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the Almighty, was blessed and ap- the oath taken by us and the whole proved by her majesty the empress empire, should be declared. Maria, our much beloved mother. Whereas, we have now also re

Meanwhile, the inournful ac- ceived, on the part of his imperial count of the decease of his majesty highness, this last declaration of his had reached Warsaw, direct from will, we communicate the same to Taganrok, on the 25th November, our subjects, accompanying it by and consequently two days prior to the following documents :its being received here. Firm in 1. The letter of his imperial highhis resolution, the Cezarowitsch ness the Cezarowitsch grand duke grand duke Constantine, confirmed Constantine to the deceased empe. the same on the following day, by ror Alexander. two acts, dated 26th November, 2. The answer of his imperial and commissioned to our beloved majesty. brother, the grand duke Michael, 3. The manifesto of the deceato carry them to us. These acts sed emperor, which confirms the consisted in :

abdication of his imperial highness, 1. A letter to her majesty the and recognizes us as successor to empress, our much beloved mother, the throne. in which his imperial highness re- 4. The letter of his imperial news his former resolution, sup- highness to her majesty the emports it by the copy of a rescript of press, our much beloved mother. the deceased emperor, dated the 2d 5. The letter of his imperial February, 1822, serving as an an- bighness directed to us. swer to the act of abdication, and In conformity with all these finally renounces solemnly, all his documents, and with the funda. claims to the throne, and recogni- mental law of the empire regardzed the same as transferred to using the order of succession-full and our successors, according to of veneration for the impenetrable the appointments contained in the decrees of a guiding Providence fundamental law of the succession. we now ascend the throne of our

2. A letter directed to us, where ancestors, the throne of the empire in his imperial highness, anew, de- of all the Russias, as well as the clares his former resolution, gives thrones inseparable therefromus the title of imperial majesty, and that of the kingdom of Poland, and reserves for himself, only the form- the grand duchy of Finland, and er one of Cezarowitsch, and calls command—1. That the oath of himself the most faithful of our sub- allegiance be rendered to us and jects.

to the heir of our throne, the grand However decisive these acts were, duke Alexander imperial highness, and although they proved to occular our much beloved son. 2. That demonstration, that the resolution the period of our ascension to the of his imperial highness was irrevo- throne be calculated from the 19th cably fixed, yet our own sentiment, November, 1825. and the situation of affairs, induced Finally, we call upon our faithful us to defer the publication of the subjects to join us in fervent prayers aforesaid acts, until the will of his to the Almighty, that he will grant imperial highness, with reference to us strength to bear the burthen he




has, in his Divine Providence, laid rily and solemnly on the occasion upon us, that he may preserve in of the divorce from my first wife. us the firm resolution to live solely All the circumstances of my prefor our beloved country, and to sent situation, induce me still more tread in the footsteps of the mo- to adopt this measure, which will narch whom we now deplore. prove to the empire and the whole

May our reign be nothirg but a world the purity of my sentiments. continuation of his, and may we ful- May your imperial majesty refil all the wishes for Russia's happi- ceive my wish with condescension, ness, which animated him, whose may you determine our illustriuos sacred memory shall preserve in us mother to accede to it, and to sancthe endeavor and the hope, to merit tion it by your imperial approba. the blessings of heaven, and the tion. love of our people.

In the circle of a private life, I
Done in our imperial residence, shall constantly endeavor to set an

St. Petersburg, the 12th De- example to all your faithful subjects,
cember, in the year of salva- and all who are animated by a love
tion, 1825, and first of our for our dear country.

With profound respect, sire, your (Signed) NICHOLAUS.

imperial majesty's most loyal sub-
ject and brother,

(Signed) LETTER of His Imperial Highness

the CEZAROWITSCH Grand Duke Petersburg, 14th Jan. 1822.
CONSTANTINE, to the Emperor
ALEXANDER the first.

