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coinmunicated to both chambers by the duke bitter cup of humiliation which France was of Richelieu, and it may easily be conceived doomed to drain, after so many triumphis that the scene would be equally trying to over her neighbours, enjoyed with so little the feelings of the speaker and the audience. moderation. As she had risen higher under The basis laid down by the allied powers her late ruler than at any former period, so was, that the indemnity due to the powers she was called upon to submit to a greater for their exertions, occasioned by the late abasement. The terms imposed were howenterprise of Buonaparte, cannot consist ever a proof of the dread still entertained of wholly either in cessions of territory, or in her power. pecuniary payments, without greatly injur With respect to her internal condition, ing the essential interests of France; and the past experience of the rapid changes it tlierefore that it is better to unite them; and has undergone, the known restlessness and also, that it is necessary for a certain time to impetuosity of the national character, and the keep the frontier provinces of France occu- present superintendence exercised by foreign pied by a certain number of the allied troops. armies, render wholly vague all conjectures Of the articles which follow, the first declares, on this head for the future, and even throw that the frontiers of France remain as they much uncertainty on the actual state of were in 1790, with the exception of the things. The press is no medium of informamodifications subsequently described. The tion to be depended upon, since journals and principal cessions of territory are on the bor- periodical works are under a supervision, not ders of Belgium and the Upper Rhine, and less strict on account of its being privately in the vicinity of Geneva, the whole not exercised. In the published debates of the considerable in extent, but important in two chambers, we see an intemperate and point of situation. The indemnity in money almost incontrolable ardour for speaking, and to the allied powers was fixed at seven hun. much violence of language and manner, an dred millions of francs, the mode and periods apparent ardour of loyalty, breaking out in of payment being regulated by a separate mobbish shouts of Vive le Roi, and a preponconvention. The frontier towns to be occù-. derance of what is termed ultra-royalism, pied by the allies, for a term not exceeding which opposes the moderation of the court five years, and which circumstances might and ministers respecting political criminals

, reduce to three, were seventeen in number, and inelines to carry retrospective punishalong the frontiers of French Flanders, Cham- ment to the greatest practicable severitypagne, Lorrain, and Alsace : the establish- This spirit has been particularly displayed in ment of troops not to be greater than 150,000 the debates on the proposed law of amnesty, men, to be maintained by France, and under with which the year 1815 concluded, and a commander in chief nominated by the allied seems to forebode a stormy season to come, powers. Particular conventions were made unless government shall have acquired the for liquidating the claims of different powers strength and the wisdom to hold the helm on the French government. Such was the with a temperate but steady hand.


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Preliminary Observations.-Geography of Barbary.-Its History, from the earliest period

to the decline of the Sirucenic empire. Classification of the inhabitants.-Character and manners of the Turks, Dloors, Arabs, Berebbers, and Jews.- Mode of travelling

adopted by the drabs. IT has been justly observed by Mr. Matra, interior, and near the mountains of Atlas. formerly the English consul at Norocco, that Others, however, derive it froin the Arabic there have been more books written on Bar- word bar, signitying a desert, twice repeated; bary than on any other country, and yet which was given by one Africus, a king of there is no country with which we are less Arabia, from whom the whole continent of acquainted. So little is understood by the Africa is said by some to have taken its majority of mankind respecting the geogra name. According to them, this king being phy, the manners, the natural history, and driven out of his own dominions, and closely the policy of Morocco and its dependencies, pursued by his enemies, his retime called that military and political details, unless ac out to him, Bar, bar; that is, “To the desert, companied by a copious reference to the for- To the desert; from which the country was mer subjects, would be equally destitute of afterwards called Barbary. interest and utility. It becomes therefore Barbary is bounded on the north by the our object, at the commencement of our un Mediterranean sea, which divides it from dertaking, to present an authentic portrait of Europe; on the east by Egypt; on the the African character, and a faithful sketch south by Zara, or the desert; and on the of the Barbarian empire. The reader will west by the Atlantic ocean. Its utmost exthus become familiar with the people whose tent from east to west, or from Cape Non, actions we record; and, while they reprobate on the most western coast of Morocco, to their crimes, will participate with tenfold the confines of Egypt, is almost thirty-seven interest in their exploits and vicissitudes. degrees, or about 2,200 geographical miles.

