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LIBRARY SCHOOL EXAMINATIONS. THE bound volume of the "Regents' examination papers for 1894," just issued by the State University (392 p. O.) contains, p. 259-296, the library examination papers of the past year. There are 23 papers, covering questions in elementary and advanced bibliography, accession department and shelf department, elementary and advanced classification and cataloging, loan systems, library buildings, printing, binding, literature, French and German. The questions are most interesting and admirable for their scope and method of arrangement.

State Library Associations.


CONNECTICUT LIBRARY ASSOCIATION, THE Connecticut Library Association held its fourth annual meeting on Feb. 22, in the hall of the Normal School, New Britain. Professor Samuel Hart, D.D., the president, called it to order and introduced Professor Camp, of New Britain, who in a short address of welcome invited the association to visit the Normal School library and New Britain Institute. Dr. Hart in his reply referred to the work of the Normal School and board of education in connection of the secretary and treasurer, the discussion of with libraries. After the reading of the reports the morning on "How to keep libraries clean of the New London Public Library. The paper was opened with a paper by Miss Lucy Butler, advocated a thorough cleaning once a year and mentioned that students in the Paris libraries are now obliged to wear muzzles in order to prevent inhaling microbes from ancient dust. Several librarians spoke in favor of holding books over a pan of water and brushing them with a stiff brush, but never with a feather duster. The Bronson Library, Waterbury, and Newton Case Library in this city are so near railroads that coal-dust sifts in upon the books. The Yale library is not swept, but cleaned with a wet sponge or a split mop-stick with clamps and a ring. Books are dusted out-of-doors in Several libraries clean the summer vacation.

a few shelves every day and as soon as all the books have been dusted, in three or six months, begin again.

The Rev. Dr. Cooper, of New Britain, read a paper on "The private library." A private library, he said, need not be large, but must be a part of oneself and have individuality and character. A man who collects books merely for rare editions and elegant bindings does not own a library. Every intelligent young person should own books and every house should have its own little library. Books and a garden are the two most graceful appurtenances of a home. One should buy standard books to the extent of at least two or three great authors, resolving to be taught by them, and after that follow one's own hobby, like a leading business man in New Britain, who owns four or five hundred volumes One of the chief on the Eastern question. functions of a public library is to encourage the ownership of books, and its mission is not fulfilled until its general benefit is specialized. Librarians in small towns where there are no booksellers can aid readers in buying, advise as to the best editions and make arrangements with dealers in large cities better than persons not used to handling books. There is no antagonism between public and private libraries. Intimate association with the few does not shut us out from the many.

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Mr. George Watson Cole, librarian of the Free Public Library of Jersey City, then read a paper entitled "American libraries; their past, present, and future."*

one under a trained librarian. She recommended a uniform classification for school and college libraries, in order that a high-school pu- Library Club was held on Monday evening, FebTHE 14th regular meeting of the Pennsylvania pil need waste no time in college in learn-ruary 11, at the Franklin Institute, Philadeling how to buy books. She found only four out of 20 college libraries which do not find a dictionary catalog more useful than a classed one. Children should be admitted to school libraries as soon as they learn how to handle books carefully. They soon learn how to use a catalog, and under the care and advantage of open shelves, the working of delivery A discussion followed the paper, and the advice of a school librarian, learn to have a nice stations and branch libraries, and cards for the sense of the value of reading and learn the prac-"two-book" tical use of books. A school or college librarian discussed. [The officers elected at the January system were some of the topics should have the general knowledge of many meeting are as follows: President, John Thomsubjects which a college training gives, should be an educator, and possess the true spirit of serson; vice-presidents, Henry J. Carr and Alice vice. Miss Champlin suggested that some one Rigling. The names as given in the previous B. Kroeger; secretary and treasurer, Alfred wishing to endow a library should found one for children. Mr. Perry, of the Newton Case Lireport were incorrect.] brary, thought that the function of the college library is being absorbed by professors who are specialists.


