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arrivo in America.
April 8, 1917—House of Reprosentativos declaros authority to make war. The Senate by army and in the meantime the effort to April 8, 1917--Austria-Hungary breaks off diplo. a vote of 82 to 6 and the House of do so would curtail our export of war April 22, 1917–British and French war missions Representatives by a majority of 373 munitions upon which England, France
to 50 approved the declaration of war. and Italy largely relied. This was, perThe German reply to the peace
The action of the United States was haps, the most serious miscalculation overtures of the United States came as
soon followed by Cuba's declaration of that Germany made during the course a shock to the American public, which
war and by the severance of diplomatic of the entire war. had believed that peace in Europe was
relations between Germany and Brazil, Congress promptly authorized the near and that in any case the danger Bolivia, Hayti, San Domingo, Panama, Government to borrow $7,000,000,000 that the war would spread to this side Guatemala, Nicaragua and Honduras. for the prosecution of the war and to of the Atlantic was safely past. More All the other nations of South and loan a large part of this sum to the than once had the German submarine
Central America, in one way or an- Entente Allies. The first $2,000,000,000 warfare against neutral and enemy other, showed strong sympathy with “Liberty Loan” was oversubscribed by merchant ships strained diplomatic re
the American cause and only in Mexico about fifty per cent within a few weeks lations to the breaking point, but when, was there any possibility of action in of the opening of subscriptions. The in May, 1916, Germany pledged not to the interests of Germany.
President appointed Mr. Hoover, the sink passenger ships without warning,
The German Government knew, and man who saved Belgium from starvathis promise, altho conditioned on the even overestimated, the strength of tion, as food administrator and laid eventual modification of the British
Mexican resentment against “the Co- before Congress a far-reaching plan of blockade and violated in certain indi- lossus of the North,” as Latin-American food conservation. To frustrate the subvidual instances, was relied
writers sometimes to
call the United marine blockade the Administration upon enable us to keep out of the war. The States, and the German Foreign Sec- undertook the building of a great merFederal Government was better in- retary, Alfred Zimmermann, counted on
chant fleet of steel and wooden ships formed than the nation at large and the support of Mexico in a war with and placed the work under General the repeated and zealous efforts which the United States. He offered the Mex- Goethals, the builder of the Panama it made to end the war were partly ican Government Texas, New Mexico Canal. A war mission under Mr. Root inspired by a well-justified belief that and Arizona as the spoils of victory was sent to Russia to reorganize the if the war continued much longer Ger- and further suggested that Mexico transportation system of that country many would renew her submarine cam
detach Japan from the Entente Allies and to assure the people that we would paign. On the last day of January the by timely mediation. But the note con- not desert the task we had set ourselves German Government announced the es- taining this suggestion was intercepted until it was accomplished. tablishment of a barred zone in the and its publication had much to do with Not content with throwing the finanNorth Sea, the Mediterranean and the converting the American public to a cial, industrial and agricultural northeastern Atlantic thru which no belief in the necessity of war.
sources of the nation into the war, the ships whatever would be permitted to
United States began, without delay, to pass in safety.
create an army for European service.
men registered for President Wilson at once dismissed
The men of the country, from twentyJune 15, 1917-Liberty loan oversubscribed. the German Ambassador and refused June 26. 1917–American army contingent reaches
one to thirty years of
age inclusive, to renew diplomatic relations with the
were enrolled as a body from which as German Government. His attempted When the German Government re many soldiers as were necessary could compromize between peace and war, sumed its policy of unrestricted sub- be drafted. While arrangements for the “armed neutrality,” was frustrated by marine warfare it reckoned with the draft were being completed, a part of the obstinacy of a little group of Sen- possibility of American intervention the regular army under General Perators who in the closing hours of the but did not consider that it would shing was conveyed to France and session talked to death the bill author- seriously diminish the chances of vic- volunteers were enlisted in the regular izing the arming of merchantmen. tory. Indeed it was freely predicted army and the National Guard to bring When Germany followed the proclama- that the United States would be more these organizations up to full tion of ruthless submarine warfare by of a help to the Entente Allies as a strength. The National Guard overt acts against American lives and neutral than as a belligerent, ecause transferred from state to Federal conAmerican ships, President Wilson re the war might be ended before this trol and consolidated with the rest of quested from the new Congress the country could raise and equip a large the army.
OUR PART IN THE GREAT WAR
a French port.
IN THE FOURTH YEAR OF THE WAR
November 18-Turks retreat from Jaffa. Cos
sack army blockades Petrograd. November 24--Secret Russian treaties published. November 27- Italians repulse attacks in upper
November 28 Armistice negotiations begun with
August 14, 1917—China declares
$11,500.000.000 war bond bill. September 8--Austrians halt Italian drive. September 12-Kerensky assumes command of
Russian army. Argentina dismisses German
Ambassador, Karl von Luxburg.
exports to Holland and Scandinavia, October 5-Russian cabinet reorganized. Peru
vian Congress votes to break with Germany. October 6--Uruguay breaks with Germany. October 10-President Wilson proclaims food
licensing system. October 17--American transport “Antilles"
sunk on home voyage, October 24--Austrians and Germans attack
north of Gorizia ; Italians forced to withdraw from practically all territory taken during summer campaign.
October 26--Brazil declares war on Germany,
American soldiers reported in trenches for
and Cividale. Italians retreat to Udine,
continues ; Italians retreat across Taglia-
Austro-German army strikes Italian line at
the Livenza river.
spreads to Moscow. General Diaz succeeds
General Cadorna as head of Italian army.
marine destruction, six British ships sunk.
drive Italians across Piave river.
new French premier.
gage in gun duel near Heligoland.
November 29-Lord Lansdowne urges peace ne
gotiations. December 1-Germans repulsed at Cambrai. December 2-Bolsheviki make armistice agree
ment with Germany, releasing German troops on Russian front for service else.
Jones" reported sunk.
convoy, sinking eleven vessels. United States House of Representatives and Senate
vote for national prohibition. December 20–German “Christmas peace" offer
published. December 22--Peace conference at Brest-Litovsk
between Bolsheviki and Germans. December 27-President Wilson appoints Secre
tary McAdoo director-general of all railroads in the United States.
A SPECTACULAR BATTLE OVER NO MAN'S LAND. THE ZEPPELIN HAS BEEN STRUCK BY A SHELL FROM THE ALLIED
THE FIGHT FROM A CAVE BEHIND THEIR LINES
How Verdun looked after being shelled for five months by heavy German fire for "political" and “sentimental” reasons