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moneys legally paid into the treasury; exempting property from taxation; regulating labor, trade, mining or manufacturing; creating corporations, or amending, renewing, or extending the charters thereof; granting to any corporation, association, or individual, any special or exclusive privilege or immunity, or to any corporation, association, or individual, the right to lay down a railroad track; nor shall the General Assembly indirectly enact such special or local law by the partial repeal of a general law; but laws repealing local or special acts may be passed; nor shall any law be passed granting powers or privileges in any case where the granting of such powers and privileges shall have been provided for by general law, nor where the courts have jurisdiction to grant the same or give the relief asked for.

SEC. 8. No local or special bill shall be passed unless notice of the intention to apply therefor shall have been published in the locality where the matter or the thing to be effected may be situated, which notice shall be at least thirty days prior to the introduction into the General Assembly of such bill and in the manner to be provided by law; the evidence of such notice having been published shall be exhibited in the General Assembly before such act shall be passed.

SEC. 9. The presiding officer of each House shall, in the presence of the House over which he presides, sign all bills and joint resolutions passed by the General Assembly, after their titles have been publicly read immediately before signing; and the fact of signing shall be entered on the journal.

SEC. 10. The General Assembly shall prescribe by law the number, duties and compensation of the officers and employes of each House; and no payment shall be made from the State Treasury, or be in any way authorized, to any person, except to an acting officer or employé elected or appointed in pursuance

of law.

SEC. 11. No bill shall be passed giving any extra compensation to any public officer, servant, employé, agent or contractor, after services shall have been rendered or contract made, nor providing for the payment of any claim against the Commonwealth without previous authority of law.

SEC. 12. All stationery, printing paper, and fuel used in the legislative and other departments of government shall be furnished, and the printing, binding and distributing of the laws, journals, department reports, and all other printing and binding, and the repairing and furnishing the halls and rooms used for the meetings of the General Assembly and its committees, shall be performed under contract to be given to the lowest responsible bidder below such maximum price and under such regulations as shall be prescribed by law; no member or officer of any department of the government shall be in any way interested in such contracts; and all such contracts shall

be subject to the approval of the Governor, Auditor General and State Treasurer.

SEC. 13. No law shall extend the term of any public officer, or increase or diminish his salary or emoluments, after his election or appointment.

SEC. 14. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives, but the Senate may propose amendments as in other bills.

SEC. 13. The general appropriation bill shall embrace nothing but appropriations for the ordinary expenses of the executive, legislative and judicial departments of the Commonwealth, interest on the public debt and for public schools; all other appropriations shall be made by separate bills, each embracing but one subject.

SEC. 16. No money shall be paid out of the treasury except upon appropriations made by law, and on warrant drawn by the proper officer in pursuance thereof.

SEC. 17. No appropriation shall be made to any charitable or educational institution not under the absolute control of the Commonwealth, other than normal schools established by law for the professional training of teachers for the public schools of the State, except by a vote of two-thirds of all the members elected to each House.

SEC. 18. No appropriations, except for pensions or gratuities for military services, shall be made for charitable, educational or benevolent purposes to any person or community, nor to any denominational or sectarian institution, corporation, or association.

SEC. 19. The General Assembly may make appropriations of money to institutions wherein the widows of soldiers are supported or assisted, or the orphans of soldiers are maintained and educated; but such appropriations shall be applied exclusively to the support of such widows and orphans.

SEC. 20. The General Assembly shall not delegate to any special commission, private corporation or association, any power to make, supervise, or interfere with any municipal improvement, money, property or effects, whether held in trust or otherwise, or to levy taxes or perform any municipal function whatever.

SEC. 21. No act of the General Assembly shall limit the amount to be recovered for injuries resulting in death, or for injuries to persons or property; and in case of death from such injuries, the right of action shall survive, and the General Assembly shall prescribe for whose benefit such actions shall be prosecuted. No act shall prescribe any limitations of time within which suits may be brought against corporations for injuries to persons or property, or for other causes different from those fixed by general laws regulating actions against natural persons, and such acts now existing are avoided.

SEC. 22. No act of the General Assembly shall authorize

the investment of trust funds by executors, administrators, guardians or other trustees, in the bonds or stock of any private corporation, and such acts now existing are avoided, saving investments heretofore made.

SEC. 23. The power to change the venue in civil and criminal cases shall be vested in the courts, to be exercised in such manner as shall be provided by law.

SEC. 24. No obligation or liability of any railroad or other corporation, held or owned by the Commonwealth, shall ever be exchanged, transferred, remitted, postponed, or in any way diminished by the General Assembly, nor shall such liability or obligation be released, except by payment thereof into the State treasury.

SEC. 25. When the General Assembly shall be convened in special session there shall be no legislation upon subjects other than those designated in the proclamation of the Governor calling such session.

SEC. 26. Every order, resolution or vote, to which the concurrence of both Houses may be necessary, (except on the question of adjournment,) shall be presented to the Governor, and, before it shall take effect, be approved by him, or, being disapproved, shall be re-passed by two-thirds of both Houses, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in case of a bill.

SEC. 27. No State office shall be continued or created for the inspection or measuring of any merchandise, manufacture, or commodity, but any county or municipality may appoint such officers when authorized by law.

