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in which American solidarity found its most complete expression—that of continental fraternity.

With this experience, and in harmony with the pacts of world and continental organization, Guatemala considers as a necessity the celebration of regional pacts between countries linked by geographic, social, and economic bonds. Thus Guatemala would view with especial pleasure an accord with her sister republics which form the Central American Federation, leading to the solution of their mutual problems and to their economic development.

The first step toward this understanding would be the reviving of the Central American Court of Justice, since it was the first institution of its kind in the world set up in a permanent form with compulsory jurisdiction, and one which set a magnificent precedent in international justice.

Guatemala firmly believes that the success of the political organization of the world depends, to a large degree, on an international economic organization which will enable all the countries of the world to raise the standard of living of their people, and to banish misery from the face of the earth. We must work toward the increase of production and consumption in our countries, in order that we may attain an economic condition of abundance and well being. In this respect, the functioning of the Economic and Social Council, provided for in the Dumbarton Oaks Proposals, will no doubt permit the orientation of international political economy toward this noble objective.

The delegation of Guatemala wishes to go on record as being in harmony with the spirit which yesterday inspired the foreign ministers of the Americas, in sustaining so brilliantly the right of Argentina to be present at this Conference, and, through my voice, expresses profound satisfaction in the attainment of the total unity of the Americas and the incorporation of the Argentine Republic in the assembly of the United Nations.

The delegation of Guatemala, in rendering its warmest homage to the armies of the United Nations for the admirable courage they have displayed in the defense of human liberty, desires, as well, to emphasize the stirring and gallant participation of women, not only in the home front but in the battlefields as well.

Delegates, in this glorious moment, when the Allied armies are planting their victorious banners in the very heart of the Reich, let us invoke the memory of that illustrious and immortal statesman, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, whose spirit of justice will guide the steps of the nations assembled in this Conference.

MR. STETTINIUS: Ladies and Gentlemen, we also have another very special group of guests this afternoon, a group of wounded United States sailors and marines from the Naval Hospital near San Francisco. I am going to ask them to arise at this moment. (The entire audience stood and applauded the sailors and marines.)

MR. STETTINIUS: The Chair now recognizes the Minister of Foreign Affairs and chairman of the delegation of Haiti.

Sixth Plenary Session ...

Address by Gerard E. Lescot


MR. LESCOT (speaking in French; translation follows): Mr. Chairman, my Dear Colleagues, Ladies and Gentlemen: Franklin Delano Roosevelt has passed into eternity having completed his journey here. His passing had that rare quality which we who admired him so profoundly found fitting to his indomitable spirit. He fell, like a giant tree struck down by a storm in the forest.

May I dwell for a few moments upon the memory of one who will remain an outstanding figure of the century, for I believe it our duty to adhere to the path laid out for us, a path already outlined in the blood of so many thousands of human beings. Franklin Delano Roosevelt never despaired of mankind; he professed an absolute respect for humanity. He had faith in the unshakable virtues of democracy, He believed with all his will in a just and enduring peace. He had cherished the greatest hopes in the work to be achieved at this Conference of San Francisco. The greatest homage we can pay to the memory of the Great Departed is to carry on the noble and difficult task he has left us, with all the wisdom and perspicacity of which we are capable.

I have already mentioned the blood which has run so freely on the battlefields in the defense of civilization. I cannot but avail myself of this opportunity to express the admiration and the deep gratitude of the Government and the people of Haiti to the governments and the peoples of the U.S.A., our great neighbor, of Great Britain and her Dominions, of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, of China, and of all the other fighting nations who have, with the rampart of their unflinching will, protected the world against the mounting floods of totalitarian barbarity. Let us likewise greet publicly and with deep affection the Government and the people of a country to which the Republic of Haiti is bound by ties that are strongest

after those of family, I mean those of language and of culture. We offer the homage of our sincere admiration to the country of the rights of man, to the country of dignity, clarity, and a sense of proportion, to the France of which none of us ever despaired, to France that is eternal.

Ladies and Gentlemen, the Government of the Republic of Haiti, which I have the honor of representing, has already made known at the time of the publication of the Dumbarton Oaks Proposals that it agreed with them in principle, and that it desires to become a member of an International Organization for peace and security that would be based on these principles. My Government, however, does not consider that the proposals are perfect and need no amendments. But it believes that the four great powers which formulated them at Dumbarton Oaks considered the problems of peace and security from a practical angle and are endeavoring to build an International Organization that will be capable of effectively preventing any recourse to war as a means of settling international conflicts.