After dinner at the Russwin the following officers were elected: President, Willis K. Stetson, of the New Haven Public Library; vice-presidents, Dr. A. S. Beardsley of the Plym-28, outh Library, Professor D. N. Camp, of New Britain; C. Amelia Clark, of the Acton Library, Saybrook; Jennie A. Ford, of the Dunham Li brary, Willimantic; Jonathan Trumbull, of the Otis Library, Norwich; secretary, Mary A. Richardson, of the New London Public Library; assistant secretary, Angeline Scott, of the South Norwalk Public Library; treasurer, Mrs. Agnes Hills, of the Bridgeport Public Library.

A paper by Mr. W: N. Carlton, of the Watkinson Library, on the recent Napoleon exhibition at that library was read, stating that 400 illustrations, including 80 portraits of Napoleon, ranging from a low-born villain to an idealistic demigod, were shown.

The Hon. Leverett Brainard was unable to be present to open a discussion on bookbinding, but sent C: E. Beebe, of Hartford, who exhibited various styles of binding, saying that both "Russia" and "seal" are made from the back of the same animal, the common domestic cow. He showed the binding of a subscription book, held in place only by a piece of cheesecloth, and stated that books are often kept too long and used too much before they are rebound.

Secretary C. D. Hine, of the State Board of Education, spoke on the work of the Connecticut Public Library Committee.

A memorial sketch of Mrs. Martha Todd Hill, of Stonington, one of the earliest officers of the association, prepared by her husband, the Rev. Charles F. Hill, was read. It was through her efforts that the Stonington Public Library was founded.

An invitation from the Bill Memorial Library in Groton for the next meeting was read by the secretary, and referred to the executive committee. The association. after a vote of thanks to the principal of the Normal School and the other kind friends in New Britain who had aided in making the day a pleasant one, adjourned late in the afternoon.


the leading librarians of the state, a meeting PURSUANT to a call issued by a number of was held in Columbus, O., on February 27 and

and the Ohio Library Association was The first meeting was held Wednesday evening, Feb. 27, in the parlors of the Neil House, when a temporary organization was effected. Mr. J. H. Spielman, of the Columbus Public School Library, acted as chairman, and Mr. Burrows, of Chillicothe, as secretary.

and others in sympathy with the movement Thursday morning about 35 librarians assembled in the State Library and completed the organization by adopting a constitution of the association such persons as are interbroad enough in its scope to admit as members ested in library work and who shall be recommended for membership by the executive committee.

Mr. W. H. Brett, of the Cleveland Public Library, was unanimously elected president. The other officers are First vice-president Mrs. Frances D. Jermain, of the Public Library, Toledo; second vice-president, Mr. Robert C. Woodward, Springfield Public Library; third vice-president, Miss Nana A. Newton, of Portsmouth Public Library; secretary, Miss Boardman, of the State Library; treasurer, Mr. Charles Orr, of the Case Library, Cleveland. These Rutherford P. Hayes, of Fremont, who was officers constitute the executive board with Mr. chosen as an additional and advisory member.

The final business session was held Thursday evening, in the Public School Library, at the close of which a unanimous vote of thanks was tendered for all courtesies extended. Mr. Spielman then invited the visitors to the assemblyroom, where refreshments were served, and a general good time followed.

The next meeting of the association will be held at Cleveland, during October, and the regular sessions annually thereafter.


*To be published in No. 3 of the "Occasional papers " of the club.

March, '95]



A librarian should be a leader and a
able to win the confidence of children, and wise
teacher, earnest, enthusiastic, and intelligent,
to lead them by easy stages from good books to
the best and to train them to be intelligent
Then comes the choice of books.
should be good and wholesome and interesting
not necessarily interesting to the Rev. Dr.
Smith, who frequently chooses them, but to
plain John Smith, the laborer, and his children.
They should be largely for the children, because
children are more easily trained to enjoy good
books than adults, because the homes are best
reached through them and because every one
loves the great children's classics.

