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hear him was to believe in him. When the war Maspeth Avenue, Brooklyn, where the business
with Mexico began, he was active in raising vol- has since been continued. In 1828 he bought
unteers in Kentucky. In 1844 he made many 3,000 acres of land in Baltimore, where he erected
speeches in favor of Henry Clay, the Whig nomi- | the Canton Iron Works, the first of his great enter-
nee for the Presidency. In 1860 he was chosen prises in the development of the iron industry in
clerk of the Kentucky court of appeals. During the United States.
the Civil War, General Coombs was ardently de- During the excitement over the building of the
voted to the cause of the Union. His last years Baltimore and Ohio railroad in 1830, Peter Cooper
were spent in retirement. He died in Lexington, constructed, from his own designs, the first loco-
Kentucky, Aug. 21, 1881.

motive-engine ever made in this country, the Tom COOPER, Myles, an English clergyman; born Thumb, by which means the possibility of buildin England in 1735. He graduated at Oxford ing railroads with little capital was demonstrated, in 1760, and became a Fellow of Queen's Col- and the Baltimore and Ohio railroad was saved lege. In 1762 he came to America as an as- from bankruptcy. Soon after this Mr. Cooper sistant of President Johnson of King's College, sold his iron-works in Baltimore, and, returning to where he became professor of mental and moral | New York, built an iron factory, which he afterphilosophy. In the year following he became ward turned into a rolling-mill, where he first sucpresident. During 1771 President Cooper went cessfully applied anthracite coal to the puddling to England and returned a short time before the of iron, and made iron wire for several years. In opening of the Revolution. It is supposed that 1845 he removed his works to Trenton, New Jerhe published several tracts in the interest of the sey, and built three blast-furnaces in Phillipsburg, crown. His outspoken loyalist sentiments were near Easton, Pennsylvania, the largest then unfavorably received by many, and his person known; bought the Andover iron-mines, and built was threatened with violence. On one occasion, a railroad through the eight miles of country, to it is said, he took to fight from a back window bring the ore to his furnaces at the rate of 40,000 and fled to the house of a friend, sailing for Eng- tons a year. Mr. Cooper was president of the land on the day following. When he reached that New York, Newfoundland and London Telegraph country, two parishes were placed in his charge; Company, the laying of the Atlantic cable having one in Berkshire and the other in Edinburgh, in been accomplished largely by his efforts and libwhich latter place he died, May 1, 1785.

erality. He served in both branches of the New COOPER, PETER, an American philanthropist; York common council and advocated the conborn in New York City, Feb. 12, 1791. His grand-struction of the Croton aqueduct.

father, John Campbell, He was a trustee of the Public School Society,
a skillful potter in New and, awakened to the necessity of a liberal and
York, served in the Revo- industrial education, resolved to assist younger
lutionary army as deputy generations to procure what had been denied to
quartermaster, and his himself. With this idea he bought the property
father, who had served as at the intersection of Third and Fourth avenues,

lieutenant, resumed between Seventh and Eighth streets, and built
his business of hat-mak- here, from his own plans, the Cooper Union, for
ing after the war. He the advancement of science and art. The corner-
removed to Peekskill, stone was laid in 1854, and, five years afterward,
where he opened a coun- he gave a deed of the property to the trustees, in-
try store, began the brew- corporated by the state legislature. Thus far the
ing of ale, and later re- building, with its improvements, has cost nearly
moved to Catskill, where $750,000. It has an endowment of $200,000 for the
he worked at hat-making, support of a free reading-room and library. Its