The objection has been raised to the Dumbarton Proposals that they do not respect the traditional concept of the sovereignty of states. It does not seem superfluous to us to add here that international law cannot remain static, no more than civil or penal law. It must be capable of adapting itself to the changing conditions of life of the peoples of the world. The nationalism of former days, when states could remain isolated within their own frontiers, cannot belong to our modern times of rapid communications by air.

The concept of the sovereignty of the state may thus no longer be an inviolable principle. We must, however, insist that it is not only the small nations who would

then be called upon to accept the necessary sacrifices. restrain them from freely submitting to an international The peace and security of the international community order based on justice and equality between nations, then depend upon concessions on the part of all powers what- these traditions and malignant desires must certainly ever they may be and whatever may be the rights of some be attacked. Coercion and economic reforms are not of them to recognition from others.

sufficient in such an emergency. They may eventualTo return, Gentlemen, to the Proposals of Dumbarton ly insure the physical disarmament of some states. But Oaks, the Haitian Government considers it a good and education alone will permit us to effect a moral disuseful innovation, on the part of those who prepared it, armament and extinguish hate. in the heart of man, to have introduced in Chapter II a statement of the prin- and develop in him sentiments of love and tolerance for ciples which must serve as foundations for the Interna- others without which there will never be real peace on tional Organization and should determine its functioning this earth. and development.

I point out here, Gentlemen, that the dictators themMy Government believes nevertheless that this state- selves understand the essential importance of the probment of principle, in order to be complete and to. pro- lem of education. On their attaining power, their first duce better results, should take into consideration both consideration has always been to obtain control of the the intentions and principles constantly reaffirmed at in- youth and schools. From this point of vantage, they ternational conferences and whatever experience is gained could carry on advantageously their other daring camfrom facts. The latter shows us, for example, that the paigns to abolish freedom, persecute the Jews, lie, steal, actual world conflict arose, not only from economic causes, and even attack God. One sometimes wonders how human but also derived much of its cruel intensity from psycho- beings could submit to such an abject regime. The explanalogical disturbances that were created by racial and re- tion is clear. The dictators had been able, through educaligious discrimination in the political doctrines against tion, to control the soul of the people and mold it to which the United Nations are fighting in their desire to their liking. remain faithful to the democratic ideals of freedom and In Chapter IX of the Dumbarton Oaks Proposals, the human dignity.

Haitian Government believes that special mention should Facts postulate for states as well as individuals new be made of the necessity of intellectual co-operation beand more precise legal and political guarantees. This is tween peoples with a view to peace, and proposes that, why the Government of the Republic of Haiti believes in addition to the economic and social councils, a council that, together with the fundamental principle of equality on education be created which will be given the task to between peace-loving states, as mentioned in Chapter 2 see that the education systems of the various countries of the Dumbarton Oaks Proposals, it is also necessary to should never be used to propagate ideas contrary to express there the principle of racial and religious non- peace and security. discrimination in relations between peoples.

This, Mr. Chairman, Fellow Delegates, Ladies and GenBut the principles, Gentlemen, as well as the machinery tlemen, is the message which I have the honor to bring of an International Organization, no matter how reason- to this honorable assembly in the name of the Haitian able or strong they may be, do not suffice. It is with deep delegation, with the promise that, faithful to the tradisatisfaction that we heard last Saturday the representa- tions of peace, liberty, and justice which have guided its tives of Iran, Lebanon, and Uruguay speak of the abso- history, my country will contribute, to the full measure lute necessity, in the world of tomorrow, of intellectual of its capacities, to the great task assigned to us. I mean collaboration between all states.

the building of a sounder, more generous, and more reaWe now touch upon a problem that my Government sonable world that will conform to the legitimate aspiraconsiders of primary importance to insure peace and fu- tions of our peoples. ture security. If the warlike traditions of certain peoples MR. STETTINIUS: The Chair now recognizes the Minister and their unhealthy instinct to steal the nests of others of Foreign Affairs and chairman of the delegation of Iraq.

Sixth Plenary Session ...