The public library should be as much like the
accessible to every one. People may thus be en-
home library as possible. Its shelves should be
have special mental aptitudes, whether these
couraged in the study of subjects for which they
may be in the higher forms of literature or
whether they relate to the practical processes
by which mechanics earn their daily wages.

Libraries started with an assured income, with the right spirit, a good librarian and entertaining books can hardly fail of success. Many problems will arise as the library grows, but great help may always be obtained from the of counsel to those organizing libraries may experience of other libraries. The final word in other libraries, so that this great fund of well be to get into touch with their co-workers A paper on "The province of the Wisconsin experience may be constantly at their service. The objects of the association were said to be Library Association" was read by the secretary. threefold: first the encouragement of the founding of libraries; second, assisting those already established; third, fostering a fraternal spirit among librarians.

Miss Anna E. Hanscome, La Crosse Library, Adaptation of libraries to local needs." She advocated read an interesting paper on the " special collections to meet special needs in manufacturing communities; a Children's Day, with special lectures to children, etc.

Miss L. M. Sutermeister, Eau Claire Library, value of a classified arrangement of books to Miss Sutermeister followed with an instructive address on "The librarians and readers." showed the absolute necessity of such timeThis address was followed by five-minute resaving methods in modern library economy. ports from libraries.


At the evening session, President Charles address on the "Educational Kendall Adams, of the University of Wisconsin, delivered power of a library." Professor J. C. Freeman, braries and university extension," in which he of the University of Wisconsin, spoke on "Liattacked the travelling library idea, as tending to keep people from owning the standard used in university extension work, was warmly works of literature. The travelling library, as Prof. E. A. Birge, of defended by Mr. R. G. Thwaites, secretary of the Historical Society, who had used such librathe University of Wisconsin, urged greater cories with great success.


THE fourth conference of the Wisconsin Library Association was held in Madison, on Wednesday and Thursday, February 13 and 14, 1895. The conference was attended by 55 persons-representatives from the free libraries of Milwaukee, Madison, Fond du Lac, La Crosse, Green Bay, Eau Claire, Menomonie, Neenah, Beaver Dam, Mineral Point, Fort Atkinson, and Oconomowoc, and by representatives from the libraries of the State University, the State Historical Society and the Public Library Association at Whitewater. Among others in attendance were Miss Katherine L. Sharp, director of the Library Training Class, Armour Institute, Chicago, Ill.; Trustees Koeppen, Peckham, Lindsay and Hamm, Milwaukee Public Library; E. A. Birge, Madison, Wis., and Senator J. H. Stout, Menomonie Memorial Library.

"" How to The session was opened with an address by the president, F. A. Hutchins, on organize free public libraries in Wisconsin." The president stated that there were 25 free libraries in the state, of which 15 had been organized under the state law. No library which has been organized under this law has died; while nearly all the libraries which have charged fees have failed and the few subscription libraries now in operation have a very limited usefulness. As a first step towards a free library, the people should understand its purpose. Too often the educated people, who are its foremost champions, unwittingly create the impression that a public library is needed mainly as a resort for boys or as conveniences for professional and cultivated people and genteel literary clubs. The main purpose These are false notions. of a library is as distinctly educational as is that of the school, only its work is broader. It commences with children as young or younger than those the school takes, it follows them through the school life and then becomes their college, whose eclectic courses broaden through a life-time's work.

In attempts to persuade men and women, it is safe to rely upon the strength and constancy of parental love and ambition, and when you have convinced the fathers and mothers of a community that a library will make their children better, morally and mentally, you can count upon their influence to establish it and upon their subsequent patronage.

The necessity of a library should be urged through the press, upon the platform, and by private appeals. Include in the canvass all citizens, irrespective of creed, business, or politics, whether they are educated or illiterate. To ignore any class is to imply its indifference to education and frequently to make its leaders hostile when they might have been made enthusiastic friends.

The success of a library depends largely upon the wise use of the first money it receives. First of all comes the librarian-the soul of the library. Neither politics nor social, family or church ties, neither kindly private relations nor charitable considerations should have any weight in choosing a librarian. Save money in other ways, but not by employing a forceless man or

operation between libraries and university ex- fully use the power and influence which they tension work. In his department-biology-possessed in the community. he rarely found in libraries even the simplest works upon his subject. The study which should accompany and follow an extension course depends largely upon the resources of the local public library.