and also engaged in mak- annual income is about $60,000, derived from ing bricks. His son Peter assisted him in all of rents. During the financial agitation in the United these occupations, and removed with his father to States following the crisis of 1873, Mr. Cooper Brooklyn, where they again made hats, and after- was active in the Greenback movement, and in ward settled in Newburgh and erected a brewery. 1876 the National Independent party nominated In 1808 Peter was apprenticed to John Wood- him for President. He died in New York City, ward, a carriage-maker, and while with him in April 4, 1883. vented a machine for mortising the hubs of car- COOPER, SUSAN FENIMORE, an American auriages, which proved of great value to his em- thoress, second child of JAMES FENIMORE COOPER; ployer, who offered to establish him in business, (q.v., Vol. VI, p. 337); born in Scarsdale, New which he declined. His business ceased to be suc- York, in 1813. For several years before the death cessful after the conclusion of peace with Great of her father she was his secretary and amanuBritain in 1815, and he attempted the trade of ensis. In 1873 she founded an orphanage in cabinet-making, the grocery business and the Cooperstown, New York, and in 1886 estab. manufacture of glue; for the latter he leased a lished the Friendly Society, an association of factory for 21 years, and, in addition to glue, ladies to care for the inmates of the orphanage. made oil, prepared chalk, whiting and isinglass. Her published works are Rural Hours (1850); Subsequently he bought ten acres of land on Country Hours; or, Journal of a Naturalist (1852);

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Rhyme and Reason of Country Life (1854); and Mt. the Coos, Milticoma, and several smaller rivers. Vernon to the Children of America (1858). Her The surrounding country is elevated and densely works, though little read at the present day, had timbered, and on its south side are large beds of merits of their own, and showed considerable | Tertiary lignite coal. power of observation and a pleasing, cultivated COPAIBA, BALSAM OF. See BALSAM, Vol. III, style. She died in Cooperstown, New York, p. 293. Dec. 31, 1894.

COPAIS, the ancient name of Lake Topolias, a COOPER, THOMAS, an Anglo-American scien- body of water in Bæotia, eastern central Greece. tist; born in England in 1759. He studied law Its size varies with the seasons; in summer it in England, and then went to France, where he almost entirely disappears. It receives the waters took a course in chemistry. In 1795 he moved of Mavro Potamos (Cephissus), and discharges its to the United States and practiced law in North- waters through natural and artificial subterranean umberland, Pennsylvania. In 1811-14 he was channels. The lake owes its existence to the fact professor of chemistry in Dickinson College, and that these channels cannot always carry away the in 1816–21 held a similar position in the Univer- waters which the Mavro brings down. sity of Pennsylvania. From 1820 to 1834 he was anciently famous for its eels. president of the College of South Carolina. Mr. COPE, CHARLES West, an English painter; Cooper published many works on political and born in Leeds, Yorkshire, in 1811. His paintings scientific subjects, and died in America in 1840. are chiefly of a historical nature, but he also

COOPER, THOMAS, an English political agitator; executed some valuable domestic pieces. He born in Leicester in March, 1805, the son of a poor frescoed the peers' corridor in the Houses of widow. He was bred a shoemaker, opened a Parliament. He became a Royal Academician in school in Lincoln, joined the Wesleyan Methodists 1848, and professor of painting to the Academy and became a local preacher. In 1839 he went to in 1867. Among his notable paintings are Hagar London to enter upon journalism, but found little and Ishmael (1836); The Cotter's Saturday Night;

Returning to Leicester, he joined the Edward the Black Prince Receiving the Order of standards of CHARTISM (q.v., Vol V, p. 433), the Garter (1845); and The Last Days of Wolsey, and was as fiery in utterance as Feargus O'Connor. painted for Prince Albert. His plate of The Life Indicted and acquitted for arson following a riot Class is considered one of the finest English etchat Hanley, in Staffordshire, in 1842, he was subse- ings. He died at Bournemouth, Hampshire, quently convicted of seditious conspiracy and im- Aug. 21, 1890. prisoned for two years in Stafford jail. Here he COPE, EDWARD DRINKER, an American natucomposed an epic in Spenserian stanza, The Purga- ralist; born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, July 28, tory of Suicides, full of force, and not without 1840. His great-grandmerit. On his release he still meddled in poli- father, Caleb Cope, protics, but the firebrand utterances were gone. He tected Major André from lectured on political and social subjects; was an a mob in 1775; his grandatheist for ten years, but returned to belief and father, Thomas PymCope, the Baptists. W. E. Forster, Samuel Morley and established a line of ships a few friends saved his last years from want by across the Atlantic, and an annuity of $500. In 1882 he published his founded a great linenautobiography, of personal interest, rather than house in Philadelphia. literary merit. He died in Lincoln, July 15, On his retirement the 1892.

business passed into the CO-OPERATIVE BANKS. See BUILDING hands of his sons, Henry AND LOAN ASSOCIATIONS, in these Supplements. and Alfred, under the

COOPERSTOWN, a pleasant village and the firm name of Cope Brothcapital of Otsego County, southeastern central ers, and Edward Cope New York, on the Cooperstown and Charlotte was the son of the latter. His early education Valley railroad, named for the novelist James was acquired at Westtown Academy and the Fenimore Cooper, .who once resided here. It lies University of Pennsylvania.