Concerning the origin of the word Bar- It commences on the west by the famous bary, there are many conjectures. Accord- Mount Atlas, called by the Arabs Ayduacal, ing to some, the Romans, after they had and incloses the ancient kingdoms of Suez conquered the country, gave it that name and Dela, now provinces of Morocco, and out of contempt, according to their usual extends north-eastward along the Atlantic custom of calling all other people but them- coast, through the straits of Gibraltar, and selves Barbarians. Marmol, on the con so on by an eastern course, along the Meditrary, derives the word from Berber, a name terranean coast, to the city of Alexandria, given by the Greeks and Arabs to the an which is the southern boundary of Egypt, cient inhabitants, which Bruce says signified where it joins to this of Barbary. The shepherd. Tending sheep was the original principal kingdoms into which it is now dioccupation of the natives, particularly in the vided are those of Morocco, Fez, Algiers,


Tunis, and Tripoli-the kingdom of Te- 24,000 according to others, with their wives, lensin, or Tremesin, having been incorpo- children, and all their effects. In the mean. rated with that of Algiers ; and that of Borcą time the empress Placidia, having discovered having been reduced to a dependence on the cause of Bonifacius' revolt, wrote a kind that of Tripoli

. Both the coasts of Barbary, and obliging letter to him, in which she aswhether watered by the Atlantic ocean or sured bim of her favour and protection, exby the Mediterranean, are fertile in corn and horting him to return to his duty, and exert pasturage; the former being watered by a his usual zeal for the welfare of the empire, multitude of small and large rivers, which by driving out the Barbarians, whom the descend from Atlas and empty themselves malice of his enemies had obliged him to call into the ocean : and the former extending in for his own safety and preservation. Boalong the declivity of a vast ridge of moun nifacius complied with this request, and tains, some of which are considerably high, offered the Vandals considerable sums if and spread above forty leagues inland, sup- they would return to Spain. But Genseric, plying a number of rivers, which, after many already master of the greatest part of the windings through pleasant and fertile vallies, country, first returned an evasive answer, discharge themselves into the Mediterranean. and then, falling unexpectedly on him, cut

The coast of Barbary was probably first most of his men in pieces, and obliged Boniplanted by the Egyptians. The Phenicians facius to fly to Hippo, which place he inafterwards sent colonies thither, and built vested in May 430. The siege lasted till Utica and Carthage. The Carthaginjans July the following year; when the Vandals soon became powerful and wealthy by trade, were forced, by a famine that began to rage and finding the country divided into many in their camp, to drop the enterprise and relittle kingdoms and states, either subdued tire. Soon after, Bonifacius having received the princes on their coasts or made them two reinforcements, one from Rome, and the tributaries. Weary of their yoke, they other, under the conduct of the celebrated availed themselves of the opportunity pre: Asper, from Constantinople, it was resolved sented by the invasion of the Romans' to by the Roman generals to offer the enemy assist them in the subjugation of Carthage battle. The Vandals readily accepted the The Romans remained sovereigns of the challenge: a bloody engagement ensued, in coast of Barbary, which indeed was almost which the Romans were utterly defeated, a the whole of their possession, Egypt ex. prodigious number of them taken, and the cepted, on the continent of Africa, Beneath rest obliged to shelter themselves among

the their sway the territory was divided into the rocks and mountains. Asper, who comprovinces of Mauritania, Africa Propria, &c. manded the eastern troops, escaped with and they continued absolute masters of it difficulty to Constantinople, and Bonifacius from the reign of Julius Cæsar till the year was recalled to Italy. Upon their departure, of Christ 428. At that time Bonifacius, the the Vandals over-ran all Africa, committing Roman governor of these provinces, having, everywhere the most terrible ravages ; which through the treachery of Aëtius, been forced, struck the inhabitants of Hi to revolt, called to his assistance Genseric,' terror that they abandoned their city, which king of the Vandals, who had been some was plundered and burnt by the victorious time settled in Spain. The terms offered, enemy, so that Cirtha and Carthage were according to Procopius, were, that Genseric now the only strong places possessed by the should have two-thirds, and Bonifacius one Romans. third, of Africa, provided they could main In 435, Genseric, probably being afraid of tain themselves against the Roman power: an attack by the united forces of the eastern to accomplish which, they were to assist and western empires, concluded a peace with each other to the utmost. This proposal was the Romans, who yielded to him a part of instantly complied with; and Genseric set Numidia, the province of Proconsularis, and sail from Spain in May 428, with an army Byzacene; for which, according to Prosper

, of 80,000 men, according to some, or only he was to pay a yearly tribute to the ema

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