Address by Arshad Al-Omari


MR. AL-OMARI (speaking in Arabic; English version as delivered by interpreter follows): Mr. President and Fellow Delegates, Ladies and Gentlemen: On behalf of the Iraq delegation I wish to thank the Government and people of the United States of America and particularly the Mayor and citizens of San Francisco for their kind welcome and for the hospitality they have extended to us so generously.

All members of the Iraq delegation were stricken with grief when they heard on their way to this Conference the heart-breaking news of the death of the revered and, indeed, the universally beloved President of this great country, the late Franklin Delano Roosevelt. His death at this all-important period in the history of the world is a loss, not only to the United States of America, but to all freedom and peace-loving peoples. He was, in very truth, one of the greatest sons of mankind and stood pre-eminent among those great statesmen who are striving to found a new world of peace and security. I would

go so far as to say that he was the beacon light of democracy.

Iraq, the cradle of civilization and of law, is today looking forward to the creation of a new reign of universal peace that shall be based upon mutual respect between nations, upon the recognition of human values, and upon the principles of justice.

In this spirit Iraq took her part in the recent establishment of a League of Arab States whose charter has been submitted to the Secretary General of this Conference. Five of the states who joined that League are attending this Conference, resolved to assist in creating an international organization capable of realizing all ideals for the walfare of humanity.

Sir, Iraq, at the very outbreak of this war, recognized her duty and severed all diplomatic and economic relations with Germany. In due course she broke off relations with the other Axis powers and finally declared war on them all.

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As a belligerent state standing astride world com- should be clearly laid down, and should be such that they munications between East and West, Iraq placed at the can in practice be properly carried out by the states disposal of her allies the whole of her resources, par- themselves, or if necessary enforced. ticularly her means of communications. She has thus Fourth, that the composition and procedure of the been enabled to take an active part in the struggle and Security Council should be of such a nature as will inwill continue to do so willingly and gladly until victory sure a prompt and just settlement of disputes between is finally won.

nations. Any elaborate machinery which would tend to The Iraq delegation comes to this Conference rejoicing delay the taking of prompt decisions and effective action and confident, rejoicing at the long series of brilliant vic- might result in stultifying the whole value of the award tories gained by our allies on the field of battle, and con- and the measures taken to enforce it. Disaster might fident because of the evident determination of every na- quite possibly follow from belated action. tion represented at this Conference to insure that this Fifth, that the General Assembly should have jurisdictime the opportunity will not be lost; that we shall suc- tion over any dispute between nations which is likely to ceed in establishing an organization to secure world lead to armed conflict and which the Security Council peace, an organization that is based upon the recognition has failed to settle either on account of disagreement beof the highest principles of truth and justice, an organiza- tween the permanent members, or for any other reason. tion which above all is armed with strong and efficient In such cases, it should be the duty of the Secretary Gendeterrent force, so that this time the great losses and eral immediately to convene a meeting of the General sacrifices of the war will not have been made in vain. Assembly to consider the dispute in question and the de

But if those hopes are to be realized, it would appear cision of the Assembly carried by a two-thirds majority that special study of the following principles is necessary: should be enforced.

First, that the observance of the principles of right and In conclusion, I salute the future peace of the world, justice is part and parcel of the task of guaranteeing which is in your hands. true world peace and security.

MR. STETTINIUS: Fellow Delegates, before introducing Second, that while the special responsibilities that de- our next speakers I wish to announce that the plenary volve upon the great powers entitle them to greater au- session as scheduled this evening for 8:30 will be held. thority in certain matters, yet every nation, great or I also wish to announce that a plenary session will be small, should feel that the general principle of equality called for tomorrow afternoon at 3:30. Dr. Soong will of all states in the new world Organization is recognized preside this evening at the plenary session commencing and that it will be observed in practice.

at 8:30, and Mr. Molotov will preside tomorrow afterTo achieve this, it is necessary not only to increase noon, commencing at 3:30. the number of states represented on the Security Council We have two remaining speakers this afternoon, which but to have due regard for fair regional representation. concludes our program. First, the Chair recognizes the In this way all states will have an opportunity to share Vice President and the chairman of the delegation of in the responsibility as well as in the task of settling Liberia, and he will be immediately followed by the Mindisputes and preventing war.

ister of Foreign Affairs and chairman of the delegation Third, that the nature and extent of the duties and of Turkey. obligations that are to be incumbent upon all states The Chair now calls upon the representative of Liberia.