Dr. Geo. W. Peckham, superintendent of schools and ex-officio member of the board of trustees, Milwaukee Public Library, presented a paper on "State library commissions," giving the history of those of Massachusetts and New Hampshire and showing what may be gained by similar laws in Wisconsin. A bill creating a state library commission, which had been previously introduced into the legislature by Senator J. H. Stout, trustee of the Menomonie Library, received the unanimous support of the Association, and a committee of five was appointed to aid in furthering its passage.


At the Round Table Conference, on the morning of February 14, papers were read on the following topics, succeeded by interesting discussions: "Selection of books," Miss A. Van Valkenburgh, Milwaukee Public Library; "Purposes of a card catalog," Mrs. S. H. Miner, Madison; "Bound periodicals-how to get and how to use them," Miss M. J. Doolittle, Beaver Dam ; "Children's rights in a small library,' Miss A. H. McDonnell, Green Bay; "The best books for teachers and pupils in the grades," L. E. Gettle, Library Clerk State Superintendent's Office; Question-box," under direction of Miss M. M. Oakley, Madison, Wis. The afternoon session was devoted to the Trustees' Section and proved to be most helpful and suggestive. Miss Katherine L. Sharp, director of the Training Class, Armour Institute, in a carefully prepared paper on" The library school and training classes," showed their differences and points of resemblance, the aims and scope of each. The paper was followed by the closest attention and much interest in the work subsequently evinced.

The president announced that Senator J. H. Stout had volunteered to pay the necessary expenses of a Summer School in Library Economy, in connection with the Summer School of the State University.

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Prof. E. A. Birge, trustee of the Madison Library, followed with a keen yet genial talk on" The choice of a librarian," and "The librarian from the trustee's point of view."

Dr. Birge said that the librarian must possess all the cardinal virtues as a matter of course. Besides this foundation he should have, first, executive ability, which, Dr. Birge held, included a capacity for initiative with his trustees; second, a power which for lack of a better term he called "book-sense ”; and third the knack of getting his books into the hands of his people. Dr. Birge considers that the trustee, as compared with the librarian, is a very unimportant factor in the library.

Miss Theresa West, Milwaukee Public Library followed Dr. Birge in the complementary paper on "The trustees from the librarian's point of view."

Miss West drew attention to the difference in the purpose of the city or town library of to-day from that of the library of the past. The first is primarily for the education of the people. The second was primarily for the preservation of books. This difference in purpose demands a more liberal policy and more varied capacities on the part of the trustees. Trustees are rarely appointed except they have attained a certain eminence for some quality, either knowledge of books, business sagacity, known integrity or political power. Each of these qualities may be almost equally valuable to the library. Trustees were urged to appoint librarians whom they trusted | and then to grant freedom to execute, to give power and exact results. The question was suggested whether trustees did not accept limitations for their libraries from lack of funds which need not be accepted if the trustees would

Miss Katherine L. Sharp was unanimously elected the first honorary member of the Association.

Officers for 1895-96: President, F. A. Hutchins, Madison; vice-president, Miss Anna McDonnell, Green Bay; secretary and treasurer, Miss L. E. Stearns. LUTIE E. STEARNS, Secretary.


THE Iowa Library Society held its fifth annual meeting in Des Moines, Dec. 26-27, 1894. For the first time the society met as a section of the State Teachers' Association. On account of illness, President T. S. Parvin and Vice-President Mrs. Ada North were unable to attend, and Hon. H. W. Lathrop was chosen president pro


The privileges and duties of library trustees, the diffusion of information concerning our libraries throughout the state, and plans for library instruction in the state were the principal topics discussed.

The following addresses were presented: Opening address President Parvin, ibrarian Iowa Masonic Library, Cedar Rapids. Report of the acts of the General Assembly in relation to public libraries— Judge G: W. Wakefield, president board of trustees, Sioux City Public Library.