Answer of His Imperial Majesty
Most illustrious, &c. &c.-En-

the Emperor ALEXANDER. couraged by the manifold proofs of Very dear brother-I have read affection of your imperial majesty your letter with all the attention towards me, I venture once more to which it demanded. I have found claim them, and to lay the following nothing in it which caused surprise, submissive request at your illustri- as I always knew how to estimate the ous feet.

sublime sentiments of your heart. As I do not lay claim to the It has given me a new proof of spirit, the abilities, or the strength, your sincere attachment to the which would be required, if I state, and your care for the presershould ever exercise the high dig- vation of undisturbed tranquillity. nity to which I may possess a right I have, in conformity with your by birth, I most fervently supplicate wish, laid your letter before our your imperial majesty to transfer beloved mother. She read it with that right to him who would inherit the same sentiments as I did, and it after me, and by that act to se- gratefully acknowledges the noble cure the stability of the empire. motives by which you were guided. With respect to myself, I shall add From the reasons which you by this abdication, a new warranty state, we have both of us only to and a further power to that obliga. leave you full liberty to follow your tion, into which I entered volunta. firm resolution, and to pray the Al

mighty to grant the most benign in default of him. He, at the same consequences to such pure senti- time, declared, by this means, his ments.

consent to the supplementary act I remain, forever, your affection respecting the succession to the ate brother,

throne, which was granted by us (Signed) ALEXANDER. in the year 1820, and acknow(A true copy.)

ledged by him, voluntarily and so(Signed) CONSTANTINE. lemnly, and gives new force to it St. Petersburg, the 20 Feb., 1822.

as far as the same concerns him.

We are deeply affected by this Manifesto of the Emperor sacrifice, which our dearly beloved ALEXANDER

brother has resolved to make, with We, by the grace of God, Alex. such great self-denial for the conander the first, emperor and auto- formation of the hereditary statutes crat of all the Russias, &c. &c. of our imperial house, and the un

Make known to our faithful sub- shaken tranquillity of the Russian jects, that from the moment we as- empire. cended the throne of Russia, we After having invoked the assisthave invariably felt, that it was our ance of God, and having duly and duty towards Almighty God, not maturely considered an object as only to maintain during our reign dear to our heart as it is important the happiness of our dear country to the state, and finding that the and of our people, but also to pre- statutes which related to the order pare and secure a clear and exact of succession to the throne, do not appointment of our successor, ac- deprive those who have a right to it cording to the laws of our imperial of the power of relinquishing the house, and rights of the empire. same, if no difficulty exists with

We were not able to appoint him respect to the line of succession, immediately, according to the ex- we have, therefore, with the preample of our predecessors, under vious consent of our illustrious the expectation in which we were, mother, as well as the high power whether it might not please Provi- of the head of the imperial family, dence to grant us an heir to the which came to us by inheritance. throne in a direct line. But the and mindful of the power granted more we increase in years, thens by God, have commanded as more we think it necessary to has- follows: ten in placing our throne in such a In the first place, the voluntary state that it cannot remain vacant act, by which our elder brother the for a moment.

Cezarowitsch and grand duke ConWhilst we were impressed with stantine, renounced his rights to this anxiety, our dearly beloved the Russian throne, shall remain brother, the Cezarowitsch and firm and irrevocable. In order to grand duke Constantine, in follow- secure the publicity of the said act ing his own inclination, addressed of renunciation, it shall be depoto us the request of transferring sited in the grand cathedral church his right to the dignity of the of Ascension, at Moscow, and with throne, to which he might hereaf- our three highest authorities, the ter be raised by his birth, to such holy synod, the senate, and the diperson who may be entitled to it, recting senate.