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Sixth Plenary Session ...

Address by C. L. Simpson


MR. SIMPSON: Mr. President, Fellow Delegates, Ladies and Gentlemen: This opportunity to address the plenary session of the United Nations Conference on International Organization is indeed a great privilege.

On behalf of the Liberian delegation, I desire to say that we associate ourselves with other delegations in paying tribute to the late President Franklin D. Roosevelt, whose foresight was chiefly responsible for the convening of this historic Conference in this delightful city of San Francisco.

The death of this great humanitarian and liberal is a severe loss not only to his country, but to all nations regardless of their size or potentiality.

I should like to observe that the Liberian delegation cannot but have mingled feelings on an occasion such as this. Speakers who have ascended this tribune have had occasion to refer to the brutal warfare and carnage which their countries have undergone over a number of years. I allude in particular to the representatives of China, France, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, the Philippine Commonwealth, Yugoslavia. Ethiopia also has had her baptism of war.

Superior forces invaded, raped, and conquered their countries-our hearts and hopes went out for them, and we still have a feeling of the agony which they underwent

and must still endure. But we now rejoice that ultimately their liberation has come and that meanwhile their souls still remained unconquered.

It is indeed a truism that might may at times seem greater than right, but in the final analysis right and justice must and will prevail. Mr. President, I cannot refrain from making an especial reference to the heroic struggle which China for eight long years has made for survival and the maintenance of world peace. Some day recorded history will correctly appraise the indomitable character of the Chinese people.

To Soviet Russia we are indebted for the victories of her mighty armies in Europe, and particularly the epic struggle at Stalingrad, which will ever remain fresh in memory.

To the delegation of the United Kingdom may I observe that great praise and credit are due to your Government and people for your gallant struggle during the dark days of the war—I refer to the Battle of Britain—when hope seemed lost, and a democratic world was then hanging in fateful balances. It was then that His Majesty's Government and the people of London were determined and resolved that Britons would never, never be slaves.

It was with this conviction that Prime Minister Churchill said: “We will defend every village, every town, every city ... we shall tolerate no terms, we shall tolerate no.

parley, we may show mercy, but we shall ask none." this Conference will complete the structure in a spirit of

Last, but not least, the natural gifts of leadership and co-operation and mutual understanding. vision of the late President Roosevelt, and of his capable The delegation which I have the honor to head would and wise assistants, the industrial power and resources of have me inform this assembly that, with the exception of the United States Government, have contributed most ef- a few amendments which are to be the subject of examifectively to the prosecution of the war, the last phase of nation, the Government of Liberia is pleased to give supwhich we are now happily witnessing in Europe. The port to the Dumbarton Oaks Proposals. United States of America has indeed and in truth been With a view to giving the Security Council full powers called the Arsenal of Democracy.

to maintain international peace and security, the Liberian I crave forgiveness for the time utilized, but members delegation stands ready to support the recommendation of the Liberian delegation are mindful of the narrow contained in Article VI to the effect that representatives escape which their country had at the hands of Germany. of the United States of America, the United Kingdom of We realize that the physical and economic servitude im- Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Union of Soviet posed upon other countries might have also been inflicted Socialist Republics, the Republic of China, and in due upon us, and it is for this reason that we are inspired course, France, should have permanent seats. The sugto speak a word of praise to representatives of these gestion that the General Assembly should elect six states countries whose struggles, whose sacrifices in toil and to fill the nonpermanent seats should be amended to blood, have enabled us to survive and permitted civiliza- seven seats, and that the General Assembly should elect, tion and democratic ideals to remain on the face of the from the panel of member states not entitled to permaearth.