Reference work: its demands and the best methods of improving them Miss Ella M. McLoney, librarian Des Moines Public Library.

A public library a necessity in every town and city of the state Hon. C. H. Gatch, president board of trustees, Des Moines Public Library.

How and by whom should library assistants be employed?-Mrs. Stella B. Morse, Des Moines. The relation of trustees to their libraries Judge Wakefield, trustee Sioux City Public Library.

The relation of our public libraries to each other and to the people of the state-Hon. H. W. Lathrop, librarian State Historical Society, Iowa City.

A practical course of study suited to the needs of Iowa libraries Miss Esther Crawford, librarian Sioux City Public Library.

Duties of trustees of public libraries and how

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THE February meeting of the New York Library Club was held at the Methodist Library on Thursday, Feb. 14, the subject being, "Help of libraries in training for citizenship.'

President Poole said that the idea of bringing up this subject for discussion came to him through correspondence with a gentleman in the West, who has been engaged for some time in laying out plans to interest boys in government. He has talks by prominent men to which all the boys are invited, excursions to places of historic interest, and mock voting contests to teach them the Australian system. Some of his ideas might well be introduced into our public schools, for we are living in peculiar times, with corruption and misgovernment everywhere, and it is of the highest importance that the boys have right ideas instilled in them. It is the librarian's place to help forward in this great work. He should put on the shelves books which will interest the boys in our government, inspire them with ideas of honesty and teach them that our rulers are our servants. Among the books recommended for this purpose are: Prof. Seeley's "Citizenship," "The Century book for young Americans," "What a boy saw in the army," Parkhurst's "Our fight with Tammany," Hoffman's "Sphere of state,' and Conkling's "City government in the U. S." Every library should also have the February Bulletin of the Providence Public Library, which contains a bibliographical list on municipal government.

At the Brooklyn Y. M. C. A. a series of sociological talks have been given by such men as R. R. Bowker, Jacob Riis, and Judge White, and great enthusiasm has been aroused which has resulted in forming classes in Christian sociology and civil government. By this means the use of the library is stimulated and people, being brought to think along lines of government soon learn to think along right lines, and, being made to realize their position towards society, are ready to do their part wards making it right. At the Railroad Men's Branch of the Y. M.

C. A. nothing has been done on the special line of good government, but a course of select reading has been made up, different distinguished men having been asked to select the IO best books in their line of study. Thus, Drs. Vincent and Cuyler selected books on religion, George Gunton on economics, Hamilton Mabie on fiction, Theodore Roosevelt on travel, and Justin Winsor on English and American history. These books have been put together in the form of the travelling libraries and little pamphlets have been printed with the list of books and rules of the course.

Mr. Pasko thought that the fires of patriotism were dying out in the United States, and that it was the duty of the librarian to stir them up. All dull books, like the majority of lives and speeches, should be kept out of sight, while such books as Parkman's should be brought prominently before the reader.

Rev. Dr. Thomas gave a very interesting account of how he secured books and magazines for the soldiers, in the time of the war, at half price, realizing the necessity for this after seeing with what eagerness they read anything they could get hold of, even the cheapest and trashi

est of books. Mr. Nelson then called on him to

explain his method of preserving newspapers and periodicals. As the Methodist Library receives a great number of these, it was necessary to find the cheapest and most convenient way of disposing of them, a problem which he has solved to his satisfaction by using manilla rope paper. This must be folded the way of the grain and with the convex side out, and when so treated adapts itself readily to the shape of the volis necessary, and forming a very durable cover. ume within, thus taking up no more space than It is a method which must be seen and explained in order to be appreciated, and all librarians who have problems of that nature to deal with should not fail to call on Dr. Thomas for the explanation.

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The meeting was presided over by Miss Lydia A. Dexter, of the Newberry Library. The program, combining excellent musical and to-literary features, was opened by a piano solo by Mr. James F. Baldwin. The regular club business, reading of minutes, etc., was then

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