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Secondly. With respect to the now appointed to the throne of the arrangement, and in conformity Russian empire, as well as to the with the exact tenor of the act of inseparable throne of the kingdom succession to the throne, we ac- of Poland and the grand duchy of knowledge as our successor, our

Finland. second brother, the grand duke With respect to ourselves, we Nicholaus. In this manner we re- request all our faithful subjects will, serve to ourselves the pleasing with the same sentiments of love hope, that on the day when it shall and affection which caused us to please the King of kings, accord- consider the care for their coning to the universal law of all mor- stant happiness, as our greatest tals, to call us from our temporal blessing upon earth, direct their government to eternity, the chief fervent prayers to our Lord and state officers of the empire, (to Saviour Jesus Christ, that, in his whom our present and irrevocable infinite mercy, he may receive our will, as also our present legal ap- souls into his everlasting kingdom. pointment, shall, by our order, be Done at Tzarsko-selo, the 16th communicated in due time,) will August, in the year of our Lord use all diligence in swearing the 1823, and 23d year of our reign. oath of allegiance to the heredita- (Signed)

ALEXANDER. ry emperor, whom we have just

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On the 13th May, the Emperor ALEXANDER opened the Session of the

diet of POLAND by the following SPEECH. When four years ago I separated ment. To consolidate my work, myself from you, lamentable events ensure its duration, and guarantee had produced a general movement to you the peaceable enjoyment of in Europe, which threatened to the fruits expected from it, I have compromise the prosperity of all added an article to the fundamenthe nations. I wished to leave to tal law of the kingdom.* This the opinions time to become fixed, measure, which removes all necesand to the passions time to subside. sity of exercising influence in the Your third session was deferred; choice of members of the diet and but this delay, I am certain, will upon your deliberations, proves the possess the happy result of having part I take in the consolidation of the better prepared your labors, your constitutional compact. This and it is with real satisfaction, and is the sole object that I proposed with those sentiments of attach- to accomplish in adopting this ment of which I have already given measure, and the Poles, I have the you so many proofs, that I find my- fullest confidence, will know how self in the midst of you.

to appreciate the object and the In the interval that has elapsed means I have employed for its acsince the last diet, faithful to my complishment. duties and to the resolutions which My minister in the interior will I expressed to you, as soon as I re

* The article here referred to, is that marked the germ of troubles, I of

by which the publicity of the debates of fered opposition to its develop- the diet is prohibited.

lay before you the picture of the been granted to it are doubly adsituation of the kingdom, as well vantageous, both by the mutual as the administrative measures that welfare of which they favor the have. been pursued during four progress, and by the new ties which years. You will have the satisfac- draw the two nations together. tion of seeing the rapid progress The debts with which private of industry, and to find that if the property is burdened, have, in pargeneral prosperity has not yet at- ticular, excited my closest attentained the degree of perfection to tion. A project for forming an aswhich my wishes and the efforts of sociation, in solido, of the land the government seek to carry it, owners, will be laid before you. the cause must be looked for in It is the result of opinions which nothing else than the almost gene- have undergone long discussion in ral stagnation of trade in agricul- your council of the Palatines. tural produce. In other respects, Religion, that source of every the most advantageous results have virtue, that indispensable base of been obtained. The national debt all human institutions, appears to approaches to its complete ac- command a revision of a part of quittal.

your civil code. A commission, Two conventions have fixed the chosen from among yourselves, has part of this debt, that Austria and undertaken this important labor, Prussia have to support. In a short and the project of the first book, time a new finance law will regu- which it has already discussed, will late the revenue and expenditure of be communicated to you. the state. A ruinous deficit had My thoughts will accompany compromised your dearest inte- you in the discharge of your funcrests. It has disappeared. The tions, and you will find me ever excess of the receipts must be ap- ready to adopt the ameliorations plied scrupulously to the extinction which may be proposed to me; of the national debt.

but, at the same time, resolved to The negotiations entered upon reject every species of concession with the court of Berlin, to settle that may be prejudicial to your the affairs of commerce between prosperity. Poland and Prussia, have been Representatives of the kingdom crowned with the most happy suc- of Poland, may you, being frec cess, by means of a series of regu- from all influence, proceed in your lations, of a frank and amicable deliberations with calmness! The nature, which serve as the basis futurity of your country is in your of

my relations with my faithful hands. Consider nothing but its allies. The convention which I welfare, its real advantage. Ren. have ratified, affords easy openings der to it all the services that it to your commerce abroad. That expects from your assembling towhich you have with Russia ac- gether, and second me in the acquires daily greater activity and complishment of the wishes which extent. The facilities that have I have never ceased to form for it.



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