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and Porto Rico; and of effecting side, whenever Spain has wished these objects by the impartial in- to discuss the future condition of tervention of Russia.
South America, she has addressed The principles of the emperor overtures to all the allied powers were sufficiently known to the go- of Europe. It will not be possible, vernment of the United States, to therefore, for his imperial majesty justify the perfect confidence, that to change principles in this negoin expressing a wish for the con- tiation, nor to institute it separatetinuance and confirmation of the ly (insolement;) and until positive peace enjoyed by the world, it did information has been received of but represent the most sincere de- the ulterior views of Spain, in resire of his imperial majesty, that, gard to her American possessions, in professing a generous solicitude of her decision upon the proposifor the rights of Spain, over her tion of the United States, and of islands in the West Indies, it avow- the opinions of her allies in relation ed principles that had long since to the same subject, Russia cannot been adopted by Russia, as the give a definitive answer. bases of her political system; and She is, however, in the mean that, in anticipating perfect impar- while, pleased to hope, that the tiality and true disinterestedness United States, becoming every day from her intervention, it was not more convinced of the evils and deceived as to the sentiments of dangers that would result to Cuba the emperor, in relation to all ar- and Porto Rico from a change of rangements in which foreign pow- government, being satisfied, as Mr. ers might be pleased to claim or Clay has said, in his despatch, with admit his good offices.
the present commercial legislation His imperial majesty felicitates of these two islands, and deriving himself with having inspired this an additional motive of security confidence in the United States of from the honorable resolution of America, and the undersigned is Spain not to grant to them any charged to invite Mr. Middleton longer, letters of marque, will use to convey to his government the their influence in defeating, as far assurance of the high value at as may be in their power, every which the emperor estimates those enterprise against these islands, in sentiments, of which new evidence is securing to the rights of his cathofurnished by its present propositions. lic majesty constant and proper
The opinions of his imperial respect, in maintaining the only majesty, as to the question dis- state of things that can preserve a cussed by Mr. Clay in his despatch. just balance of power in the sea of cannot be concealed from the ca- the Antilles, prevent shocking exbinet of Washington. His imperial amples, and, as the cabinet of majesty has ever thought that jus- Washington has remarked, secure tice, the law of nations, and the to the general peace, salutary general interest in having the indis. guarantees. The undersigned seiputable titles of sovereignty re- zes with pleasure this occasion to spected, could not allow the deter- repeat to Mr. Middleton, the as. minations of the mother country in surances of his very distinguished this important case, to be prejudg- consideration.
NESSELRODE. ed or anticipated. On the other
St. Petersburg, Aug. 20, 1825.
MR. CLAY TO MR. MIDDLETON. nicate the event, and, in its name,
Department of State, to implore the king immediately to
and acknowSir— Your despatches, No. 48 ledge the new republics, as the and 49, have been duly received only means left of preserving Cuba and submitted to the president. to the monarchy. He sees with much satisfaction, In considering what further meathat the appeal which has been sures could be adopted by this gomade through you to the emperor vernment, to second. the pacific of Russia, to employ his friendly exertions which, it is not doubted, offices in the endeavor to bring the emperor is now employing, it about a peace between Spain and has appeared to the president, that the new American republics, has a suspension of any military expenot been without favorable effect. dition, which both, or either of the Considering the intimate and friend- republics of Colombia and Mexico ly relations which exist between the may preparing against Cuba and emperor and his allies, it was per- Porto Rico, might have a good haps not to be expected, that, pre- auxiliary influence. Such a susvious to consultations with them, pension, indeed, seemed to be due language more explicit should be to the friendly purposes of the emheld than that which is contained peror. I have, accordingly, ad. in count Nesselrode's note. Al dressed official notes to the ministhough very guarded, it authorizes ters of those republics, accredited the belief that the preponderating here, recommending it to their goinfluence of Russia has been thrown vernments, an extract from one of into