University of Pennsylvania. He studied comat the south end of Otsego Lake. An academy, parative anatomy in the Academy of Sciences a hospital and an orphan asylum are located here. in Philadelphia, and then spent the years 1863-64 Population 1890, 2,657

in study in the universities of Europe, returning COOSA, a river of the southern United States, in 1864 to accept the chair of natural science in formed at Rome, Georgia, by the junction of the Haverford College, which he resigned in 1867. Etowah and Oostanaula rivers; thence it flows Meanwhile, he became palæontologist to the westward into Alabama, then southward, and with United States government surveys under Hayden many windings reaches the Tallapoosa River, with and Wheeler, discovering more than one thousand which it unites to form the Alabama, in the eastern new species of extinct and recent vertebrates. In central part of the state. Length, about 350 miles. 1869 he was called to the chair of geology in the

COOS BAY, a large inlet in the coast of south- University of Pennsylvania. He became a memern Oregon, in Coos County. Its entrance is just ber of the National Academy of Science, was northeast of Cape Arago, lat. 43° 20' 38" N., long. vice-president of the American Association for the 124° 22' 1" W. The bay receives the waters of Advancement of Science in 1884 and its president





in 1896, and of many other scientific societies in Ans (1878); Madame de Maintenon (1881); Les America and Europe. The Bigsby gold medal Jacobites (1885).

Jacobites (1885). His collected plays were pubwas conferred on him in 1879 by the Geological lished in four volumes in 1886. Society of Great Britain. A graceful writer, he COPPÉE, HENRY, an American educator; born contributed some four hundred papers to the in 1821. He was educated at Yale and West Point, literature of science, for the most part in favor graduating in 1839 and 1845, respectively. He of the doctrine of evolution, being a strong advo- served as an officer of artillery through the Mexicate of the Neo-Lamarckian school. (See HE- can War, and received the brevet of captain for REDITY, in these Supplements.) He is the senior gallantry.

gallantry. From 1850 to 1855 he was assistant editor of the American Naturalist. Among his

Among his professor of geography, history and ethics at published works on palæontology are History of West Point, and from 1855 to 1866 was professor the Cetacea of the Eastern North American Coast of English literature in the University of Pennsyl(1866); Systematic Arrangement of the Extinct Ba- vania. From 1866 to 1875 he was president of trachia, Reptilia and Aves of North America (1869- Lehigh University, and than exchanged the presi70); Extinct Vertebrata of the Eocene Formations of dency for the professorship of history. From Wyoming (1873); Tertiary Vertebrata (1885); The 1874 till his death he was regent of the SmithBatrachia of North America (1889); The Snakes sonian Institution. He published many works on and Lizards of North America (1896); and of evo- scientific and other subjects. His last literary lution: On the Origin of Genera (1868); Hypothesis work was Life of General George H. Thomas. He of Evolution, Physical and Metaphysical (1870); died March 21, 1895. Evolution and Its Consequences (1872); The Origin COPPERHEAD (Ancistrodon contortrix), a venof Will (1877); Origin of Man and Other Vertebrates omous serpent of the rattlesnake family, found (1885); The Energy of Life Evolution, and how it in eastern North America. It possesses no rattles. has Acted (1885); The Origin of the Fittest (1886); The name refers to the bronze-colored head. The and The Primary Factors of Organic Evolution body is reddish brown above, with dark-brown (1896).

transverse stripes and scattered spots; below, it COPEHAN INDIANS. See California In- is flesh-colored and spotted. Like its allies, it is dians, under INDIANS, Vol. XII, p. 826.