SEC. 28. No law changing the location of the capital of the State shall be valid, until the same shall have been submitted to the qualified electors of the Commonwealth at a general election, and ratified and approved by them.

SEC. 29. A member of the General Assembly who shall solicit, demand, or receive or consent to receive, directly or indirectly, for himself or for another, from any company, corporation or person, any money, office, appointment, employment, testimonial, reward, thing of value, or enjoyment, or of personal advantage, or promise thereof, for his vote, or official influence, or for withholding the same, or with an understanding, expressed or implied, that his vote or official action shall be, in any way, influenced thereby, or who shall solicit, or demand any such money, or other advantage, matter, or thing aforesaid for another, as the consideration of his vote or official influence or for withholding the same, or shall give, or withhold his vote or influence, in consideration of the payment or promise of such money, advantage, matter or thing to another, shall be held guilty of bribery within the meaning of this Constitution, and shall incur the disabilities provided thereby for said offense, and such additional punishment as is or shall be provided by law.

SEC. 30. Any person who shall, directly or indirectly, offer, give, or promise, any money or thing of value, testimonial,

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privilege or personal advantage to any executive or judicial officer, or member of the General Assembly, to influence him in the performance of any of his public or official duties, shall be guilty of bribery, and be punished in such manner as shall be provided by law.

SEC. 31. The offense of corrupt solicitation of members of the General Assembly, or of public officers of the State, or of any municipal division thereof, and any occupation, or practice of solicitation, of such members or officers, to influence their official action, shall be defined by law, and shall be punished by fine and imprisonment.

SEC. 32. Any person may be compelled to testify in any lawful investigation, or judicial proceeding, against any person, who may be charged with having committed the offense of bribery or corrupt solicitation, or practices of solicitation, and shall not be permitted to withhold his testimony upon the ground that it may criminate himself, or subject him to public infamy; but such testimony shall not afterwards be used against him in any judicial proceeding, except for perjury in giving such testimony; and any person convicted of either of the offenses aforesaid shall, as part of the punishment therefor, be disqualified from holding any office or position of honor, trust or profit in this Commonwealth.

SEC. 33. A member who has a personal or private interest in any measure or bill proposed or pending before the General Assembly, shall disclose the fact to the House of which he is a member, and shall not vote thereon.

ARTICLE IV.

THE EXECUTIVE.

SEC. 1. The executive department of this Commonwealth shall consist of a Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of the Commonwealth, Attorney General, Auditor General, State Treasurer, Secretary of Internal Affairs, and a Superintendent of Public Instruction.

SEC. 2. The supreme executive power shall be vested in the Governor, who shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed; he shall be chosen on the day of the general election, by the qualified electors of the Commonwealth, at the places where they shall vote for Representatives. The returns of every election for Governor shall be sealed up and transmitted to the seat of government, directed to the President of the Senate, who shall open and publish them in the presence of the members of both Houses of the General Assembly. The person having the highest number of votes shall be Governor; but if two or more be equal and highest in votes, one of them shall be chosen Governor by the joint vote of the members of both

Houses. Contested elections shall be determined by a committee, to be selected from both Houses of the General Assembly, and formed and regulated in such a manner as shall be directed by law.

SEC. 3. The Governor shall hold his office during four years, from the third Tuesday of January next ensuing his election, and shall not be eligible to the office for the next succeeding

term.

SEC. 4. A Lieutenant Governor shall be chosen at the same time, in the same manner, for the same term, and subject to the same provisions as the Governor; he shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided.

SEC. 5. No person shall be eligible to the office of Governor or Lieutenant Governor, except a citizen of the United States, who shall have attained the age of thirty years, and have been seven years next preceding his election an inhabitant of the State, unless he shall have been absent on the public business of the United States or of this State.

SEC. 6. No member of Congress, or person holding an office under the United States or this State, shall exercise the office of Governor or Lieutenant Governor.

SEC. 7. The Governor shall be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the Commonwealth, and of the militia, except when they shall be called into the actual service of the United States.

SEC. 8. He shall nominate, and, by and with the advice and consent of two-thirds of all the members of the Senate, appoint a Secretary of the Commonwealth and an Attorney General during pleasure, a Superintendent of Public Instruction for four years, and such other officers of the Commonwealth as he is or may be authorized by the Constitution or by law to appoint; he shall have power to fill all vacancies that may happen in offices to which he may appoint, during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next session; he shall have power to fill any vacancy that may happen, during the recess of the Senate, in the office of Auditor General, State Treasurer, Secretary of Internal Affairs, or Superintendent of Public Instruction, in a judicial office, or in any other elective office which he is or may be authorized to fill; if the vacancy shall happen during the session of the Senate, the Governor shall nominate to the Senate, before their final adjournment, a proper person to fill said vacancy; but in any such case of vacancy in an elective office, a person shall be chosen to said office at the next generaĺ election, unless the vacancy shall happen within three calendar months immediately preceding such election, in which case the election for said office shall be at the second succeeding general election. In acting on executive nominations the Senate shall sit with open doors, and in confirming or rejecting the nomi

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