the scale of peace. Notwith- which, (the other being substanstanding predictions of a contrary tially the same,) is herewith transresult, confidently made by Mr. mitted. You will observe it inti. Secretary Canning, this decision of mated in those notes, that other the emperor corresponds with the governments may feel themselves anticipations which have been con- urged, by a sense of their interests stantly entertained here, ever since and duties, to interpose in the event the president resolved to invoke of an invasion of the islands, or of his intervention. It affords strong contingencies which may accomevidence both of his humanity and pany or follow it. On this subject, his enlightened judgment. All it is proper that we should be perevents out of Spain seem now to fectly understood by Russia. For unite in their tendency towards ourselves, we desire no change in peace; and the fall of the castle the possession of Cuba, as has been of St. Juan d'Ulloa, which capitu- heretofore stated. We cannot al. lated on the 18th day of last month, low a transfer of the island to any cannot fail to have a powerful ef- European power. But if Spain fect within that kingdom. We should refuse to conclude a peace, are informed that, when informa- and obstinately resolve on continution of it reached the Havana, iting the war, although we do not produced great and general sensa- desire that either Colombia or Mex. tion: and that the local govern- ico should acquire the island of ment immediately despatched a fast Cuba, the president cannot see any sailing vessel to Cadiz to commu- justifiable ground on which we can forcibly interfere. Upon the hy- Russia, the expediency of obtainpothesis of an unnecessary pro- ing a decision from Spain, as early traction of the war, imputable to as possible, in respect to its dispoSpain, it is evident that Cuba will sition to conclude a peace. be her only point d'appui, in this I am your obedient servant, hemisphere. How can we inter
H. Clay. pose, on that supposition, against Henry Middleton, Envoy Erthe party clearly having right on traordinary and Minister his side, in order to restrain or de- Plenipotentiary U. S. St. feat a lawful operation of war ? If Petersburg the war against the islands should be conducted by those republics MR. SALAZAR TO MR. CLAY. in a desolating manner; if, con
Legation of Colombia, trary to all expectation, they should Near the Unte! Sta: 01. America. put arms into the hands of one The undersigned has the honor race of the inhabitants to destroy to communicate to the hon. Henry the lives of another; if, in short, Clay, for the information of his gothey should countenance and en
vernment, and the attainment of courage excesses and examples, the objects proposed, that the as. the contagion of which, from our sembly of American plenipotentianeighborhood, would be dangerous ries, in relation to which the ministo our quiet and safety; the go
ter from Mexico and the undervernment of the United States signed have held some verbal conmight feel itself called upon to in- ferences with the secretary of state, terpose its power. But it is not at their previous request, will shortapprehended that any of those con- ly be organized; as the plenipotentingencies will arise, and, conse
tiaries from Peru are already at the quently, it is most probable that isthmus of Panama, the place apthe United States, should the war pointed for the congress, and those continue, will remain hereafter, as
from Colombia and other Amerithey have been heretofore, neutral can republics, are on their way to observers of the progress of its this assembly, which they have
vided for by public treaties. You will be pleased to commu
The hon. secretary having innicate the contents of this des- timated, in the name of his gopatch to the Russian government. vernment, that the United States, And as, from the very nature of if formally invited by Mexico the object which has induced the and Colombia, and apprized of president to recommend to the go- subjects to be discussed, vernments of Colombia and Mexi- would, on their part, appoint a co a suspension of their expedi- person to represent them, if these tions against the Spanish islands, subjects should be approved by the no definite time could be suggest- United States, the undersigned is ed for the duration of that suspen- accordingly authorised by his gosion, if it should be acceded to, it vernment to address this invitation, must be allowed, on all hands, that which he now makes, by this note, it ought not to be unnecessarily in all due form. He is also assured protracted. Therefore, you will that the minister from Mexico will represent to the government of present the same invitation on the
part of his government, and the The manner in which all coloni. minister from Guatemala has just zation of European powers on the received similar instructions from American continent shall be resisthis government.