viviparous. The term copperhead had a politiCOPELAND, RALPH, astronomer royal for cal significance during the stormy period of the Scotland and professor of practical astronomy in

Civil War. From the stealthy advance of the the University of Edinburgh. He was born at copperhead-snake, which, unlike the rattlesnake, Woodplumpton, Lancashire, in 1837. He de- gives no notice of its approach, the word was aptermined early to devote his life to astronomy, plied to the Northern sympathizers with slavery, and studied at the University of Göttingen, be- secession and the South, who by secret organizacoming assistant to the late Professor Klinkerfuss tions endeavored to impede the due prosecution at the observatory there. He assisted Earl Rosse

of the war.

It had an earlier use in the same in his astronomical observations. Since 1876 he sense, having first been applied to the Indians, has been connected with Lord Crawford's ob- and later to the Dutch colonists, servatory at Dun Echt. In order to observe prop- COPPERMINE RIVER, a stream in Canada, erly the transit of Venus, he visited Mauritius and which enters a bay of the Arctic Ocean, northeast Jamaica. He also traveled extensively in Peru of the Great Bear Lake, after a course of about and Bolivia, in which countries he pursued his

See also HEARNE, SAMUEL, Vol. XI, observations and scientific studies, frequently at p. 551. heights exceeding fourteen thousand feet.

COPPER- MINING IN THE UNITED COPE PODA. See CRUSTACEA, Vol. VI, p. 664. STATES. The copper-production in the United

COPPÉE, FRANCIS EDOUARD JOACHIM, some- States in 1895 amounted to 386,453,850 pounds, times known as François Coppée, a French author; and was chiefly confined to five or six states and born in Paris, Jan. 12, 1842; educated at the St. territories. Louis Lyceum, and employed in his early years Montana came first, with a production of 194,on the clerical staff of the French war department. 768,925 pounds; Michigan second, with 129,740,His first laurels were won as a poet, and while 765 pounds; Arizona third, with 48,399,403 young. Romantic verse for recitation soon made pounds,-a production for the two states and him famous. Then he turned to the theater as territory of 372,909,093 pounds, which is over 96 affording a wider scope for his talents, writing per cent of the entire output. several popular dramas. Napoleon III took an The United States is by far the largest prointerest in him, and appointed him one of the libra- ducer of copper in the world, and possesses at rians in the Luxembourg Palace. In 1878 he least two of the greatest copper-mines in the was chosen archivist of the Comédie Française, world, the Anaconda of Montana being the first was elected to the French Academy, Feb. 24,

in size and the Calumet and Hecla of Lake 1884, and in 1888 was made an officer of the Superior the third in size and importance in the Legion of Honor. Coppée has published several world. The second place is held by the Rio volumes of poems, prose sketches and romances. Tinto mines of southern Spain, which produced Among his most successful plays may be men- about 50,000,000 pounds in 1895. tioned Le Passant (1869); Fais ce que Dois (1871); Of the United States ores, the richest in quality Le Luthier de Crémone (1877); La Guerre de Cent are those of Arizona, being oxides yielding about

300 miles.




ten per cent of metallic copper, and are easily re- speech in the world. It has generally been rep. duced. The Montana ores yield about seven per

resented that the United States most obstructed cent of copper and a large amount of both silver provisions for fair adjustments, owing to an enand gold.

thusiasm there for cheap books, obtained in whatThe Lake Superior ores are chiefly of native ever way, a respect for protective principles of copper, and nearly pure, but the cost of produc- trade and the peculiar greed of American pubtion is not materially less than the Arizona or lishers. There is no real ground for this invidMontana ores.

ious distinction between the two countries. Notwithstanding the general depression piracy was not equally common, it was because throughout the commercial world, the copper out- literary fecundity was greater in Great Britain put in the United States in 1895 exceeded that in than in America, and her authors enjoyed the 1894 by about 30,000,000 pounds, and the market wider celebrity.

wider celebrity. That insular realm thought no price of copper remained firm, even showing some good could come out of the Transatlantic advance. These facts are owing to the large’ex- Nazareth, and when it did come, publishers were tension of the uses into which the metal is com- more careful to suppress the knowledge of its ing. The chief demand is for electrical uses and origin than to forego the profits of its reproducappliances; but, besides this, there has been an tion. American books were garbled, their scenes increased demand for the brass and yellow-metal and names changed until they had the appeartrade, as well as for the manufacture of weapons ance of British authorship, and American authors and cartridges, and in ship-building.

were compelled to witness the filching, not only J. F. CARGILL.

of their property, but of their renown.

