were dressed in white, each having a golden rod in his hand. Next appeared ten sumptuous chariots, enriched with curious sculptures in gold and silver; and then the vanguard of the horse, composed of twelve different nations, in different armour. This body was succeeded by those of the Persians, called "The Immortals,' amounting to 10,000, who surpassed the rest of the barbarians in the sumptuousness of their

Tarsus was about twelve miles north of the mouth, and thirty miles south of the southern brow of the pass through which Alexander had passed. In the days of the emperor Augustus, this city rivalled Athens, Antioch, and Alexandria, in wealth, grandeur, literature, and science. It was called Juliopolis, in honour of Julius Cesar, who spent several days here in his pursuit of Pharnaces. Here it was that Antony first met with the fascinating Cleopatra. Here it was, also, that the great apostle of the Gentiles was born. Political changes have reduced it to comparative insignificance. Kinnier, who spent a week at Tarsus, could not discover a single inscription, or any monument of beauty or magnificence. It contains two public baths, a number of mosques, several handsome caravanserai, and a church of great antiquity, said to have been erected by the apostle Paul. During the winter, there are 30,000 inhabitants; but many of the families remove during the hot seasons to the mountains.

+ Quintus Curtius says, that this car was dedicated to Jupiter; but as this god was unknown to the Persians, it is probable he calls Mithra, the first and greatest of their gods, by that name.

dress; for they all wore collars of gold, and were clothed in robes of gold tissue, having large sleeves, garnished with precious stones. About thirty paces from them came the king's relations, or cousins,* to the number of 15,000, apparelled like women, and more remarkable for the pomp of their dress than the glitter of their arms. After these came Darius himself, attended by his guards, and seated on a chariot, as on a throne. The chariot was enriched, on both sides, with images of the gods in gold and silver; and from the middle of the yoke, which was covered with jewels, rose two statues, a cubit in height; the one representing War, the other Peace, having a golden eagle between them with extended wings. The king was clothed with a garment of purple striped with silver; and over it was a long robe, glittering with gold and precious stones, on which were represented two falcons rushing from the clouds at each other. Around his waist he wore a golden girdle, whence his scimitar hung, the scabbard of which was covered with gems. On each side of Darius walked 200 of his nearest relations, followed by 10,000 horsemen, whose lances were plated with silver, and tipped with gold. After these marched 30,000 foot, the rear of the army, and, lastly, 400 horses belonging to the king.

About 100 paces from the royal division of the army came Sisygambis, the mother of Darius, seated on a chariot, and his consort on another, with female attendants of both queens riding on horseback. Afterwards came fifteen chariots, in which were the king's children, and those who had the care of their education. Next to these were the royal concubines, to the number of 360, all attired like so many queens. These were followed by 600 mules, and 300 camels, which carried the king's treasure, and were guarded by a body of bowmen. After these came the wives of the crown officers, and the lords of the court; then the sutlers and servants of the army. And finally, in the rear, were a body of light armed troops, with their commanders.

Such was the army of Darius. Surrounded with this mighty pomp, he fancied he was great, and was confident of success. In his arrogance, he wrote a letter to Alexander, styling himself king, without giving that title to Alexander. His arrogance was returned with interest, which may illustrate the dispositions of the belligerent monarchs.

Alexander, upon learning that Darius was advancing towards the Euphrates, in order to enter Cilicia, detached Parmenio with part of the army to seize the pass of Syria, that he might secure a free passage for his army. As for himself, he marched west from Tarsus to Anchialos, a city which is said to have been built by Sardanapalus. From hence he came to Soli, where he offered sacrifices to Esculapius, the god of physic, in gratitude for the recovery of his health. Alexander headed the ceremony himself with lighted tapers, followed by the whole army; and he there solemnized games; after which he returned to Tarsus.

It was thus that this body was called, and probably some of them might be the king's relations; but it must not be so understood of all.

At length Alexander himself set forward in quest of Darius. He first came to Adana,* twenty-eight miles due east of Tarsus, on the right or west bank of the Sarus. From this city Alexander marched to Mallos, thirty-five miles in direct distance, almost due south of Adana, and the southernmost projection of the coast between Tarsus and the head of the Issic Gulf. From hence he pursued his march north-east to Castabala, the modern Kastanlæ, a city amongst hills, fronting the head or innermost recess of the gulf. In his way thither he crossed the Jeihoon, a large stream, about 160 yards in breadth. From Castabala, about three miles distant, commences a defile of five miles long, through the hills, to a narrow belt of level shore, stretching nearly two miles east and west, and about three quarters of a mile broad from the foot of the hills to the sea. The mouth of this defile is called Kara Capi," The Black Gate." Along this belt the road runs to Issus, where the contest for the empire of the east took place.

Parmenio had taken the little city of Issus, and after possessing himself of the pass of Syria, had left a body of forces to secure it. Alexander left the sick in Issus,† and marched his whole army through the pass, and encamped near the city of Myriandrus, where the badness of the weather obliged him to halt.

In the mean time, Darius, contrary to the advice of the Greeks, was advancing towards the straits of Cilicia. They advised him to wait for the enemy in the plains of Assyria;‡ but his courtiers biassed his mind against their advice, and had persuaded him that Alexander's long delay was the effect of terror, inspired by the approach of the Persian army. The adverse hosts missed each other in the night, and Darius entered Cilicia by the pass of Amanus, which lies beyond that of Syria, through which Alexander had entered that country. Darius had not advanced far into Cilicia, when he was informed that Alexander fled before him, and was retiring in great disorder into Syria. He therefore turned short towards Issus, where he barbarously put to death all the sick that Alexander had left therein, a few soldiers excepted, whom, after making them view every part of his camp, he dismissed.

Word was soon brought to Alexander, that Darius was behind him in the straits of Cilicia. His keen eye saw that he was taken as in a net, and he immediately prepared for the conflict.

Adana is a large city, superior to Tarsus, and the population, chiefly composed of Turks and Turkmans, is nearly equal in number. It is beautifully situated on a rising ground, surrounded by groves of fruit trees and said to have been erected by Justinian; part of the anvineyards. There is a bridge over the Jeihoon, (Sarus,) cient wall still remains, and a noble gateway in the market-place mocks the mean architecture of the Turks.

+ There is a great diversity of opinion concerning the exact site of the city of Issus, and consequently of the precise spot where the battle was fought. D'Anville conceives that the ruins of Ayasse represent the ancient Issus; Kinnier places it at Pias; whilst Rennel and Arrowsmith fix it on the site of Oscler, called Karabolat by the Turks. Of the three, the latter seems the most likely, as it is supported by the authority of Xenophon, the Jerusalem itinerary, and five different reports of modern travellers.

Arrian calls them the plains of Assyria, but they were in reality the plains of Syria. By Greek and Latin writers, however, the term Assyria often comprehended all the tract from the Mediterranean to the river Indus.

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