ed, and their interference in the Of the points which will be un- present contest between Spain and der discussion by the assembly of her former colonies prevented, are Panama, the undersigned is unable other points of great interest. Were to give a minute enumeration, as it proper, an eventual alliance, in they will evidently arise out of the case these events should deliberations of the congress. Heis,
which is within the range of possihowever, authorised by his govern- bilities, and the treaty, of which no ment to assure the United States use should be made until the casus that these points have no tendency fæderes should happen, to remain to violate their professed principles secret ; or, if this should seem preof neutrality. The undersigned has mature, a convention so anticipated also been instructed to suggest would be different means to secure some subjects, that will form use- the same end, of preventing foreign ful matter of discussion in the con- influence. This is a matter of imgress-- These subjects constitute mediate utility to the American two classes :
states that are at war with Spain, 1. Matters peculiarly and exclu- and is in accordance with the resively concerning the belligerents. peated declarations and protests of
2. Matters between the bellige- the cabinet at Washington. The rents and neutrals.
conferences held on this subject As the United States will not being confidential, would increase take part in the discussion of sub- mutual friendship, and promote the jects of the first description, we will respective interests of the parties. confine ourselves to the latter.
The consideration of the means At Panama, the best and most to be adopted for the entire aboliopportune occasion is offered to tion of the African slave trade, is a the United States, to fix some subject sacred to humanity, and principles of international law, the interesting to the policy of the unsettled state of which has caused American states. To effect it, much evil to humanity. It is to their energetic, general, and unibe presumed that this government form co-operation is desirable. At possesses more light upon the sub- the proposition of the United States, ject than the other states of our Colombia made a convention with hemisphere, both from its expe- them on this subject, which has not rience during the wars that suc- been ratified by the government of ceeded the French revolution, and the United States. Would that from its negotiations now on foot America, which does not think powith Great Britain and other na- litic what is unjust, would contritions, relative to these principles. bute, in union, and with common It belongs to each of the concur- consent, to the good of Africa ! ring parties to propose their views, The descendants of this portion but the voice of the United States of the globe have succeeded in will be heard with the respect and founding an independent republic, deference which its early labors in a whose government is now recogwork of such importance will merit. nized by its ancient metropolis.
On what basis the relations of informing the hon. secretary of Hayti, and of other parts of our he- state, that he has communicated misphere that shall hereafter be in to his government the conversalike circumstances, are to be placed, tions which occurred between is a question simple at first view, them, on his making known to but attended with serious difficul- them the determination of the goties when closely examined. These vernments of Colombia and Mexiarise from the different manner of co, to form a congress of repreregarding Africans, and from their sentatives from the new states of different rights in Hayti, the Uni- the continent, who to that end had ted States, and in other American been invited ; in which were to be states. This question will be de- discussed, subjects of general intermined at the isthmus, and, if terest to all the American powers, possible, an uniform rule of con- as well as those which might be duct adopted in regard to it, or particularly suggested by the exthose modifications that may be istence and actual position of the demanded by circumstances. new powers; and, in the meeting
The undersigned merely makes of which, it was thought proper, these suggestions by way of exam- by the government of the subscriple ; it is left to the wisdom of the ber, that the United States of governments, and the judgments of America by means of their comtheir representatives, to propose missioners, should constitute and whatever may be esteemed of com- take part, as being so much inmon good to the new hemisphere. terested in the first and principal Inviting the United States, in the subject, upon which the congress name of Colombia, to a congress, would be engaged. the mere assembling of which will In consequence of which, being increase the political importance of informed of the concurrence of America, and show the facility with this government, in the idea of which she can combine the resour discussing the first point in a conces in defence of common rights, gress as was desired, and that it when necessary, the undersigned would send representatives to it, hopes that the United States will under condition, that the neutrality make an early appointment of a
in which it stood towards Spain, person or persons to represent should not be violated; and that them in this assembly, as the con
it should be invited thereto, by the ditions that were required have republics of Mexico and Colombeen fulfilled.
bia, who should, moreover, signify The undersigned has the honor the affairs with which it was to be to offer to the hon. Henry Clay occupied, to promote its object his most distinguished considera- and the necessary uniformity of tion. Jose Maria SALAZAR. credentials or authorization of the Washington, Nov. 2, 1825.
respective representatives :: the
president of the United States of MR. OBREGON TO MR. CLAY. Mexico, has charged and commisLegation of the United States of Mexico. sioned anew, the underwritten to
Washington, 3d Nov. 1825. make the invitation, and to point The underwritten minister ple- out the affairs as stated. nipotentiary, has the honor of The government of the subscri.