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British Crown in other parts of the world by shifting its basis from an Act of the Indian legislature to an Order in Council under the Foreign Jurisdiction Act, 1890.

I am indebted for valuable assistance to friends both at the India Office and in India. Frequent reference has also been made to the minutes of Sir H. S. Maine printed for the Indian Legislative Department in 1890.

But although the book owes its origin to an official suggestion, and has benefited by the criticisms of official friends, it is in no sense an official publication. For any statements or expressions of opinion I am personally and exclusively responsible.

I have omitted from this edition certain reprints of documents which are to be found elsewhere. The charters of the Indian High Courts are now to be found in Vol. VI of the Statutory Rules and Orders revised. The first Charter to the East India Company, with some omissions, will be found in Prothero, Statutes and Constitutional Documents. The other illustrative documents printed in ch. viii of the first edition would find an appropriate place in a selection of documents illustrating the constitutional history of British India. Such a selection would be of great use to students.

C. P. ILBERT

SPEAKER's Court,

January, 1907.

CONTENTS

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION

PAGE

Twofold origin of British authority in India

I

Three periods in history of constitutional development

ib.

Landmarks of first period

2

Landmarks of second period

ib.

Landmarks of third period

3

Charter of Elizabeth

ib.

Points of constitutional interest in charter of Elizabeth. Constitu-

tion of Company

6

Privileges of Company

7

Legislative powers of Company

Resemblance to Massachusetts Company

Other English trading companies

II

Russia Company

ib.

Levant Company

The separate voyages

13

James I's charter of 1609

ib.

Beginning of martial law exercisable by Company

14

Grant of 1615

ib.

Grant of 1623

ib.

Contests with Dutch and English rivals

15

Massacre of Amboyna .

ib.

Courten's Association .

ib.

Cromwell's relations to the Company.

ib.

Cromwell's charter of 1657 .

ib.

The Company after the Restoration

Charles II's charter of 1661

ib.

Arrangements for administration of justice at Madras in seventeenth

century

17

Grant of Bombay to the Company

18

Charter of 1677 granting powers of coinage.

19

Administration of justice at Bombay in seventeenth century

ib.
Charter of 1683 giving power to raise forces and exercise martial law,
and establishing Courts of Admiralty

ib.

Charter of 1686 .

Establishment of municipality at Madras

Charter of 1687 .

Company's resolution of 1689

23

Controversies after Revolution of 1688

24

Charters of 1693 and 1694

25

The affair of the Redbridge and its results

26

Incorporation of English Company

27

Union of Old and New Companies

29

SECTION

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