For years there were prolonged discussions on COPPER OR ATNA RIVER, a river of south- this subject in literary and secular papers on eastern Alaska, which rises at the foot of Mt. both sides of the sea, and repeated essays were Wrangell, at about lat. 62° 20' N., long. 144o W., made by both nations to come to some agreewest-northwest till it reaches the valley of the ment on a reciprocal basis by treaty, but if the Alaskans, flows along their southern slopes, then American publisher wished to get his literary turns south and flows into the Pacific Ocean, wares for nothing, England, too, was reluctant to where it has formed a delta. Its course is tortu- be just without compensation. So long as the ous and its length is about 400 miles. Its name publishers could influence their governments, all comes from the copper found at points in its treaty negotiations were doomed to failure. The course.

British publisher wished the American market COPPER OR CUIVRE RIVER, a stream of opened to his expensive three-volumed editions eastern Missouri, which rises in Audrain County, without competition, and would approve of no flows southeast and empties into the Mississippi, copyright which would not secure him that boon. 50 miles above St. Louis. It flows through a On the other hand, the American publisher was fertile, undulating, agricultural and forest district. perhaps no less reluctant to be obliged to pay It is 130 miles long, and affords considerable mo- royalties on books that he heretofore had ob

tained freely by piracy. It is true that ParliaCOPPER OXIDE CELL. See ELECTRICITY, mentary statutes made provision for copyright $ 105, in these Supplements.

reciprocity, and the legislation of the United . COPTIC CHURCH. See EGYPT, Vol. VII, States did not. But it gradually became manipp. 728, 748, 749; see also ROMAN CATHOLIC | fest that nothing

fest that nothing would be accomplished by CHURCH, Vol. XX, p. 631.

negotiation, and that the solution of the probCOPTIC LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. lem must be sought in Congressional legislation See EGYPT, Vol. VIII, p. 721.

alone. *COPYRIGHT. The article on COPYRIGHT, A movement began in 1878, in Paris, to promote Vol. VI, pp. 356–367, brought the subject of pro- greater security for authors and artists, and its tection to the reproduction of literary and art promoters took the name of the Literary and work down to 1877, and since that time the sub- Artistic International Association, and after ject of international copyright has entered upon seven years succeeded in organizing, at Berne, new phases, as well in Europe as in the United Switzerland, the International Copyright Union. States. This is the only important part of the The Berne conference of 1885 comprised reprelegislative system that needed much modification, sentatives from Britain, Germany, France, Spain, and it was the one through which the greatest Switzerland and Sweden and Norway, and it injustices were wrought. While most European drafted a convention which gradually extended states were well disposed to accord protection to to Belgium, Italy, Portugal, Denmark and Mexico, pure mental productions, without regard to boun- and it now regulates the copyright reciprocity of dary lines, differences of speech lowered the value those nations. of such protection, except as to translations and An act of Congress approved on the 3d of dramatic, musical and art works, without the March, 1891, committed the United States to author's consent. Between the United King- reciprocal international copyright, and went into dom and the United States the condition of operation on the following July 1st. Among the affairs was quite different, for together they com- causes contributing to the revolution in a policy prised the largest reading constituency using one that had lasted for a century, the most potent * Copyright, 1897, by The Werner Company.

tive power.