nent seats, alphabetically seven states, which would serve It may be useful to state that at the outbreak of hos- a term of two years, and this procedure should be followed tilities in Europe, the Government of Liberia assumed and until the panel of states is exhausted. This course would consistently maintained an attitude of strict neutrality enable all member states of the United Nations to be reptoward the respective belligerent powers. While Liberia resented on the Council at some given time. If this sugoriginally endeavored to stand aloof from the conflict, yet gestion is adhered to, it is quite possible that some of the the methods pursued by Germany to vindicate what she pitfalls which occurred in the former League of Nations pretended to be her national rights and honor by the adop- might be obviated. Acceptance of the foregoing proposal tion of such means as the sinking, without warning, of would be a further test as to whether a truly democratic unarmed passenger vessels of her enemies and neutrals, principle can be maintained between an association of the bombardment of unfortified towns and villages, and democratic nations. the violation of the rights of small states, were such It is also the view of the Liberian delegation that whatflagrant violations of the rules of civilized warfare as to ever study eventually may be given to the economic, sojustly create on the part of the Liberian Government cial, and other humanitarian problems, relating to memgrave apprehensions and fears of the eventual perma

bers of the United Nations, envisaged in Paragraph 3, nent establishment of the doctrine of might over right Chapter 1, of the Proposals, the principle should emerge in the realm of international relations, which doctrine and be made crystal clear that this should not imply that would only result in the complete subjugation and elimi- a nation or the General Assembly may either interfere nation of all small and weak states from the association or intervene in the internal affairs of another state upon of nations.

the assumption or decision that certain social or economic Hence, the Government of Liberia could not any longer needs or reforms are desirable for that state. The state itcontinue to view with indifference and unconcern the great self must reserve the right to determine the necessity for world conflict of arms.

any such action; otherwise it would be relegated to the Accordingly, it registered a solemn protest against the status of a dependency. unlawful and inhumane acts on the part of the Axis In conclusion, I should like to say that the people of all powers by severing all relations with these governments. lands are with anxious solicitude hoping that as leaders

A plan of collaboration between the governments of the and trustees of our respective governments our action in United States and Liberia was concluded and announced, drafting a Charter for World Organization will not be whereby United States forces were stationed in Liberia, dictated by mere individualistic or nationalistic whims, thus fixing the Republic within the sphere of the activities but by the realities of the situation confronting the world. of the United Nations.

We must, therefore, seek to formulate and build a sysIn some respects, Liberia's activities in this war against tem of international peace and security sufficiently strong the Axis powers might be considered negligible, but we to be relied upon not only for the crisis of threatened take some pride in the fact that we have been the largest war, but for all times. It must not be based upon nationalcontributor of cultivated rubber to the Allied cause. This, istic selfishness, or imperialistic concepts, but upon the we believe, has enabled tanks and jeeps and motor ve- principle of justice and law for all nations, whether great hicles to roll on faster and surer to the very gates of or small. Berlin.

I must, however, point out that experience has demonWith reference specifically to the Dumbarton Oaks strated that lasting peace and security can be looked forProposals and the labor these impose upon delegates at ward to only if the great powers are themselves united and the Conference, I should like to say that the initiative on remain united in peace as they were in war. The moral the part of the governments of the United States, the values must be given precedence in the future and the will United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and China in drafting to preserve the peace must be likewise dominant in the life a plan on world security and peace, prior to the conclu- of nations. These qualities pervade the thinking of small sion of the war, is now unqualifiedly praiseworthy, and nations to a greater extent, perhaps, then that of great clearly indicates that the great powers who have had the powers, for not possessing the means to wage war, the

wage wars and have not, when it seemed ex- dreams and hopes of small nations are only of world pedient, refrained from precipitating them, are not only peace and the security of their rights and independence. determined and willing to solemnly bind themselves into This Conference may utilize this spirit in completing the a pact to keep themselves at peace, but to associate with structure for the prevention of war and the maintenance themselves the rest of the peace-loving world in creating of peace by integrating to a larger extent the voices, and a structure for the common weal of mankind.

I might add the wisdom, of all small nations. Nearly It is our sincere hope that the nations represented at two thousand years ago, the world's wisest statesman


and humanitarian remarked for the benefit and guid- civilization and human values might not be blotted out of ance of the philosophers that “A little child shall lead the lives of future generations of this earth. I thank you. them."

MR. STETTINIUS: Fellow Delegates, as our last speaker Let us devoutly hope that in the interest of an ordered at this plenary session, I now present to you the Minister and peaceable world, these United Nations will now and of Foreign Affairs and chairman of the delegation of forever work together in order that true democratic Turkey.

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Sixth Plenary Session ...

Address by Hasan Saka



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MR. HASAN SAKA (speaking in French; translation follows): Mr. Chairman, Honorable Delegates, Ladies and Gentlemen, I wish first in the name of the Turkish delegation, to perform the pleasant duty of offering my sincere thanks to the Government of the United States for having taken the initiative of summoning this Conference on free and democratic American soil, and especially to the administration of this beautiful city of San Francisco which, in spite of all the difficulties to which a great war base is subject, has granted us the most cordial welcome and the most exquisite hospitality.

