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YEAR BOOK

A RECORD OF EVENTS AND PROGRESS
1917 . .

EDITED BY

FRANCIS G. WICKWARE, B.A., B.Sc.

WITH COOPERATION OF A SUPERVISORY BOARD
REPRESENTING NATIONAL LEARNED SOCIETIES

NEW YORK AND LONDON
D. A PPL ET ON AND COMPANY
1918

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- PREFACE

This issue of the AMERICAN YEAR Book for the year 1917 is the eighth since its inception. It differs from the other volumes in many details, though in the main it follows the plans originally laid down by the Supervisory Board. The changes in the arrangement of this volume are almost entirely caused by the European War. Every field of human endeavor has been affected to a greater or less degree by the European conflict. No activity of any kind during the year 1917 was beyond the influence of the War. It has been necessary, therefore, to give considerable space to the War itself, to include foreign matters to a greater degree than formerly and to alter the space originally allotted to many of the subjects contained within the volume. Nevertheless the basic purpose of the work is the same as stated in the original preface to the first volume: “The AMERICAN YEAR BOOK is intended for the needs of writers and searchers of every kind. Because of its inclusion of scientific subjects, it has been necessary to limit the political and statistical material which is the staple of many annual handbooks; the book does not aim to treat everything that could be useful, but throughout to select from the enormous mass of details those things which, in the judgment of experts in each field, are most significant, most permanent in value, most likely to answer the searchers' questions. “The AMERICAN YEAR Book does not aim to be a rival of other annual publications, either foreign or domestic. Details as to elections, the personnel of state and municipal governments, political personalities, societies, and educational, literary, and scientific institutions have deliberately been reduced, in order to make room for material of a kind not found in most of the annuals. The AMERICAN YEAR Book appeals first of all to students in all fields, who wish a record of progress, not only in their own, but in other departments of human endeavor. It is intended, also, as a handbook for busy men, editors, contributors, professional men, teachers, scientific workers, engineers, practical and business men, who wish to verify or confirm points that arise in their minds; and to serve as a handy body of reference material settling questions of fact. Throughout the work the object has been to make the volume convenient for the user; hence the YEAR Book is arranged on a plan entirely unique in publications of this general character. It is intended to make reference easier by subdividing material into departments, by putting cognate subjects into close association, and by liberal cross-references, making it easy to turn at once to the discussions relating to any subject. A full and carefully analyzed index is also provided in order to open up all remote connections and relations of a topic. This

arrangement by groups of affiliated subjects, instead of haphazard or alphabetical succession of topics, is more convenient, and at the same time more scientific."

The Supervisory Board of representatives of national learned and scientific societies, officially known as the American Year Book Corporation, continues actively to assist in the preparation of the YEAR BOOK. The members of this Board, which originally projected the work, remain individually responsible for the scope and content of the reviews of their respective fields; several are themselves contributors; many have coöperated with the Editor in securing contributors; and all have assisted the Editor with criticism and counsel.

The acknowledgments of the Editor are due, not only to the contributors and members of the Supervisory Board, but also to the many public officials, Federal, state, and municipal, who have courteously responded to requests for statistical and other data, and to the readers who have offered disinterested criticism of previous issues. The Editor welcomes criticism and suggestions from any source on the selection of material and method of treatment, or on the more formal side of typography, make-up, and conveniences for users.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

THE AVERICAN YEAR Book is arranged in thirty-one departments, in which are
grouped articles on related subjects. In the following Table of Contents only the
main topics in each department are listed ; a complete Index will be found at the
end of the volume, SMALL CAPS indicate titles of separate articles.

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I. AMERICAN HISTORY . .

. . . . . .

CONGRESS AND ADMINISTRATION.-The Sixty-Fourth Congress, Second

Session.-Congress and the Executive.-Congress and the International

Crisis.- The Armed Ship Bill and the Republican Filibuster.---National

Defense Appropriations. The Emergency Revenue Bill."Pork" Bills.

Probibition.-Porto Rico and the Danish West Indies.-The Sixty-Fifth

Congress.--Special Session of the Senate.-Closure Rule Adopted.--The

War Congress: The Sixty-Fifth Congress, Special Session. The War

Declaration.-The War Army Act. --The Espionage Act.--Regula-
tion of Foodstuffs.-Paying for the War.-The War Revenue Act.-Other
Legislation.---The Sixty-Fifth Congress : Second Session. THE NATION'S
WAR POLICY,Armed Neutrality.-German Violations of International
Law - The German People and the German Government. Economic
War after the War - Guarantees of Peace.-Reduction of Armaments.-
National Equality and Self-Determination.- Freedom of the Seas.-
Coöperation with the Entente Allies - The Russian Revolution.—Pres-
ident Wilson's Peace Message.---The Fuel Situation.--The Railway
Traffic Situation. The Coal Situation.-Dr. Garfield's First Statement.

-The Supplemental Statement.-The Fuel Regulations: Full Text
(Sec. 1.10).-The Country's Response.--President Wilson's Statement.

POLITICS AND PARTIES.- Non-Partisan Patriotic Support of the War.-

The Pacifist Socialists.-The Non-Partisan League.- Senator La Fol-

lette's Disloval Attitude.-Extension of the Non-Partisan League.--The

Elections. The People's Council.-Patriotism of the American Federa-

tion of Labor.

II. INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

. .

GENERAL.-International Relations of the United States.-Entente Re
plies to President Wilson's note of Dec. 18, 1917.-"Peace Without Vic-
tory._Ruthless Submarine Warfare.--Breach of Diplomatic Relations.
-The Prussian-American Treaties.---Crews of Armed Merchantmen,-
Attitude of Austria-Hungary.-Arming of American Merchantmen.-
Belgian Relief. War with Austria.-Japanese Protests.-International
Relations of Latin America.- Mexico.- Relations with United States.-
Neutrality in the War.-West Indies.-Cuban Revolutionary Activity,
Cuban Declaration of War.-Haiti and the Dominican Republic.-Cen-
tral America. - Revolution in Costa Rica.-Attitude Toward the War.-
Proposals of a Central American Union.-Brazil. - Relations with Ger-
mapy.Argentina.- Relations with Germany. -Uruguay.-Attitude in
the War.-Peru.--Severance of Diplomatic Relations with Germany.-
Other South American Republics. - International Relations of the Far
East and Africa.-China.-Settlement of the Cheng Chiatun Incident.
Breach of Diplomatic Relations with Germany. - French Protest against
American Concession.-Declaration of War - The Japanese-American
Exchange of Notes.Siam and Liberia.-Declaration of War.-Morocco.
--American Recognition of French Protectorate. International Rela-
tions in Europe. The Balkans. -The Allies and Greece.-Albania
and Epirus.-Abdication of King Constantine.-Allied Conference on

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