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was the union of organizations of authors, pub- | their support two of the leading typographical lishers and typographers to effect it.

unions in the country. After several bills upon From time to time, bills had been introduced which this federation was agreed had failed in into Congress to establish international copy. Congress, but by decreasing majorities, the Chase right, but they had been smothered under the bill, so named from its author, a Senator from pretext that the public did not demand any Rhode Island, reached the President on the last change of legislation. It was necessary, there- day of the Fifty-first Congress, when his signafore, to create a sentiment strong and definite ture made it a law. enough to command respect at Washington. Under this act, copyright was opened to any Abandoning all hope from treaty negotiations, an author, without regard to nationality, with this reAuthors' International Copyright League was striction: organized on the 13th of April, 1883, to agitate for

“That this act shall only apply to a citizen or subject a reform on the moral ground of observing the of a foreign state or nation when such foreign state or sixth commandment. This association event- nation permits to citizens of the United States of Amer. ually became known as the American Copyright basis as its own citizens, or when such foreign state or

ica the benefit of copyright on substantially the same League, and it soon found allies in local organiza- nation is party to an international agreement which proions of like character.

vides for reciprocity in the granting of copyright, by the American authors claimed that the production terms of which the United States of America may, at its of pirated books was fatal to the welfare of their pleasure, become a party to such an agreement. The excraft, because it enabled publishers to supply the

istence of either of the conditions named shall be deter

mined by the President of the United States by proclamareading demand of the public by cheap editions tion made from time to time, as the purposes of this act of foreign authors, on which they had no royal- may require. ties to pay. Who would buy at a fair price an In 1896 the United States had entered into American manuscript, when he could reproduce, agreements of reciprocal copyright with Belgium, without other charge than the cost of manufac- France, Germany, Great Britain and her possesture, the best books of the best-known foreign sions, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and writers?

Denmark. An American may secure copyright There had also sprung up among the older in Belgium by registering his work at the Departpublishers a usage known as the “courtesy of the ment of Agriculture, Industry and Public Works trade.” Under it an American publisher who in Brussels. In France it is given upon the debought advance sheets of any work from a Brit- | posit of two copies of the work with the Minister ish publisher, or made engagements with him for of the Interior in Paris. In Great Britain the title the reproduction of one of his books, was per- must be entered at Stationers' Hall, London, mitted by his American competitors to enjoy the and a fee of five shillings paid, with an equal admonopoly of reproducing that publication in the ditional sum if a certiñed copy of the entry is United States. It was a usage that began with demanded. The work must be published simultaMatthew Carey and Sons of Philadelphia, who first neously in the realm and in the United States, and bought advance sheets of the Waverley Novels, five copies deposited at the Hall for four libraand it grew into an imperious custom of certain ries and the British Museum. In Canada the work great houses.

No profit accrued to authors, for must be registered, and two copies deposited with they were not in the trade. When Anthony the Minister of Agriculture at Ottawa, and a fee of Trollope complained that his books were repub- one dollar paid, fifty cents being required for a cerlished in the United States, from which he re

tified copy

of the entry. In Switzerland nothing is ceived not a penny of advantage, the American required, but the owner may register his work at publisher of his novels publicly replied that he | Berne, in the Department of Commerce and Inhad uniformly remitted money proportionate to dustry, and deposit a copy there, paying a fee of his sales to the English publisher. But there two francs. the money remained, leaving Trollope no richer. A long mooted question as to whether one may The usage had the peculiar merit that the reproduce anything one can memorize from the American republisher could make his own terms, public representation of a drama or musical comfor, of course, the foreign house could not sell the position, not copyrighted, is definitely settled. American market, to which he had no legal title. Every unauthorized reproduction of a manuscript The arrangement only operated to protect one renders the perpetrator liable to action for damAmerican publisher against those of his compet- ages. Copyrights are still assignable and heritaitors in this country who respected the "courtesy able, and no change is made in the proprietary of the trade.” But the gentility of this modi- rights of renewal. Copyrightable works must be fied piracy could not obscure the lucrative char- manufactured in the United States, and all piratacter of the business, and new houses sprang up ical copies of them are to be destroyed at the that did not observe the usage.

To repress these custom-house, except that any person may purcheap Ishmaelites of the trade, the older houses chase for use, and not for sale, not more than two came at last to think an international copyright de- copies of a foreign duplication of a copyrighted sirable. Hence, at the suggestion of the Authors' work, subject to tariff duties. Copyright cov. League, the American Publishers' Copyright ering only translations does not forbid the im. League was organized in 1887, in New York. portation of copies of the original text. The The two associations co-operated, and drew to Secretary of the Treasury is directed to make

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