In mounting this platform, my first thoughts go out, with deep emotion, to the great man who is no longer amongst us and to whom we are all indebted for being gathered here. President Roosevelt was not merely a great national leader who inspired the love and the respect of his people, he was also a great human being whose whole thought and whose every effort were constantly intent on the creation of a world whose peoples would be free, happy, and prosperous, conscious of their rights and confident in justice.

In the name of the Turkish delegation, I bow my head before the memory of President Roosevelt and offer him my tribute of gratitude and thankfulness.

Ladies and Gentlemen, the Turkish delegation has already submitted to the Conference's General Secretariat a memorandum in which it discusses in general its considerations concerning the Dumbarton Oaks Proposals. I therefore wish to avoid wearying my listeners by repeating here our comments that have alrea been made public. Allow me, however, to summarize very briefly here the essence of these remarks, in order to explain their spirit and intention.

The Government of the Turkish Republic, which has fervently and militantly defended the principle of collective security, felt itself immediately in sympathy with the Dumbarton Oaks Proposals, in which it saw the realization of a form of association of nations more mature and more perfected than the Geneva Institution, in that it allows preventive action, the lack of which was the primordial cause of the failure of Geneva.

In the opinion of the Turkish delegation, the new Charter ought to stipulate that this settlement of disputes should be sought in accordance with principles of law and justice. In conformity with the principle of the sovereign equality of all member states, the General Assembly, which is the true representative organ of the new Organization, ought to be endowed with more extensive powers than those provided in the Dumbarton Oaks Proposals, and especially ought to be granted all powers of control in making decisions pertaining to the maintenance of peace and security; this, of course, without limiting in any way the powers originally conferred on the Security Council. Likewise, while granting to the great nations which assume heavy responsibilities in the field of security more extensive powers than to the other states, the Turkish delegation considers that it would be

well to ensure a more real balance within the Security Council by increasing the number of its nonpermanent members and by likewise increasing the number of the minimum votes required to obtain decisions.

The essential innovation of the new Organization consists in the creation of a Security Council which would dispose of armed forces whose duty it would be to prevent aggression. Notably amongst its other duties and powers, the Security Council has the power of being able to recommend at any point in a matter under dispute for its settlement the most appropriate procedure and methods. In its application this ruling would result in allowing the Security Council to withdraw a suit whose judgment is pending from the jurisdiction of the Court in order to refer it to other bodies. The Turkish delegation considers that it would be more in accordance with the principles of law that the judiciary procedure, once it has been set into motion, should follow its normal course and that, moreover, the Council should protect the party to the dispute that comes before the Court.

The Turkish delegation believes that it is necessary to include within the Charter an exact and explicit formula that would determine whether a dispute is or is not of the kind that falls within the reserved class. And a recognition of the sphere of jurisdiction of the Court of Justice in this matter would be, it seems, an adequate solution to this problem.

In order to implement the machinery of regional arrangements, whose principle is recognized by the Dumbarton Oaks Proposals, with the full effectiveness that is required of it and at the same time to set into motion the machinery of defense provided in such agreements, without having to submit to the inevitable delays in resorting to the procedure of military sanctions, it would be necessary to introduce some such automatically functioning arrangements as constituent elements of collective security, on condition, however, that they be used exclusively for purposes of defense and that the signatory states which might be led to make use of them be held to account by the Security Council for all the emergency measures which they might have been led to adopt as a consequence of such arrangements, and that they should also be bound to justify these as emergency measures.

Finally, the Charter should contain some clause expressly devoted to the case of legitimate defense.

Such, in brief, are the considerations that were suggested to us by a study of the Dumbarton Oaks Proposals.

Ladies and Gentlemen, I took occasion a few moments ago to tell you that Turkey felt itself immediately in sympathy with the Dumbarton Oaks Proposals. The causes for this sympathy are to be sought in the history of the Turkish Republic.

The fundamental document on which is founded the whole national and foreign policy of Turkey is the National Pact, published a quarter of a century ago, at the time of the foundation of the New Turkey. This document is nothing but an expression of faith in the principle of a

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